CRASSULACEAE</STRONG>CRASSULACEAE
Stonecrop Family



Ours annual herbs, elsewhere perennials or shrubs or treelets, usually succulent. Leaves alternate to opposite, whorled, or imbricate, simple, usually entire, estipulate. Flowers solitary or more commonly in cymose arrangements, in ours bisexual, hypogynous, usually perfectly (3-) 4- or 5- (6-) merous. Sepals free or slightly united. Petals free or briefly united, sometimes reduced or wanting. Stamens usually as many as the petals, in 2 whorls or as many as the petals and alternate with them. Carpels usually free (or sometimes united to about halfway), often with a nectary appendage near the base, each maturing into a longitudinally dehiscent follicle (fruit a capsule if carpels united); ovules 1 to many per carpel, placentation submarginal.

There are 33 genera and about 1,500 species nearly worldwide, especially common in the tropics but found in a great variety of habitats; 7 genera and 13 species in TX; 2 genera in our area, each represented by 1 species. (See also Penthorum of the Saxifragaceae, with slightly inferior ovary, sometimes treated in the Crassulaceae.)

Many species are cultivated as ornamental pot plants, ground covers, etc., especially members of the genera Sedum, Crassula, Sempervivum, Echeveria, and Kalanchoë (Mabberley 1987).



1. Plants minute, more or less aquatic; leaves opposite; flowers minute, solitary in the axils; stamens as many as the sepals ............................................................................1. Crassula

1. Plants 3 cm or more tall, terrestrial; leaves alternate; flowers ca. 7 mm broad, in cymes; stamens twice as many as the sepals ......................................................................2. Sedum



CRASSULACEAE CRASSULA1. CRASSULA L.



Texas plants small annuals to ca. 5 cm tall; stems creeping or erect. Leaves opposite, basally connate, oblong, fleshy. Flowers axillary, solitary or in glomerules, to ca. 2 mm long. Stamens as many as the sepals.

About 200 species worldwide; 2 in TX; 1 here.

Many species are grown as ornamentals.

1. C. aquatica (L.) Schoenl. Water Pigmy-weed. Tiny, inconspicuous, glabrous plants; stems spreading or decumbent to ascending, to 10 cm long, sometimes free-floating, plants often forming tufts or mats. Leaves succulent, connate-perfoliate, linear or linear-oblong, 4 to 7 mm long (but drying much smaller), entire. Flowers minute, (3-)4-merous, solitary in the axils, commonly sessile or subsessile at anthesis but pedicels often elongating in fruit or sometimes longer to start with. Sepals 0.5 to 1 mm long, connate to about the middle; petals greenish white or sometimes pinkish, lance-elliptic, about twice as long as the sepals; stamens shorter than the petals. Follicles longer than the sepals, free, ovoid, 1.5 to 2 mm long, with 1 to 8(10) seeds. Dry mudflats, margins of ponds, shores, wet depressions, sometimes on rock. Present in our area but under-collected. E. and SE. TX; Newf. to WA, UT, WY, and TX, S. to MD, AR, LA, and Mex. Apr.-Aug. [Tillaea aquatica L.; Tilleastrum aquaticum (L.) Britt.; Includes long-pedicelled plants known variously as C. drummondii (T. & G.) Fedde, Tillaea drummondii (T. & G.), orTilleastrum drummondii (T. & G.) Britt.].



CRASSULACEAE SEDUM2. SEDUM L. Stonecrop, Orpine



Annual or perennial herbs, commonly succulent and/or with fleshy leaves. Leaves usually alternate (sometimes opposite or imbricate), the lowermost commonly deciduous by anthesis. Inflorescences compact to open, paniculate or 1-sided, terminal or axillary cymes; flowers 4- or 5-(6-)merous. Petals narrow, free or briefly united basally. Stamens twice as many as the sepals, mostly perigynous. Follicles arranged in a ring, often with their tips diverging, free or slightly united basally, each subtended by a basal scale and several- to many-seeded.

About 600 species of N. temperate regions and tropical montane areas; 5 in TX; 1 here.

Many are cultivated for ornament, e.g. S. spectabile, commonly grown as a border plant, and S. morganianum, a hanging-basket plant. Some have edible leaves or are used in herbal remedies (Mabberley 1987).

2. S. nuttallianum Raf. Yellow Stonecrop. Annual from shallow, slender roots; stems 4 to 13 cm tall, 1 to several from the base, thin, branched above the middle, commonly tufted in appearance; herbage glabrous. Leaves alternate, succulent, linear-oblong, 4 to 19(23) mm long (drying much shorter!), subterete, acute, sessile. Cyme 2- to 5-forked, branches 1 to 5 cm long; flowers ca. 7 mm broad, star-shaped, sessile or very short-pedicelled, alternate with reduced leaves. Sepals fleshy, ovate, obtuse, 2 to 3 mm long; petals bright clear yellow, lanceolate, acute, slightly longer than the sepals. Carpels 4 or 5, 2 to 3 mm long, widely diverging in fruit, tipped with short subulate style beaks 0.3 mm long. In shallow soil, common on or near sandstone and granite, but also in pastures and on clay soils; in our area often on the fine sands of the Carrizo formation or associated with rock outcrops or very sandy areas. Primarily on the Ed. Plat, NE to Hopkins Co.; MO and AR to KS and TX. Apr.-July. [S. torreyi G. Don.].

The leaves are edible raw, steamed, boiled, or pickled and are said to be crisp, tart, and good in salads or with other greens (Tull 1987).




SAXIFRAGACEAE</STRONG>SAXIFRAGACEAE

Saxifrage Family



As treated here without woody taxa currently segregated to Grossulariaceae, Hydrangeaceae, etc., usually perennial, sometimes annual herbs, sometimes rather succulent, rarely suffrutescent. Leaves usually alternate or sometimes all basal and stems scapose, simple to lobed, usually estipulate. Flowers in cymes, racemes, or solitary, usually regular and perfect, sometimes slightly irregular. Hypanthium well-developed, free or adnate to the ovary. Calyx lobes (3)4 or 5(6) sometimes represented by lobes on the hypanthium. Petals as many as the sepals and alternate with them, often attached to the hypanthium. Stamens as many as or twice as many as the stamens, usually on the rim of the hypanthium, in 2 whorls or 1 whorl staminodial or absent. Carpels 2 to 4(7), separate or basally connate, each with a separate stigma, marginal, axile, or parietal placentation, and several to many ovules. Fruit a capsule or, if carpels distinct, a group of follicles.

This group has ill-defined limits and many members have been assigned to other families at one time or another. As listed by Mabberley (1987), 36 genera and 475 species nearly worldwide, especially in N. temperate and cold areas; 5 genera and 8 species in TX, with woody taxa Fendlera, Fendlerella, and Philadelphus removed to the Hydrangeaceae and Itea and Ribesremoved to the Grossulariaceae; 3 herbaceous genera in our area, each with 1 species.

This family includes many taxa cultivated for ornament, including some fine rock garden plants. Cultivated genera include Bergenia, Heuchera, Tiarella, Saxifraga, Astilbe, etc. (Mabberley 1987).



1. Plants minute, forming prostrate patches less than 4 cm broad ...............1. Lepuropetalon

1. Plants more robust, with erect stems ......................................................................................2

2(1) Leaves all in a basal rosette; gynoecium about 1/2 inferior; carpels longitudinally dehiscent .

...............................................................................................................................2. Saxifraga

2. Leaves cauline; ovary mostly superior; fruit circumscissile ..............................3. Penthorum



SAXIFRAGACEAE LEPUROPETALON1. LEPUROPETALON ELL.



A monotypic genus, the plants sometimes placed in their own family, the Lepuropetalaceae.

1. L. spathulatum Ell. Very small annual herb forming small rosettes or tufts 1 to 3 cm broad, nearly completely flat; stems very short, usually branched at the base, branches angled; herbage glabrous. Leaves alternate, sessile, spatulate, 2 to 6(10) mm long, obtuse to acute or apiculate, usually with red glandular dots or short lines. Flowers inconspicuous but relatively large for the size of the plant, solitary at or near the ends of the stem and branches. Hypanthium shallowly campanulate, at maturity longer than the calyx; calyx 1.5 to 2 broad, sepals 5, ovate-triangular, 1 to 2 mm long, spreading, unequal, glandular like the leaves; corolla regular, minute, white, petals shorter than the sepals and somewhat unequal, reniform to ovate, scale-like; stamens 5, filaments very short, subulate; ovary inferior, the 3 or 4 carpels united. Fruit a capsule ca. 2 mm long, with erect, spreading, follicle-like tips, dehiscing loculicidally; seeds minute, oblong, red-brown, pitted or reticulate. Wet soils of sinks, pond margins, etc.; very easily overlooked; also said to grow on powerlines (Mabberley 1987). E. 1/2 TX; SE. NC to GA, W. to TX and Mex., also Chile. [Author sometimes given merely as (Muhl.) Ell.; Pyxidanthera spathulata Muhl. ].



SAXIFRAGACEAE SAXIFRAGA2. SAXIFRAGA L. Saxifrage



About 300 species chiefly of N. temperate and subarctic regions; we have the 1 species found in Texas.

Many species are grown as ornamentals, often in rock gardens or hanging baskets (e.g.,S. stolonifera). Some have unusual traits such as secreting lime water or reproducing via bulbils. Some are edible (Mabberley 1987).

1. S. texana Buckl. Texas Saxifrage. Perennial from a bulbous, corm-like root and a cluster of fibrous roots, plants 1 to several in clumps; flowering stems solitary, more or less scapose, 5 to 15 cm tall, glabrous or with coarse white hairs basally, green or sometimes rose. Leaves ca. 4 to 8(10), all in a basal rosette, 1 to 4 cm long, spreading, ovate to ovate-oblong, obtuse, basally abruptly narrowed into a petiole-like base, somewhat fleshy, glabrous or with a few fine marginal hairs. Inflorescence terminal, of 3 to 6(8) cymules aggregated into tight heads 1 to 2 cm broad, branches of cymes 3 to 5 mm long, slightly elongating in fruit. Sepals ovate to oblong, obtuse, 1.5 to 2 mm long, commonly rose, glabrous, erect or slightly spreading; petals white, the nerves pinkish near the base, 2 to 3 mm long, elliptic to obovate, sometimes clawed; stamens 10, inserted at the same level as the petals and equalling or longer than them; ovary about 1/2 inferior, of 3 or 4(5) united carpels with free, follicle-like tips ca. 3 mm long, the tips ascending or slightly spreading, stigmas flat, capitate. Fruit dehiscent along the inner face of each carpel; seeds many, 0.7 to 1 mm long, fusiform. Seepage areas on rock, openings or edges of woods, sometimes in fields, usually on sandy or sandy loam soil. Uncommon. E. TX; MO, KS, AR, OK, and TX. Feb.-Mar. [S. reevesii Cory; Micranthes texana (Buckl.) Small].



