Readings' list

Marshall, C. C. and Bly, S. 2005. Saving and using encountered information: implications for electronic periodicals. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Portland, Oregon, USA, April 02 - 07, 2005). CHI '05. ACM Press, New York, NY, 111-120.


Exploratory study on how people saved and used information they encountered while reading. In particular "clipping".

It is important to understand which characteristics of reading on paper should be preserved, and which can be supplanted by new kind of interaction.

Clipping: intentionally saving portions of published material, both from paper and published materials.


  1. It is necessary to explicitly save clippings in an age of searchable electronic publications and archives?
  2. What would make electronic publications and archives more useful and easier to manage?
  3. What are the barriers to effective use of encountered information and what are the implications of these barriers?


20 participant: study in their home and offices. Different ages, gender and occupations. 60-90 minutes with each participant to enquire into their periodical reading.


Why people clip:

How people Clip

In a great number of format: photos, pages of magazine, whole magazines, newspaper sections, scrap of papers.

Time also varied a lot: some are temporary, some forever, some are forgot even if they are supposed to be temporary.

Barrier to Effective use

Implication for technology design

Significance of encounter and re-encounter

Encountered information is very different from information we actively sought. Therefore the interfaces and applications have different requirements.

Design implications of encountered information

Many existing tools and interfaces are developed from a perspective which assumes that information is sought when it is needed or collected for a task that is underway. But this perspective may conceal how people discover new things or use material they have found without a specific need in mind.

Also, once in info is encountered and saved, our current  interfaces makes it easy to forget what we have saved.