SAXIFRAGACEAE PENTHORUM3. PENTHORUM L. Ditch-stonecrop



2 or 3 species; 2 in Asia and 1 in N. America. Sometimes segregated in its own family, the Penthoraceae. Kartesz (1998) and GPFA (1986) included it in the Crassulaceae. It certainly shares characters of both the Crassulaceae and the Saxifragaceae, where it was retained by Hatch, et al. (1990). It is retained here in the Saxifragaceae because its non-fleshy habit and slightly inferior ovary make it more similar to our saxifrages than our stonecrops.

1. P. sedoides L. Perennial herb, stoloniferous and with fibrous roots along the lower stem; stems erect to sprawling, decumbent at the base, simple or widely branching, 2 to 8 dm tall; herbage essentially glabrous below and stipitate-glandular in the inflorescence. Leaves alternate, short petiolate, lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, acuminate at both ends, finely serrate, 5 to 10(15) cm long, 1 to 4 cm broad. Inflorescence a 2- to 6-branched cyme, the branches scorpioid with the flowers secund on the upper side. Calyx lobes 5(6 or 7), green, erect or slightly spreading, ovate, acute; corolla none (rarely present but inconspicuous); stamens 10, inserted with the sepals on the rim of the hypanthium; carpels 5 or 7, united in the lower half into a ring formation, slightly recessed into the receptacle, 3 to 4 mm long, stigmas flat-capitate. Fruit a 5(7) -beaked, -angled, and -celled capsule, dehiscence circumscissile below the beaks; seeds many, pinkish, ellipsoid, 0.7 mm long, echinate. Ditches, edges of water, along streams, and on wet ground. Uncommon but known from Brazos and Robertson Cos.; E. and SE. TX; N. B. to MN, S. to FL and TX. Jun.-July.




ROSACEAE</STRONG>ROSACEAE

Rose Family



Herbs, shrubs (sometimes rather vine-like), or trees, sometimes armed. Leaves alternate (in ours; elsewhere sometimes basal or rarely opposite), simple or pinnately or palmately compound, usually stipulate. Stipules fee or adnate to the petiole, sometimes caducous, reduced, or absent. Inflorescence quite various, occasionally reduced to a single flower. Flowers generally regular and perfect, perigynous or epigynous, sometimes nearly hypogynous; androperianth inserted on the rim of a variously-shaped hypanthium or floral cup in perigynous species, in epigynous taxa the hypanthium apparent as the outermost layer of the "ovary wall." Sepals generally 5 (3 to 8), usually free at the point of attachment to the hypanthium, often alternate with an equal number of bractlets and thus appearing "double", persistent or deciduous. Petals generally as many as the sepals (occasionally appearing more by doubling) or rarely absent, free at the point of attachment to the hypanthium, usually imbricate in bud, commonly deciduous. Stamens usually some multiple of 5, commonly 15 to many, in indistinct whorls of 5, often persistent. Carpels 1 to many, free or united, in epigynous taxa connate and also adnate to the hypanthium; ovules 1 to several per carpel. Fruit various, seed with little or no endosperm.

A large family of about 103 genera and 3,100 species worldwide, most common in the temperate and warm regions of the Northern Hemisphere; 23 genera and 83 species in Texas; 8 genera and 27 species possible in our area.

This very diverse family has traditionally been divided into subfamilies which have at times been treated as separate families. The divisions are based on characters of the gynoecium as follows:

Prunoideae--Ovary superior, unicarpellate; fruit a drupe. Ex. Prunus (peach, plum, apricot, cherry, almond, etc.)

Maloideae--Gynoecium inferior, of 2 to 5 united carpels; fruit a pome. Ex. Pyrus (pear),Malus (apple), and Cydonia (quince.)

Rosoideae--Gynoecium superior, of 2 or more separate, simple, uniovulate pistils, each maturing as a drupelet or achene. Ex. Rubus (blackberry, raspberry) with an aggregate of drupelets, Rosa (rose) with achenes borne within a somewhat fleshy hypanthium in a structure called a hip,; and Fragaria (strawberry) with achenes borne on the surface of an enlarged receptacle (often deemed and accessory fruit).

Spiraeoideae--Gynoecium superior, of 2 or more simple pistils, each with several to many ovules and maturing as follicles. Ex. Spiraea.

The family is important for a number of temperate fruits as mentioned above, and also for a great many ornamentals, including members of the genera Rosa, Photinia, Spiraea,Chaenomeles, Alchemilla, Potentilla, Crataegus, Cotoneaster, etc. (Mabberley 1987).

The following treatment includes native and introduced taxa, as well as those known to naturalize in our area. It should be remembered, however, that many cultivated taxa are long-lived and may persist around old homesites without establishing offspring. Likely taxa include species of Chaenomeles (flowering quince), Malus (apple, crabapple), Pyrus (pear), Prunus (plum, cherry), and Spiraea (bridal veil), among others.



1. Ovary inferior; fruit a pome .......................................................................................................2

1. Ovary or ovaries superior; fruit a drupe, achene, aggregate, etc ...........................................5

2(1) Plants evergreen to semi-evergreen, usually cultivated .........................................................3

2. Plants deciduous, native or cultivated ......................................................................................4

3(2) Plants armed; leaves less than 4 cm long .......................................................1. Pyracantha

3. Plants unarmed; leaves more than 4 cm long ......................................................2. Photinia

4(2) Fruit green or brownish at maturity, with grit cells; seeds with only a leathery or papery seed coat within the pericarp; thorns, if any, often with leaves or flowers ................3. Pyrus

4. Fruit red (rarely greenish) at maturity, without grit cells; seeds enclosed in a bony outer layer within the fleshy fruit; thorns without flowers or leaves .............................4. Crataegus

5(1) Pistil 1; fruit a drupe ..................................................................................................5. Prunus

5. Pistils more than one; fruit a hip or an aggregate of drupelets or achenes ...........................6



6(5) Plants unarmed; fruit a cluster of achenes ................................................................6. Geum

6. Plants armed with prickles; fruit a hip or aggregate of drupelets ...........................................7

7(6) Pistils borne on the inside of a hypanthium; fruit a hip ................................................7. Rosa

7. Pistils borne on the surface of the receptacle; fruit a cluster of drupelets ..............8. Rubus



ROSACEAE PYRACANTHA1. PYRACANTHA M. J. Roem. Firethorn



Shrubs, usually with stout thorns (modified spur shoots, often bearing leaves or flowers); leaves evergreen, simple, crenate or serrate to entire, in ours glabrous or glabrate, short petiolate. Flowers white, corymbose. Fruit a depressed-globose, orange or red pome with yellow-orange flesh; ovules usually 2.

Six species of SE. Europe and Asia; many cultivars exist, making identification difficult; our escaping or persisting specimens probably all assignable to the following.

1. P. coccinea M. J. Roem. Shrub to 2(5) m tall; young growth gray pubescent, becoming glabrous. Leaves lanceolate to oblong-ovate, to 2.5 (3) cm long, serrulate or crenate to nearly entire, apically blunt or emarginate or minutely mucronate, glabrous and lustrous. Inflorescence finely pubescent, 2.5 to 3 cm broad. Flowers to ca. 8 mm broad; petals more or less orbicular. Fruit red or red-orange, ca. 5 to 6 mm long, depressed-globose. Flowering in spring, the fruit ripening into fall. Many cultivars are grown. Very rarely escaping to vacant lots, fencerows, etc; usually in association with cultivated or abandoned areas; native to SE. Europe.



ROSACEAE PHOTINIA2. PHOTINIA Lindl. Photinia



Shrubs (elsewhere trees). Leaves alternate, simple, entire to toothed, short-petiolate. Flowers white to cream, in terminal short panicles or corymbs. Sepals 5, persistent in fruit. Petals 5, orbicular. Stamens about 20. Ovary inferior. Fruit a depressed-globose, berrylike pome, red.

About 40 species from the Himalayas to Sumatra and Japan; several species cultivated for hedges or ornament; 2 grown in our area. Almost always merely persisting where planted, though some collectors swear their specimens were taken "far away from any houses."

1. P. serrulata Lindl. [= Photinia serratifolia (Desf.) Kalkm.]) Shrub to 40 feet, usually smaller. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, glabrous to subglabrous, oblong to oblanceolate, to 23 cm long, dark green above, paler beneath, serrate. Inflorescences creamy, 10 to 15 cm broad; petals glabrous. Fruit to 5 or 6 mm broad, red or rusty. Very rarely escaping. Flowering spring, the fruit remaining through the winter until the following spring when it falls or is eaten by birds.

NOTE: P. x fraseri Dress (P. glabra x P. serrulata)--Frasier or Red Tip Photinia--is also cultivated in our area. It is similar to P. serrulata, but smaller, with leaves to 9 cm long. The new growth is bright red to copper-colored. The petals are pubescent within. As far as known, in our area only persisting and not escaping.



ROSACEAE PYRUS3. PYRUS L. Pear



Trees or shrubs, young branches sometimes spine-like. Leaves alternate, deciduous (in ours), simple, often toothed or sometimes lobed (not ours), blades often involute, convolute, or folded in bud. Flowers usually showy, in umbel-like or corymb-like racemes, pedicellate, often unpleasantly scented. Hypanthium globose to obconic or somewhat urceolate, sometimes the mouth closed by a disk. Sepals 5. Petals 5, orbicular to obovate. Stamens many. Styles 2 to 5, free or briefly fused at the base, ovary inferior. Fruit a pome, the flesh with grit cells, carpels 2 to 5, the walls papery or cartilaginous; seeds usually 2 per carpel, seed coat thin and papery.

About 20 species of Eurasia and the Mediterranean; 1 species naturalized in Texas, which we have. Many species formerly in Pyrus have been moved to Malus (apples, crabapples) on the basis of their lack of grit cells in the fruit and the absence of any extrafloral nectaries (Mabberley 1987; Hatch, et al. 1990).

P. communis (see below) is the common pear eaten fresh or canned. The globose Asian pears are P. pyrifolia or derivatives. Pearwood has been much used for carving and turnery, tool handles, and musical instruments such as recorders (Mabberley 1987).

1. P. communis L. Pear, Pera. Smallish tree to ca. 15 m tall; crown pyramidal when unobstructed; bark of mature trunk and branches scaly; branchlets glabrous or glabrate. Leaves involute in bud (with both margins inrolled and not overlapping), blades to ca. 8 cm long, ovate to orbicular or rather elliptic, acuminate, basally rounded to very broadly cuneate, margin crenate, often pubescent below and along margin when very young, quickly becoming glabrous; petiole 2 to 5 cm long, slender. Flowers in umbel-like inflorescences commonly pubescent at anthesis; pedicels 1.5 to 3 cm long. Sepals ovate to lance-ovate, acuminate, densely pubescent within; petals white, broadly oblong to obovate, to ca. 1.5 cm long; anthers often reddish; hypanthium closed by a ring of tissue at the summit; styles free. Fruit pyriform to obovoid, in many varieties large (to 10 cm long) and juicy, in some varieties much smaller and sometimes nearly globose, flesh with abundant grit cells. Thickets, margins of woods, river banks, old orchards or homesites, and fencerows. E. TX; native of Eurasia; cultivated for fruit and persisting, escaping, and naturalizing from ME and MO, S. to FL and TX. Flowering Mar.-Apr.(May).



ROSACEAE CRATAEGUS4. CRATAEGUS L. Hawthorn, Red Haw, Thorn



Shrubs or small trees, usually with thorny branches and often with exfoliating bark. Leaves alternate, simple, serrate to variously lobed, rarely nearly entire, those of the vegetative shoots usually differently shaped (larger and more strongly lobed) than those of the flowering shoots, all glabrous to variously pubescent or sometimes glandular; stipules of flowering shoots small, caducous, those of the vegetative shoots larger and more persistent. Flowers usually in corymbose or cymose arrangements on short lateral branches, the inflorescences sometimes reduced to a few or single flowers. Flowers regular, epigynous, hypanthium campanulate to obconic. Sepals 5, without intervening bractlets. Petals 5, white or sometimes pinkish, deciduous. Stamens 5 to 20, in 1 to 3 whorls, filaments filiform; anthers oblong, white, yellow, or pink/red. Styles 1 to 5, free. Ovary inferior, carpels fused or sometimes free at the very apex. Fruit a pome, variously colored and shaped, with 1 to 5 bony, usually 1-seeded stones (nutlets) within.

The genus Crataegus is a taxonomist's nightmare, the large number of true species being complicated by freely-reproducing presumed hybrids. Many species also reproduce via female gametophytic apomixis, the result being clonal colonies exhibiting all the characters of the female parent (Dickinson and Phipps 1986). Other taxa exhibit polyploidy.

Over 1,000 "species" have been named, primarily in North America, with experts able to apply names to numerous subtly variant forms. In recent years the trend has been to treat each series of closely related and very similar species as one large, rather variable species. The result is that most plants can be worked through a key with some degree of confidence. It is this practical, strictly "lumping" approach (Hatch, et al. 1990; Kartesz 1998) which is followed here. We have 5 of the 17 species listed by Hatch, et al. for TX (cf. 33 species listed for Texas by Correll and Johnston 1970).

The fruits of many species are edible and are especially suitable for making jams and jellies. Nearly-ripe fruits contain enough pectin that none need be added in preserving (Tull 1987). Some species are useful ornamentals, providing spring flowers, colorful fruit, and interesting exfoliating bark. The fruits of most are an important wildlife food.

NOTE: The most confident identifications are obtained by keying material from the same tree in both flower and fruit.

1. Major veins of the larger leaves extending to the sinuses as well as to the points of the lobes or teeth ............................................................................................................................2

1. Major veins of the larger leaves extending only to the points of the lobes or teeth ...............3

2(1) Leaves of flowering shoots generally spatulate to narrowly obovate, basally cuneate to attenuate, unlobed or only the leaves of the ends of the branches 3-lobed; anthers yellow; fruit globose; exterior of calyx glabrous or sparsely pubescent ...................1. C. spathulata

2. Leaves of flowering shoots generally broadly ovate (about as long as wide), basally rounded to cordate, deeply incised or lobed; anthers pink; fruit oblong; exterior of calyx densely woolly ..................................................................................................2. C. marshallii

3(2) Leaves generally ovate to deltoid in overall outline, widest below the middle, base usually rounded to truncate or nearly cordate, softly and densely tomentose beneath throughout the season ..............................................................................................................3. C. mollis

3. Leaves generally narrowly obovate to cuneate or oblong to obovate, narrowed to the base, at most sparingly pubescent beneath ......................................................................................4

4(3) Leaves of flowering branches generally obovate to oblong-obovate, usually thick, firm, and highly glossy above; thorns often quite long, to 5 cm or more; nutlets generally 1 to 3(5) per fruit, flesh of fruit dry and remaining hard at maturity ...............................4. C. crus-galli

4. Leaves of flowering branches generally rhombic to obovate or ovate-ish, generally narrowed to the base, thin-textured and dull above; thorns shorter, generally less than 5 cm long; nutlets 3 to 5 per fruit, flesh of fruit thin but juicy at maturity .................5. C. viridis

NOTE: Two more species may eventually be found here. C. brachyacantha Sarg. & Engelm. occurs just to the east of our area. It is easily distinguishable by its blue fruits. C. berberifolia T. & G. occurs in E. TX. It has been reported (perhaps erroneously) from our area. It is similar to C.crus-galli as treated here, but with the flowers and foliage pubescent when young and usually throughout the season. It is included in C. crus-galli in some works, e.g., GPFA (1986).

1. C. spathulata Michx. Pasture Haw, Littlehip Hawthorn. Shrub or small tree 5 to 7 m tall, branches usually horizontal, young branches glabrous to pubescent; bark gray, smooth or exfoliating; thorns 0.5 to 4 cm long. Leaves of flowering branches generally spatulate to narrowly obovate, ca. 1 to 3 cm long and ca. 1 cm broad, gradually and strongly tapered to the petiole, with several coarse or rounded teeth apically or with small lobes (usually 3) above the middle, firm, glabrous, and glossy above, major veins more or less obscure, strongly ascending and somewhat parallel, at least some extending to the sinuses between the lobes; leaves of vegetative shoots varying in shape from spatulate to elliptic, ovate, or rhomboid, larger and often more deeply lobed than the leaves of flowering shoots; petioles ca. 1/4 to 1/2 the length of the blades, with leaf bases very narrowly decurrent along the length. Flowers numerous in glabrous corymbose clusters, pedicels 3 to 8 mm long; blossoms 6 to 8 mm broad. Sepals deltoid to triangular-ovate, 1 to 2 mm long, entire but ciliate, persistent in fruit; petals ca. 3 to 5 mm long; stamens 20, anthers yellow. Fruit globose, 4 to 7 mm long, red outside and with a soft, yellow flesh; nutlets 3 to 5. Sandy or sandy clay soils of woods, fencerows, pastures, etc. E. part of TX; FL to TX, N. to S. MO and VA. Flowering Mar.-Apr.; fruiting (Aug.-)Sept.-Nov. [C. microcarpa Lindl.].

2. C. marshallii Eggl. Parsley Hawthorn. Shrubs or small trees to 8 m tall; branches with thorns 1 to 3 cm long or thornless; bark thin and exfoliating gray and tan or brown; younger branches sometimes reddish, branchlets pubescent when young. Leaves deltoid to broadly ovate in overall outline, about as broad as long, basally rounded to truncate or cordate, apically acute, finely and sharply serrate, also deeply incised or lobed, usually with 2 or 3 pairs of lateral lobes, these often again lobed or incised, pubescent when young, becoming glabrate above, paler beneath and remaining pubescent along the veins; petioles slender, from about 1/2 as long as to longer than the blades. Flowers numerous in corymbose clusters, pedicels slender, pubescent, 0.5 to 1.5 mm long; blossoms 1 to 1.5 cm broad. Hypanthium pubescent externally; sepals lanceolate (to oblong), 2 to 5 mm long, ca. 1 mm broad, glandular-serrate at least apically, generally absent from fruit; petals (5)6 to 9(10) mm long; stamens 10 to about 20, anthers red. Fruit oblong to obovoid, 5 to 9 mm long, 4 to 8 mm broad, red; nutlets (1)2(3). Sandy woods, fencerows, pastures, roadsides, hillsides, etc. E. part of TX; VA to FL, W. to TX, N. in the Mississippi valley to SE. MO. Flowering Mar.-Apr.; fruiting Sept.-Nov. [C. apiifolia Michx.].

3. C. mollis Scheele Downy Hawthorn, Red Haw, Summer Haw. Small tree to ca. 12 m tall, trunk to 3 dm in diameter, crown rounded; bark dark, exfoliating; branchlets villous when young, becoming glabrous; thorns scattered, stout, or plants occasionally thornless. Leaves variable in shape, generally ovate to deltoid or more or less rhombic or elliptic, (3)5 to 7(10) cm long, 3 to 8 cm broad, sharply or coarsely serrate, often with 3 to 5 pairs of lateral lobes, leaves of vegetative branchlets sometimes laciniate, upper surface of all with short appressed hairs, becoming glabrate with age, lower surface densely pale-tomentose, especially on the veins, becoming somewhat less hairy with age, but remaining strongly pubescent throughout the season; petioles villous, generally shorter than the blades; stipules 10 to 15 mm long, pubescent and glandular. Flowers generally many in corymbose clusters, (1.5)2 to 2.3 cm broad; pedicels densely tomentose. Hypanthium villous externally; sepals lanceolate, glandular-serrate or -laciniate, villous, persistent; petals ca. 9 to 12 mm long; stamens usually 20 in 2 whorls, anthers yellow or pink. Fruit subglobose (to oblong or obovoid), 1.3 to 1.8 cm in diameter, scarlet to bright red, often pubescent at least near the ends, topped by the shallow calyx, flesh soft or mealy at maturity; stones usually 5, yellowish, 7 to 7.5 mm long, the inner faces flat to concave. Near streams in bottomland woods, in thickets, on hillsides, and known from rocky outcroppings. NE. and N. Cen. to S. Cen. TX; Newf. and ME W. through Ont. to MN and ND, SW. through NJ, VA, and TN, S. to NE and OK. Flowering Mar.-Apr.; fruiting Aug.-Oct. [C. berlandieri Sarg.; C. arnoldiana Sarg.; C. canadensis Sarg.; C. indurata Sarg.; C. dallasiana Sarg.;C. brachyphylla Sarg.; C. invisa Sarg.; C. submollis Sarg.; C. quercina Ashe; C. lasiantha Sarg.; as treated here, including C.viburnifolia Sarg.; C. limaria Sarg.; C. brazoria Sarg.; and C. columbiana Sarg., but not C. columbiana Howell, which is retained by Hatch, et al. as a separate species composed of part of C. mollis sensu Correll and Johnston.].

4. C. crus-galli L. Cockspur Hawthorn, Bush's Hawthorn. Shrub or small tree 4 to 6(8) m tall, branches widespreading, crown rounded or depressed; bark dark, somewhat exfoliating; young branchlets glabrous; thorns 3 to 8 cm long, quite sharp, usually dark. Leaf blades of flowering branches generally obovate, unlobed, basally cuneate, 2 to 6 cm long, 1 to 3.5 cm broad, serrate at least in the upper 1/2, glabrous, coriaceous, dark green and quite lustrous above, leaves of vegetative shoots often larger (up to twice as large), ovate-ish to oblong-elliptic, coarsely dentate to serrate and sometimes lobed; petioles 0.3 to 3 cm long, glabrate and perhaps sparsely glandular; stipules of vegetative shoots oblanceolate, sparingly glandular, caducous. Flowers (5 to) many in glabrous corymbose clusters; blossoms 1 to 1.5(2) cm broad. Hypanthium turbinate, glabrous, 2 to 2.5 mm long; sepals lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 3.5 to 5 mm long, entire or sparsely glandular-serrate, persistent; petals 7 to 8 mm long; stamens 10(20), anthers pink or pale yellow, sometimes red. Fruit broadly oblong to slightly obovoid or ovoid, (6)8 to 10 mm in diameter, sometimes slightly 5-angled, greenish to dull red or scarlet, flesh thin and dry and fruit remaining hard at maturity; nutlets 1 to 2(3 to 5), yellowish-brown, 6 to 8 mm long, the ventral faces flattened. Common in woods, thickets, fencerows, pastures, hillsides, etc., often showing a preference for calcareous soils. N. Cen. and E. TX; NY and Que. W. to MN, S. to FL., W. to TX, OK, E. KS, and IA. Flowering Apr.-May; fruiting (Aug.)Oct.-Nov. [Includes var. barettiana (Sarg.) E. J. Palm., var. bellica (Sarg.) E. J. Palm., and var. pyracanthifolia Ait.; listed synonyms include C. bushii Sarg.; C. cherokeensis Sarg.; C.pyracanthoides Beadle; C. sabineana Ashe; C. sublobulata Sarg.; C. hannibalensis E. J. Palm.; C. munita Sarg.; C. regalis Beadle and var. paradoxa (Sarg.) E. J. Palm.; C. tantula Sarg.; C. vallicola Sarg.; C. stevensiana Sarg.; C. discolor Sarg.; C. canbyi Sarg.;C. acutifolia Sarg. C. berberifolia T. & G. is included by some sources, e.g. GPFA (1986). In that case, additional synonyms include C. engelmannii Sarg.; C. reverchonii Sarg. and var. discolor (Sarg.) E. J. Palm.; C. edita Sarg. and C. berberifolia T. & G. var. edita (Sarg.) E. J. Palm.].

5. C. viridis L. Green Haw or -Hawthorn. Shrub or small tree 3 to 12 m tall, branches slender and unarmed or else with thorns 1 to 4 cm long; bark dark or pale gray, smooth or exfoliating to reveal an orange-brown inner bark; young branchlets glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Leaves variable, even on a single plant, often asymmetrical, leaves of flowering shoots rhombic to oblong-elliptic or oven obovate, 2.5 to 5 cm long, 1.3 to 2.55 cm broad, finely serrate, at least above the middle, leaves of vegetative shoots with blades still serrate but more ovate and deeply cut or lobed near the base, all dull green, thin-textured, glabrous at maturity save for tufts of pale hair in the axils of the major veins below; petioles slender, glabrous or becoming so, 1.2 to 5 cm long; stipules 5 to 6 mm long, with stalks 1. to 1.5 mm long, falcate. Flowers 5 to many in glabrous or pubescent corymbose clusters; blossoms 1.2 to 1.5 cm broad. Hypanthium glabrous or with a few hairs, turbinate, ca. 1.5 to 2.2 mm long; sepals triangular to lanceolate, 1.5 to 2 mm long, externally glabrous, sometimes with glandular teeth; petals white; stamens 20, anthers yellow or reddish. Fruit subglobose (to ellipsoid or obovate), topped with the persistent but fragile calyx, 5 to 8(10) mm in diameter, red to orange-red, the flesh juicy but thin; stones usually 5, yellow-brown, 5 to 6 mm long, the ventral faces flattened. In alluvial soils or low, wet woods, also in prairies, sandy fields, and on sandy clay soils, etc. E. and S. Cen. TX; VA, IL, MO, and SE. KS, S. to FL, and TX. Flowering Mar.-Apr.; fruiting (Apr.)Sept.-Nov. [Includes var. velutina (Sarg.) E. J. Palm., var. ovata(Sarg.) E. J. Palm., var. lanceolata (Sarg.) E. J. Palm., var. lutensis (Sarg.) E. J. Palm. and forma abbreviata (Sarg.) E. J. Palm.;C. velutina Sarg.; C. abbreviata Sarg.; C. glabrius Sarg.; C. glabriuscula Sarg.; C. anamesa Sarg.; C. antiplasta Sarg.; C.poliophylla Sarg.; C. stenosepala Sarg.; C. sutherlandensis Sarg. and var. spinescens Sarg.; C. antimima Sarg.].



ROSACEAE PRUNUS5. PRUNUS L. Plum, Cherry, Peach



Deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs, sometimes spreading by root sprouts or rhizomes; young branches sometimes spinose; winter buds with many imbricate scales. Leaves alternate, simple, usually serrate to serrulate or dentate, often with glandular teeth, sometimes entire or nearly so, convolute (rolled lengthwise) or conduplicate (folded lengthwise) in bud, in some species more or less conduplicate at maturity, variously pubescent to glabrous, petioles often with gland(s) at or near the juncture with the blade, or these actually on the lower margin or surface of the blade; stipules paired, lance-linear, deciduous. Flowers perigynous, regular, perfect, usually pedicellate, borne singly (rarely) or in racemes from the axils of previous year's leaves or on terminal new wood OR borne in corymbs or umbels on short spur shoots, appearing with or before the leaves. Hypanthium campanulate, urceolate, or obconic, with a thin disk, deciduous after anthesis or ruptured by the developing fruit. Sepals 5, spreading or reflexed. Petals 5, white (pink or red in cultivated species locally). Stamens 15 to 20, in 2 whorls around the edge of the hypanthium. Pistil 1, simple, biovulate, superior and free of the hypanthium, style 1. Fruit a 1(2)-seeded drupe with a thin or fleshy exocarp and a bony endocarp; stone subglobose or somewhat compressed.

More than 400 species, primarily temperate in distribution; 14 for TX; 6 to be found here.

The genus is important for cultivated stone fruits: peach--P. persica and the glabrous var.nectarina (nectarine), plum and prune--P. domestica, sour cherry--P. cerasus, sweet cherry--P.avium, apricot--P. armeniaca, and almond--P. dulcis (P. amygdalus), as well as various regionally common plum species. Many species are grown as ornamental shrubs or trees, including P.laurocerasus, P. yedoensis, P. cerasifera, P. subhirtella, P. mume, etc. (Mabberley 1987). Some provide useful timber or veneer or are used medicinally (Mabberley 1987). The seeds (and sometimes also the foliage) of most species are poisonous, containing compounds that release hydrocyanic acid (Lampe 1985). Many of our native species produce large crops of fruit, providing a good source of food for birds and mammals (Elias 1980).

1. Plants with flowers, with or without mature leaves ..................................................................2

1. Plants with mature leaves, with or without flowers or fruit .....................................................7

2(1) Flowers in racemes ..................................................................................................................3

2. Flowers in umbels, corymbs, or solitary ..................................................................................4

3(2) Racemes dense, usually shorter than the leaves; leaves evergreen, entire or nearly so .......

........................................................................................................................1. P. caroliniana

3. Racemes rather loose, usually longer than the leaves; leaves deciduous, glandular- toothed ................................................................................................................2. P. serotina

var. serotina

4(2) Flowers sessile; petals pink; ovary pubescent. ...................................................3. P. persica

4. Flower definitely pedicellate; petals usually white, ovary glabrous ........................................5

5(4) Petals 6 to 7.5(10) mm long when fresh (often shrinking to ca. 5 mm when dry); sepals densely pubescent within; leaves with eglandular teeth; non-rhizomatous trees ....................

..........................................................................................................................4. P. mexicana

5. Petals to 3.5 to 6.5 mm long when fresh (often drying to less than 5 mm); sepals more or less glabrous to pubescent below the middle on the inner surface; leaves with gland- tipped teeth (or teeth with scars where glands deciduous); rhizomatous shrubs or small trees ..........................................................................................................................................6

6(5) Calyx lobes more or less glabrous outside and glabrous within except at the base, entire; pedicel ca. 2 to 6(10) mm long at anthesis .................................................5. P. angustifolia

6. Calyx lobes finely pubescent on both sides, glandular toothed or entire; pedicel ca. 5 to 12(15) mm long at anthesis .................................................................................6. P. gracilis

7(1) Leaves essentially entire, evergreen; fruits black at maturity, ovoid ............1. P. caroliniana

7. Leaves serrate, crenate, or dentate, deciduous; fruit red, yellow, or black at maturity .........8

8(7) Leaves 7 to 15 cm long, lance-oblong, often folded lengthwise; fruit pubescent; stone deeply furrowed and pitted ..................................................................................3. P. persica

8. Leaves shorter and/or proportionately wider, flat or folded (but if folded, then shorter); fruit glabrous, often glaucous; stone smooth to grooved or slightly wrinkled ...............................9

9(8) Infructescence racemose; calyx persistent in fruit; stone globose ...................2. P. serotina

var. serotina

9. Infructescence umbellate (or fruits single through loss); calyx absent in fruit; stone usually longer than wide .....................................................................................................................10

10(9) Leaf teeth usually eglandular; small tree; usually at least some leaves more than 6 cm long; mature fruit 2 to 3 cm long .....................................................................4. P. mexicana

10. Leaf teeth gland-tipped (or with scars where glands deciduous); small tree or colonial shrub from rhizomes; leaves usually 6 cm long or shorter; mature fruit 7 to 15(25) mm long .........................................................................................................................................11





11(11) Leaves densely pubescent below, flat, obtuse to acute, ovate to oval .............6. P. gracilis

11. Leaves glabrous beneath or somewhat pubescent along the midrib, commonly folded lengthwise, acute, lanceolate to oblong ......................................................5. P. angustifolia

1. P. caroliniana (P. Mill.) Ait. (Carolina) Laurel Cherry. (Shrub or) small or medium tree to 12 m tall; trunk to 30 cm. in diameter; bark at first smooth, becoming shallowly fissured and gray; branchlets slender, glabrous, brown to gray. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous and lustrous, glabrous, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 5 to 12 cm long, to 4 cm broad, basally cuneate to rounded, apically acute to acuminate, mucronate, essentially entire or with a few remote teeth, lower surface usually with (1)2 glands at the base, easiest seen as oily-looking spots on fresh material; petiole ca. 4 to 9 mm long, glabrous, minutely ridged with the decurrent margin of the blade. Inflorescences dense racemes in the axils of the previous year's leaves, racemes shorter than the leaves; flowers perfect or occasionally some aberrant and only staminate. Hypanthium campanulate or obconic, glabrous; sepals 1 to 1.5 mm long, obtuse; petals cream, 2 to 3 mm long, boat-shaped; stamens (10)15 to 20. Fruit ovoid to subglobose, at first green and maturing nearly black, 1 to 1.3 cm long, glabrous, the flesh thin, sometimes smelling strongly of cherry, maturing in the fall but often persisting until flowering the following season; stone ovoid, 0.9 to 1.2 cm long. Native in our area and probably also present as an escape from its cultivation as a shrub or hedge plant. Interiors and edges of woods, in fields, thickets, lowland areas, along bluffs and streams, etc. E. TX; coastal plain from NC to FL, W. to TX; also Berm. Flowering Feb.-Apr.; fruit maturing through the fall. [Laurocerasus caroliniana (Mill.) Raven].

The fruit is often eaten by birds, though it is inedible by humans. Deer eat the young leaves, but withered autumn leaves are poisonous to browsing mammals (Elias 1980).

2. P. serotina Ehrh. var. serotina (Wild) Black Cherry. Tree to 30 m tall; trunk to 1.5 m in diameter, but usually much smaller; bark dark reddish-brown to black, inner bark aromatic; branchlets slender, smooth, greenish, becoming red-brown, finally gray or darker. Leaves deciduous, flat or somewhat folded lengthwise, blades ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 6 to 9(15) cm long, 2.5 to 4(5) cm broad, acute to abruptly or gradually acute, basally acute to obtuse, margins with blunt or pointed, appressed or incurved, gland-tipped teeth, glabrous and lustrous above, glabrous below except for rusty or tawny pubescence on the lower ca. 1/3 of the midvein; petiole slender, glabrous, to 15(20) mm long on foliage branches, slightly shorter on flowering branches, apex usually with 2 glands, these sometimes transferred to the lower margin of the blade; stipules lanceolate, 4 to 7(10) mm long, glandular-toothed, deciduous. Flowers in rather loose axillary racemes (5)8 to 15 cm long at the tips of the current season's growth; pedicels spreading, 3 to 10 mm long, glabrous. Hypanthium campanulate, 1.2 to 1.7 mm long, glabrous; sepals oblong to triangular, 0.6 to 1.2 mm long, glabrous, margins often toothed, persistent in fruit; petals white, 2.5 to 4 mm long, suborbicular with a narrow claw; stamens (10)15 to 20. Fruit subglobose, initially dark red, maturing black-purple, 7 to 10(12) mm in diameter, glossy, edible, sweet or bitter; stone ovoid, 5 to 7(9) mm long, smooth or minutely rugose, with a groove on one side and a ridge on the other. This variety in woods, thickets, wood edges, fencerows, etc. in E. TX and eastward; species as a whole from N. S., Que. and Ont., S. to FL, W. to TX; also AZ, NM, and S. through Mex. to Guat. Flowering Feb.-Apr.; fruiting in fall. [Padus serotina (Ehrh.) Agardh. Prunus virginiana L. is included by some, e.g. GPFA (1986), but this is retained as a separate species by Hatch, et al. (1990) and Kartesz (1998).].

The wood has been used for veneer and cabinet-making. The fruit is eaten by game and songbirds and small mammals. Deer eat the new leaves, but the older leaves are toxic (Elias 1980). Native Americans used the bark of this species and P. virginiana (chokecherry) in cold remedies and tonics, and the early white settlers used it as a tonic, febrifuge, cough remedy, and mild sedative. However, because of the presence of hydrocyanic compounds (however minimal) and the availability of safer substitutes, the use of this plant is not recommended (Kindscher 1992). The fruit is rather astringent fresh, but is suitable for jams, jellies, and sauces. It is important to remove the seeds before cooking (Tull 1987).

3. P. persica (L.) Batsch Peach, Duranzno. Small tree with rounded or flat crown, to 10 m tall, usually smaller; bark red-brown and smooth when young, becoming gray and scaly; branchlets glabrous and winter buds pubescent. Leaves deciduous, elliptic- to oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 15 cm long, usually broadest at or above the middle, apically attenuate and long-acuminate, broadly cuneate basally, glabrous except perhaps when very young, margin serrate or serrulate, leaves sometimes folded lengthwise; petioles 1 to 2 cm long, glabrous, usually glandular at the summit or glands at the base of the margin; stipules lanceolate, 6 to 12 mm long, deciduous. Flowers opening before the leaves are expanded, usually solitary, sessile or subsessile on short spur shoots, showy. Hypanthium obconic, glabrous; sepals rounded, pubescent externally; petals pink (to red), 8 to 20 mm long, apically rounded; s tamens 20 to 30, filaments sometimes reddish; ovary and fruit pubescent (peaches) or rarely glabrous (nectarines). Fruit subglobose, usually with a terminal point and a furrow on one side, yellow to reddish, to 5 or 7 cm in diameter; stone ovoid, deeply pitted and furrowed, to ca. 3 cm long. Native to China, cultivated for its sweet, edible fruit and occasionally escaping and naturalizing along fencerows and roadsides or at old homesites, orchards, waste places, or dumps, etc. E. TX; sporadically naturalizing from Ont. to FL, W. to the Great Plains. [Author variously given as Sieb. and Zucc., Batsch, or Maxim in some sources].

4. P. mexicana S. Wats. Mexican Plum, Big-Tree Plum. Usually a solitary tree, sometimes forming root sprouts, but not rhizomatous, 3 to 6(8) m tall; trunk to ca. 25 cm in diameter, darkening on older trees to dark gray or black; branchlets pubescent to glabrous, dark reddish brown, becoming gray, generally not spiny; winter buds finely pubescent. Leaves deciduous, blades ovate to obovate or oblong-obovate, (3)4 to 12 cm long, 3 to 6 cm broad, basally rounded to subcordate, abruptly acuminate, upper surface sparsely short pubescent (at least when young) and soft to slightly scabrous, rugose, lower surface pubescent, especially on the more or less reticulate veins, usually retaining the softness throughout the season, margin sharply serrate or doubly serrate, teeth eglandular; petiole 1 to 2 cm long, pubescent, usually with (1)2 glands at the apex or these transferred to the lower margin of the blade; stipules lanceolate, 3 to 6 mm long, sometimes toothed or lobed, deciduous. Flowers opening with or just before the leaves, in umbels of 2 to 4(6) from buds of the previous season; pedicel glabrous to pubescent, measurements usually given as 6 to 10 mm long, but to as much as 15 mm long, elongating further in fruit. Hypanthium obconic, 3 to 2.5 mm long, finely pubescent; sepals oblong, 3.5 mm long, rounded and entire or dentate at the apex, slightly glandular, pubescent inside and often outside as well, reflexed at anthesis; petals white, obovate, 6 to 7.5(10) mm long when fresh, shorter when dry but usually ca. 5 mm long; stamens 20 to 30; ovary glabrous. Fruit 2 to 3 cm long, globose or elliptic, reddish-purple with a white or gray glaucous bloom, edible and sweet; stone obovoid to subglobose, 1.2 to 1.8 cm long, smooth, one margin ridged and the other with a groove. Flowering Feb.-Mar.; fruiting July-Sept. Woods, prairies, river bottoms, lake shores, etc. E., NE., and N. Cen. TX and Ed. Plat; SE. ND and NE, S. through KS. to TX, E. to IA, IL,, IN, and OH, S. to AL, MS. LA, and TX, also Mex. [Includes var. flutonenis (Sarg.) Sarg., var. polyandra (Sarg.) Sarg. and var. mollis (Dougl.) Boivin; P. arkansana Sarg.; P.palmeri Sarg.; P. reticulata Sarg.; P. tenuifolia Sarg.; P. americana Marsh. var. lanata Sudw.; P. lanata Mack. & Bush.].

The fruit is readily eaten by bears, deer, squirrels, foxes, and other mammals and birds (Elias 1980). It make good jams and jellies.

NOTE: P. umbellata Ell., Flatwood(s) Plum, is found in E. TX. It is reported from our area, but specimens seen by the author are P. mexicana. If present, probably to be found only in the far E. portion of the area. The key character of pedicel length given by Correll and Johnston (1970) is not sufficient to distinguish the two species. P. umbellata has all leaves usually less than 7 cm long (while P. mexicana usually has some that long or longer), with apices acute or only gradually acuminate; the calyx is wholly without glands, and the fruit is only 1 to 2 cm in diameter.

5. P. angustifolia Marsh. Chickasaw Plum, Sandhill Plum. Shrub or very small tree, usually forming thickets from root sprouts and rhizomes, to 4 m tall; branches slender and often zig-zagging from node to node, sometimes spinose, dark red and smooth when young; bark of older branches dark reddish-brown, furrowed and scaly. Leaves deciduous, lance-oblong, 2 to 6(8) cm long, 1 to 2.5 cm broad, strongly conduplicate (folded lengthwise), base rounded to broadly cuneate, acute to short-acuminate, glabrous and shiny above, paler below and glabrous or with pubescence along the base of the midrib, margin finely serrulate with appressed, gland-tipped teeth, glands commonly reddish and persistent or deciduous; petioles reddish, 1 to 1.4 cm long, usually with 2 glands at the summit or sometimes glandless. Flowers in clusters of 2 to 4, appearing before the leaves or just as the leaves emerge; pedicels 2 to 6(10) mm long, glabrous. Hypanthium obconic, 1 to 2 mm long, glabrous; sepals ovate, shorter than the calyx tube, eglandular and glabrous except at the base within; petals white to cream, obovate and with a short claw, 3.5 to 6 mm long; stamens 20; style 4 to 6 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid or subglobose, 0.9 to 2 cm in diameter, 2 to 2.5 cm long, bright red to yellow, shiny or with a slight bloom; stone ovoid, 0.9 to 1.2 cm long, rough or slightly pitted. Commonest in sandy soil, forming thickets on roadsides, fencerows, and along wood edges. Mostly in the E. 2/3 TX, scattered W.; S. NJ, WV, IN, and IL, W. to NE, S. to FL and TX. Flowering Feb.-Mar.; fruiting May-July. [Includes subsp. varians W. Wight & Hendrick; P. watsoniiSarg.--'Watson' is a named cultivar.].

If varieties are recognized, our plants are var. angustifolia. This species reportedly hybridizes with P. gracilis (GPFA 1986).

Early American settlers used the fruit for jams and jellies and often planted the trees, which regularly yield large crops (Kindscher 1987). The fruits are an important wildlife food for deer, bears, small mammals, and birds; the dense thickets also offer ample cover and provide good erosion control (Elias 1980).

6. P. gracilis Engelm. & Gray Oklahoma Plum, Sand Plum. Shrub, sometimes straggly, 0.5 to 1.5 m tall, usually rhizomatous and thicket-forming, occasionally a single plant; young branches pubescent, later glaucous and reddish-brown. Leaves deciduous, blades elliptic to ovate, 2 to 5.5 cm long, rounded or broadly cuneate basally, apically obtuse to acute or short-acuminate, upper surface sparsely and finely pubescent, lower surface densely pubescent and reticulate, margin finely serrate, the teeth acute to obtuse, gland tipped when young but the glands deciduous; petioles 4 to 16 mm long, pubescent, glandless; stipules narrowly lanceolate, 2.5 to 5 mm long, glandular-serrate or sometimes lobed, deciduous. Flowers appearing before or just with the new leaves, in clusters of 2 to 4(8); pedicels 6 to 12 mm long, pubescent. Hypanthium obconic, 2.5 to 3 mm long, pubescent or rarely subglabrous; sepals ovate or triangular, 1.2 to 1.7 mm long, acute to obtuse, slightly glandular-toothed to entire, pubescent on both surfaces; petals white, 5 to 6.5 mm long and 4 to 5 mm broad, obovate, with a short claw; stamens usually 20. Fruit subglobose to ellipsoid, 15 to 18 mm long, 12 to 15 mm broad, red or yellow, with a slight bloom; stone ovoid, blunt at both ends, one margin slightly ridged, surface rough. Dry or sandy soils of open hills, open woods, fencerows, fields, etc. E. TX and E. panhandle; KS, OK, TX, and E. NM. Flowering Mar.-Apr.; fruiting Jun.-Aug. [P. normalis (T. & G.) Small].

Reported to hybridize with P. angustifolia (GPFA 1986).

The Kiowa are said to have gathered the plums and dried them whole for winter use and to have pounded them to make cakes (Kindscher 1987).



ROSACEAE GEUM6. GEUM L. Avens



Perennial herbs from horizontal rhizomes or vertical caudices, usually with a basal rosette. Lower leaves compound to ternate or simple, becoming less compound or even simple upwards, alternate, rarely opposite; stipules of lower leaves wholly adnate to the petioles, those of cauline leaves free. Flowers solitary or in loose cymes, regular, perfect, perigynous. Hypanthium shallow to campanulate or turbinate, with nectary ring at the mouth or below the carpels. Sepals 5, usually alternating with 5 small bractlets. Petals 5, white or yellow. Stamens 20 to many in several series. Pistils several to many, free on a hemispheric, globose, cylindrical, or conical receptacle that is sometimes stipitate. Fruit a cluster of 1-seeded achenes, each with a long, persistent style that is entire or else jointed and geniculate at or above the middle with apical portion deciduous.

About 65 species of temperate and cold regions; 2 species in TX; 1 here.

A few species are cultivated for ornament or are used regionally in herbal medicines (Mabberley 1987).

1. G. canadense Jacq. White Avens. Perennial from a short rootstock or horizontal rhizome; stems 1 to several from the base, simple, 3 to 12 dm tall, glabrous to sparsely hispid below, becoming sparsely to densely short pubescent and/or glandular puberulent above, sometimes also with scattered longer hairs. Leaves of the basal rosette simple or usually with 3 to 5(7) rhombic, serrate or sometimes slightly lobed leaflets to ca. 6 cm long, sometimes also with a few more, much smaller leaflets the long petioles smooth or sparsely hairy, lower cauline leaves similar but shorter petiolate to sessile, most with 3 leaflets, upper leaves ternately cleft or simple; stipules 3 to 10(20) mm long, ovate to oblong, cleft or entire. Flowers solitary or in few-flowered, leafy-bracted cymes; pedicels usually velvety pubescent and with sparse to rather dense longer hairs, occasionally glandular. Hypanthium 2.5 to 3 mm long, sparsely to densely pubescent; sepals lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 4 to 8(10) mm long; petals white, fading yellowish, oblong to obovate, 2 to 4.5 mm broad, 5 to 9 mm long, equalling or longer than the sepals. Mature fruiting heads globose, 1 to 2.2 cm in diameter, receptacle densely bristly-villous, achenes many; achene body 2 to 4 mm long, usually pubescent apically; styles spreading or reflexed, jointed and geniculate, the persistent portion 4 to 7 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hirsute basally deciduous portion 1 to 2 mm long, sparsely pubescent below, ascending or spreading, only tardily deflexed. Rich woods and rather drier oak woods. E. 1/3 TX, W. to Real Co.; N. S. W. to ND and NE. WY, S. to GA, AL, and TX. Apr.-July.

Two varieties present in Texas; both possible here, though these rather similar and sometimes combined (GPFA 1986).

var. texanum Fern. & Weatherby Terminal segment of midstem leaves usually obtuse; body of achene 2 to 3 mm long, narrowly obovate to cuneate.

var. camporum (Rydb.) Fern. Terminal segment of midstem leaves usually acute; body of achene 3 to 4 mm long, broadly ovate. [G. camporum Rydb.].



ROSACEAE ROSA7. ROSA L. Rose



Shrubs, stems upright to trailing or climbing; stems, petioles, leaf rachises, and/or inflorescences usually armed with straight or recurved prickles. Herbage and inflorescence also sometimes with bristles or other pubescence and/or glandular. Leaves alternate, petiolate, pinnately compound or ternate (rarely simple), leaflets usually toothed; stipules paired for each leaf, commonly adnate to the petiole and forming wings, entire to toothed or pinnatifid, persistent or deciduous. Flowers solitary or in terminal corymbose or paniculate inflorescences, perfect, regular. Sepals (4)5, entire or toothed, often only the outer 2 and the upper portion of the middle one toothed or appendaged, all acute to attenuate or dilated apically. Petals typically (4)5 in wild varieties, in some forms sometimes more through doubling, often numerous in cultivated varieties, usually obovate or obcordate. Stamens in several whorls, many, inserted on a disk around the opening of the globose to urceolate hypanthium. Carpels many, free, uniovulate, inserted on the interior of the hypanthium in various arrangements; styles free or connate, exserted from the hypanthium or only reaching the mouth, stigmas expanded. Fruit an accessory termed a hip, the hypanthium becoming fleshy at maturity and the carpels within maturing into bony, often pubescent achenes, each containing one thin-coated seeded.

An uncertain number of species, estimates ranging from about 100 (Mabberley 1987) to 250 (Correll and Johnston 1970); many "species" perhaps of ancient hybrid origin and thousands of cultivars existing; 12 species native or known to escape cultivation in TX; 7 possible here.

Roses have been grown for ornament probably since before recorded history. They have also been used in soaps, perfumes, and herbal remedies (Mabberley 1987). The ripe fruits of many species are edible and are common ingredients in jams, jellies, and herbal teas, being high in vitamin C. The Native Americans ate the hips, though often only as an emergency food. (Kindscher 1987). The hips are also a wildlife food.

NOTE: The key below includes native and commonly escaped cultivated species one might possibly encounter in our area. Rarely-encountered taxa, such as non-naturalizing escaped cultivated species, are marked with an asterisk and are only briefly described in the text. Rosebushes can be long-lived, and it is not unusual to find them around old homesites or where planted on fencerows, etc. Thus, it is possible to encounter old or abandoned "heirloom" or modern roses which cannot even be said to be escapes. These are best identified by an experienced rosarian. As a general rule of thumb for our area: any rose with red, orange, yellow, lavender, purple, or bicolored blossoms or with "double" flowers is almost certainly a cultivated plant. One common student collection is R. banksiae Ait. f., a climbing or trailing plant with few prickles and numerous small (to ca. 2.5 cm across), double flowers; the cultivar 'Lutea' has pale yellow flowers.

1. Stipules free from the petiole or united only to it for less than 1/2 their length, eventually deciduous ..................................................................................................................................2

1. Stipules adnate to the petiole for 1/2 or more their length, forming "wings", usually persistent or only tardily deciduous .........................................................................................3

2(1) Branchlets and hips tomentose or pubescent; leaflets 7 to 9; stipules pectinate ....................

..........................................................................................................................1. R. bracteata

2. Branchlets glabrous; hips with stiff bristles; leaflets 3 or 5; stipules denticulate or entire .......

...........................................................................................................................2. R. laevigata

3(1) Styles more or less united, the column exserted from the hypanthium at anthesis, stigmas not closing the orifice of the hypanthium .................................................................................4

3. Styles free, not or only slightly exserted from the hypanthium, stigma cluster often closing the mouth of the hypanthium ...................................................................................................5

4(3) Leaflets 3(5); stipules stipitate-glandular and entire to denticulate; petals usually pink, fading white, 2 to 3 cm long; prickles scattered, not regularly associated with petiole bases

............................................................................................................................3.*R. setigera

4. Leaflets 5 or more; stipules pectinate-serrate and glandular-serrate; petals usually white, 1 to 2 cm long; a pair of prickles generally located at the base of each petiole ......................

.........................................................................................................................4. *R. multiflora

5(3) Leaflets glandular-pubescent or with resin dots beneath; usually prickles usually hooked ...

.........................................................................................................................5. *R. micrantha

5. Leaflets glabrous beneath or with eglandular pubescence; prickles (at least at the base of the stem) usually straight .........................................................................................................6

6(5) Leaflets usually 9 or 11, ca. 3 to 7 mm broad; flowers rose or white; plants without stolons .

...........................................................................................................................6. *R. foliolosa

6. Leaflets 7 or fewer, ca. 8 to 14 mm broad; flowers rose; plants stoloniferous ........................

.............................................................................................................................7. *R. carolina



1. R. bracteata Wendl. Macartney Rose. Stems and branches arching or clambering, tomentose and stipitate glandular; prickles broad-based, essentially straight to slightly curved, usually in pairs subtending the leaves or leaf scars, often reddish. Leaves semi-evergreen, leaflets 5 to 9 (or 3 just below a flower), 1 to 3.5 cm long, 0.8 to 1.8 cm broad, obovate to elliptic, apically rounded to obtuse (or acute), glabrous and lustrous above, sparsely pubescent on the midvein below, margin bluntly glandular-crenate, rachis with stipitate glands end e-glandular hairs; stipules adnate to the petiole for ca. 2 to 5 mm, the free tip ca. 2 to 3 mm long, pectinate, pubescent, deciduous. Flowers solitary or in few-flowered corymbs; pedicels relatively short, each with pectinate or dissected bracts; blossoms 3 to 7 cm across. Sepals lanceolate, 1.5 to 2 cm long, acuminate, entire, pubescent, persistent; petals 5, white, 2.5 to 2.5(3.5) cm long, obcordate; styles connate, slightly exserted from the hypanthium. Hip globose to ovoid, 1.5 to 2.5(3.5) cm long, orange-red or darkening to nearly black, densely pubescent; achenes 4 to 5 mm long, subglabrous. Roadsides, pastures, fencerows, etc. Native of China, often cultivated as a living fence, persistent or escaping cultivation and often weedy. E. 1/3 TX; FL to TX, N. to VA. Spring-fall; TAMU collections with flowers Apr.-Nov.



2. R. laevigata Michx. Cherokee Rose. Stems to ca. 5 m tall, sometimes high-climbing, glabrous; prickles broad-based, flattened, curved, to ca. 1 cm long on flowering shoots and randomly arranged, only by chance paired beneath the leaves. Leaves coriaceous, glossy above, evergreen, 3-(5)foliolate, leaflets ovate-elliptic or -lanceolate, 2 to 8 cm long, 0.8 to 3.5 cm broad, acute to acuminate, tapered at the base, glabrous on both surfaces, finely serrate; stipules adnate for ca. 5 mm at the base, the free tips usually ca. 3 to 7 mm long, entire or with a few teeth. Flowers solitary on lateral branches; pedicel and hypanthium with numerous stiff bristles to 4 mm long. Sepals lanceolate, apically expanded and caudate, externally glabrous except for the margins or occasionally with a few stipitate glands or bristles; petals white (rarely rose), 2 to 4 cm long, obovate; styles connate, exserted ca. 1 mm from the mouth of the hypanthium. Hip pyriform or ellipsoid, to 3.5 cm long with a tapered, stipe-like base, bristly, red; achenes 6 to 8 mm long, densely pubescent. Native of China, escaping cultivation and naturalized in parts of the SE. U.S.--SC, GA, FL, AL, and MI. Flowering (Mar.)Apr.-fall; fruit ripening in the fall.

3. R. setigera Michx. Prairie Rose, Climbing Rose. Characters as in the key. Leaflets glabrous above, softly pubescent below in var. tomentosa T. & G. or only pubescent on the veins in var. setigera; flowers in bracted corymbs, pedicel and hypanthium hispid-glandular; sepals reflexed at anthesis, 12 to 16 mm long, deciduous; style column about as long as the stamens; fruit red, 8 to 12 mm long. Woods, thickets, clearings, etc. (N)E. TX; possible in our area; NY, MA, MI, and IA, S. to FL and TX. [R. rubifolia R. Br.].

4. R. multiflora Thunb. ex Murr. Japanese Rose. Characters as in the key. Leaflets glabrous above, more or less pubescent beneath; flowers usually several to many in a rounded or pyramidal cluster; pedicels sometimes with stipitate glands; sepals 7 to 10 mm long, glabrous or stipitate-glandular, tips usually attenuate; style column exserted; fruit globose, to ca. 1 cm long. Clearings, roadsides, wood edges, etc. E. TX; native of China and occasionally escaping cultivation in E. 1/2 U.S.; often weedy where established.

5. R. micrantha Borrer ex Sm. Characters as in key. Leaflets 5 or 7, broadly ovate, doubly glandular-serrate, pubescent and glandular below, acute to acuminate; styles slightly exserted; pedicel glandular-hispid; sepals spreading or reflexed, deciduous; blossoms pink to white, ca. 3 cm broad, in clusters of 1 to 4. Native to The European-Mediterranean region; occasionally escaping cultivation.

6. R. foliolosa Nutt. ex T.& G. Leafy Rose, White Prairie Rose. Characters as in key. Leaflets glabrous above, glabrous or pubescent on the veins beneath; flowers 1 or 2 to 5, terminal; pedicel and sometimes the hypanthium glandular-hispid; sepals 12 to 16 mm long, glandular-hispid, attenuate; petals obovate, 15 to 20 mm long; fruit globose, more or less hispid, ca. 8 mm broad. Sandy oak woods, prairies, fencerows, railroads, etc. N. Cen. and Cen. TX; possible in the (N)W. part of our area; also SE. KS, W. AR, and E. 1/2 OK. [Includes R. ignota Shinners].

7. R. carolinaL. Carolina Rose. Characters as in key. Leaflets dark green above, paler and softly hairy to glabrous below; stipules entire or glandular-dentate; flowers usually single, rarely corymbose, terminal; pedicel and hypanthium usually stipitate-glandular, rarely glabrous; sepals attenuate or sometimes appendaged, glabrous or stipitate-glandular; petals obovate, 2.2 to 2.5 (3.2) cm long; hip subglobose, red. Dry rocky or sandy open areas or thin woods. E. TX; E. 1/2 U.S. W. to MN, MO, KS, and TX. [Includes var. carolina, var. grandiflora (Baker) Rehd., and f. glandulosa (Crep.) Fern.; R. serrulata Raf.; R.subserrulata Rydb.; R. texarkana Rydb.; R. treleasei Rydb.].





ROSACEAE RUBUS8. RUBUS L. Dewberry, Blackberry, Bramble



Ours perennials with vine-like stems (elsewhere also herbs). Stems arising at or below the ground, erect to trailing or scrambling, plants commonly reproducing vegetatively from root or stem suckers or from the canes rooting where their tips touch the ground. Shoots biennial, terete to angled or ribbed, usually armed with prickles, glabrous to pubescent and/or with glandular hairs, those of the first season termed primocanes, usually unbranched, non-flowering, and with leaves generally compound (or simple but strongly lobed); shoots of the second year termed floricanes, producing short lateral branches bearing flowers, leaves generally smaller and differently shaped than those of the primocanes, often simple. Leaves deciduous to semi-evergreen; stipules small to rather large, free of the petioles or adnate to their bases, caducous or persistent. Flowers perfect (rarely plants dioecious), regular, hypogynous, borne 1 to many in cymose, racemose, corymbose, or paniculate inflorescences. Hypanthium flat to hemispherical, often with a prominent nectary ring. Sepals 5, valvate, reflexed to spreading, often caudate, without intervening bracts. Petals 5, in ours white or tinged with pink. Stamens many. Pistils many, each with 2 ovules, only one of which matures. Receptacle convex or conical, elongating in fruit, spongy or dry. Fruit a cluster of 1-seeded black or red drupelets falling separately or more commonly all together, either with the receptacle (blackberries), or the receptacle remaining on the plant (raspberries). Stones hard, the surfaces variously textured, each completely filled by the seed.

The taxonomy of Rubus is made more complex by apomixis, hybridization, polyploidy, and centuries of domestication. The blackberries are known to be particularly difficult (this includes all our local species). The most practical approach is to define a number of composite species which serve as nodes or centers of variation (Gleason and Cronquist 1963; Correll and Johnston 1970; GPFA 1986; Mabberley 1987). Thousands of entities have been described, these perhaps reducible to about 250 "species" with a tortured synonymy; 10 species listed for Texas; 5 confirmed from our area and encompassing most of the diversity found here.

Confident identifications can only be obtained when working with material which includes both primocanes and floricanes (most herbarium specimens have only floricanes) and where habit has been accurately noted. A more thorough study of the genus in North America is needed.

The fruits of most species are edible. R. idaeus L. is the red raspberry of horticulture; R.loganobaccus L. Bailey (a hybrid between R. ursinus and R. idaeus) is the loganberry, the cultivar Boysen being the Boysenberry; the blackberries of N. America are of various species, including R.flagellaris (Mabberley 1987). The plants also provide important wildlife food. Some species are used in herbal medicines. Tea made from the leaves or roots was used by Native Americans and the settlers of Appalachia as a tonic, astringent, and anti-diarrheal (Kindscher 1992). Tull (1978) mentions that the stems can be used for basketweaving once the prickles have been removed and that dyes ranging from light blue to purple or olive can be made from the berries or shoots. Colorfastness is said to be poorer for berry dyes than for those made from shoots.

1. Plants upright, the canes sometimes arching but not trailing or rooting at the tips;

inflorescence truly racemose, the pedicels more or less the same length; leaflets of primocane leaves narrow, about twice as long as wide; leaflets of floricane leaves also narrow ..................................................................................................................1. R. argutus

1. Plants trailing, primocanes sometimes erect at first, but some canes obviously trailing, often tip-rooting; inflorescence more or less corymbose, the pedicels of the lower flowers plainly longer than those of the upper, or flowers solitary; primocane leaflets at least half as wide as long .........................................................................................................................2

2(1) Plants with glandular bristles mixed with the dense prickles (bristles sometimes quite sparse on floricanes); flowers 1 to few per cluster ..................................................................3

2. Plants lacking glandular bristles; flowers 1 to many per cluster ............................................4

3(2) Leaflets glabrous below or pubescent only on the main veins; margins without glandular teeth ......................................................................................................................2. R. trivialis

3. Leaflets soft-pubescent below; margins with scattered, red, stipitate glands ..........................

.........................................................................................................................3. R. riograndis

4(2) Flowers 1 to 3(5) per cluster; larger canes more or less terete; lower surface of primocane leaves persistently soft-pubescent or velvety; primocane leaflets briefly pointed ....................

.......................................................................................................................4. R. aboriginum

4. Flowers usually 5 to 9 (or more) per cluster; larger canes angled; lower surface of primocane leaves densely not soft-pubescent or velvety (if softly pubescent, usually becoming glabrous by end of season); primocane leaflets abruptly contracted to

acuminate at the tip .........................................................................................5. R. flagellaris

NOTE: R. apogaeus Bailey is found in E. TX and may eventually be found in the E. part of our area. It is a trailer by habit, with primocane leaflets soft-pubescent below, flowers in clusters of (4)5 to 9, and prickles of all canes more or less straight rather than hooked.



1. R. argutus Link Louisiana Blackberry, Sawtooth Blackberry. Stems erect or arching, not trailing or rooting at the tips, to 5 m long, finely pubescent when young, becoming glabrate, green to brown; larger canes angled and deeply furrowed; prickles straight or curved, broad-based; stipules subulate, ciliate. Primocanes: leaflets 5 per leaf, 3 to 12 cm long, 1 to 6 cm wide, narrowly lanceolate to narrowly oblanceolate, at least twice as long as broad, long-pointed apically, tapered to the base, sharply serrate or twice serrate, dull-green and with a few scattered hairs above, paler beneath and soft-pubescent to velvety, especially along the major veins; petioles and petiolules more or less striate, soft pubescent or villous and with scattered recurved prickles. Floricanes: leaflets 3 per leaf or some leaves simple, similar to but smaller than the primocane leaflets, terminal leaflet of each leaf usually 2 to 3 times longer than wide, generally lanceolate to elliptic to narrowly oblanceolate. Inflorescences usually definitely racemose, the 4 to 15 pedicels of about equal length, the lower not elongating to match the upper, axes and pedicels finely pubescent and with a few small prickles. Sepals ovate-deltoid, reflexed, ca. 4 to 6 mm long, pubescent within; petals 6 to 15 mm long, 3.5 to 10 mm broad, bluntly oblanceolate to oblong-elliptic or oval. Fruit oblong-oval, 1 to 2.5 cm long, sweet. Damp sandy areas, especially near bogs, also in thickets, pastures, fencerows, etc. E. TX; NH and NY, S. to FL, W. to MN, OK, and TX. Flowering usually in April. [R. louisianus Berger; R. floridus Tratt.; R. floridanus Bailey; R. betulifolius Bailey; R. abundiflorusBailey].

NOTE: R. persistens Rydb. is found in SE. TX. Herbarium sheets labeled as this species have been collected in our area (outside its normal range), but their identification is doubtful and uncertain as primocanes are lacking. This species is similar to R. argutus, but the primocane leaflets are pilose, becoming glabrous beneath, not soft-pubescent to the touch. Some leaflets usually persist over the winter.

2. R. trivialis Michx. Southern Dewberry, Zarzamora. Stems more or less terete, trailing or low-arching, primocanes sometimes ascending in heavy brush, but eventually trailing and rooting at the tips; all stems with numerous short, usually recurved, broad-based prickles, also with stalked red glands or glandular bristles (these occasionally absent or very sparse on floricanes). Leaves glabrous or very sparsely pubescent on the veins and/or petioles. Primocanes: leaves usually at least semi-evergreen, leaflets usually 5, oblong-lanceolate, to 10 cm long and 3 cm broad, coarsely toothed, glabrous; petiolule of terminal leaflet to ca. 1/3 as long as the blade, lateral leaflets sessile. Floricanes: leaflets smaller, usually 3 per leaf, variously shaped, the blades rhombic to oblanceolate or broadly ovoid. Flowers usually 1, sometimes in 3-flowered cymules; pedicels erect, filiform, with small prickles and bristles or glands. Sepals 5 to 7 mm long, tips long and tapering or caudate, glabrous to glabrescent or glandular externally, pubescent within; petals obovate, (5)7 to 10 mm broad, to ca. 2(2.5) cm long. Fruit black at maturity, subglobose to elongate, 1 to 3 cm long, juicy; stones oblong, ca. 3 mm long, irregularly ridged. Exceedingly common in our area, in vacant lots and woods, and along roads, railroads, and fencerows, etc. E. TX W. to the Grand Prairie area; VA S. to FL, W. to MO, KS, and TX. Flowering (Feb.)Mar.-Apr. [Includes var. serosus Bailey; R. serosus Bailey; R. mississippianusBailey, among others].

3. R. riograndis Bailey Rio Grande Dewberry. Similar to R. trivialis, but generally smaller. Old and new canes with red glandular bristles and soft pubescence among the prickles. Leaves soft-pubescent below, the margins and sometimes surfaces with scattered, reddish, stipitate glands; petioles sometimes especially densely beset with glandular bristles, these sometimes present on the exterior of the calyx as well. Endemic, usually in deep sands (especially of the Carrizo Formation), also in sandy loams. Anderson Co. E. to Angelina Co., S. and W. to Wilson and Dewitt Cos. Known in our area at least from Leon and Robertson Cos. [R. duplaris Shinners; R. trivialis Michx. var. duplaris (Shinners) Mahler].

Mahler (1979) mentioned that this species grows alongside R. trivialis, with the two species exhibiting varying degrees and kinds of pubescence. With the general "lumping" approach to dealing with Rubus, the desirability of maintaining two at least partially-intergrading species is somewhat questionable.

4. R. aboriginum Rydb. Garden Dewberry. Canes trailing or running and rooting at the tips (sometimes somewhat erect in very hard soil), terete to angled, pilose when young, becoming glabrate; prickles scattered, hooked, broad-based, 2 to 3 mm long. Primocanes: leaflets 5 per leaf or 3 on young portions, ovate to elliptic or oval, shortly acute, thinly and softly pubescent on both surfaces, the pubescence of the lower surface persisting until winter, margins sharply doubly serrate, central leaflet 7 to 9 cm long and about 3/4 as broad, basally broad and more or less cordate, lateral leaflets tapered to the base; petiole and often middle petiolule sparingly soft-pubescent and with stout prickles. Floricanes: leaflets 3 per leaf or leaves simple, resembling the primocane leaves but smaller, terminal leaflet sometimes tapered to the base, lateral leaflets perhaps a bit broader at the base. Flowers 2 to 2.5 cm broad, 1 to 4(5) in cymose clusters on the terminal and middle portion of short spur shoots; pedicels slender, short-pilose and with few or no prickles. Sepals to ca. 5 mm long, triangular- or lance-ovate, pubescent on both surfaces, not appendaged but apiculate, reflexed; petals obtuse, broad enough to touch each other at anthesis. Fruit oblong, 15 mm or more long, seedy. Open sandy woods, creekbanks, fencerows, etc. Endemic. E. TX, W. to W. Cross Timbers. Flowering in April. [R. austrinus Bailey; R. Bollianus Bailey; R. almus Bailey. R. velox Bailey listed as a synonym by Correll and Johnston (1970). Kartesz (1998) lists R. velox as a valid species for Texas, though it was not included by Hatch, et al. (1990) or Shelter and Skog (1978). Correll and Johnston listed R. neonefrens Bailey as a synonym, but Kartesz lists that as a synonym of R.flagellaris.].

5. R. flagellaris Willd. Northern Dewberry. Canes at first low-arching, sometimes ascending if there is enough to climb on, later flat-trailing and tip-rooting, to 5 m long. Primocanes: to 6(10) mm broad, strongly angled or ribbed, armed with broad-based, nearly straight to slightly curved prickles to 4 mm long, short-pubescent, becoming glabrate; leaflets 5 per leaf (rarely 3), terminal leaflet blade ovate lance-elliptic, to ca. 9 cm long and 6 cm broad, acute to acuminate, the abruptly contracted tip as much as 2 cm long, basally rounded to subcordate, the petiolule elongate, lateral leaflets somewhat smaller, variously lanceolate to oblong, not as acuminate, petiolules much shorter, all leaflets sparsely pubescent or glabrous or occasionally densely pubescent below, usually becoming glabrate or at least much less pubescent with age. Floricanes: tough, often reddish or purplish, less-angled and with more strongly curved prickles than primocanes, sparsely pubescent on new growth, becoming glabrous; leaves generally with 3 leaflets, leaflets ovate and basally rounded, varying to oblong, or obovate and narrowed to the base, sparsely pubescent to glabrous below, petiole of the terminal leaflet only slightly longer than those of lateral leaflets. Flowering branches erect, the largest (near the base of the cane) with up to 9 or more flowers in a flat-topped or elongate corymbose cluster, pedicels to ca. 1 cm long at anthesis, erect, filiform, glabrous to puberulent or appressed-pilose, sometimes stipitate-glandular, sparsely or not prickly; bracteal leaves 3-foliolate or simple. Sepals lance-ovate, 5 to 8 mm long, densely pubescent on both surfaces, not appendaged but apiculate; petals white (rarely pinkish), obovate to oblong, elliptic, or oval, 1 to 1.5(3) cm long. Fruit relatively large, globose to slightly elongate, 1 to 2.5 cm long and about as broad, juicy and sweet; stones 3 to 3.4 mm long, yellowish, areolate or reticulate. Dry fields, openings in and edges of woods, pastures, roadsides, along railroads, etc. E. 1/3 TX; Que. and ME, S. to GA and TX, W. to MN, KS, and OK. Flowering Apr.-Jun. [R. occidualis Bailey; R. oppositus Bailey, etc. Kartesz (1998) listsR. enslenii Tratt. as a synonym, while Steyermark (1963) listed R. enslenii as a separate species with R. aboriginum as a synonym. GPFA (1986) listed R. baileyanus Britt. as a synonym, while Kartesz maintains both R. flagellaris and R. baileyanus as valid species, with one variety of R. flagellaris listed as a synonym under R. baileyanus. Perhaps the most appropriate synonym is R.frustratus Bailey].





FABACEAE (s.l.) (LEGUMINOSAE)

Legume Family



Herbs, vines, trees and shrubs. Leaves and branches alternate. Leaves sometimes simple but more often compound; stipules usually present and well-developed; leaflets often with stipels. Flowers usually in terminal or axillary spikes, racemes, panicles, or glomerules, sometimes in umbels or cymes or solitary; most often perfect, complete, and showy. Flowers perigynous, the floral cup often so short as to make the flowers appear hypogynous. Androperianth commonly 5-merous.

The Fabaceae is easily divisible into three distinct subfamilies, mainly on the basis of androperianth characters. Some botanists treat these divisions as three closely related but separate families in the order Fabales. The distinguishing characters of the subfamilies are as follows:

Subfamily Caesalpinioideae-- Genera 1 to 6. Leaves once or twice pinnately compound or occasionally simple. Flowers weakly to strongly zygomorphic, inflorescence various. Sepals 5, free to the top of the floral cup or the uppermost two occasionally united. Corolla of 5 petals, the somewhat larger upper petal (banner) inserted inside the two lateral petals, sometimes the petals fewer than 5 or absent. Androecium of 5 to 10 stamens, shorter than the petals to about twice as long. Stamens sometimes dissimilar or some of them reduced or modified, often staminodial. If considered a separate family, these plants make up the Caesalpiniaceae.

Subfamily Papilionideae-- Genera 7 to 41. Leaves simple or once pinnately or palmately compound, never twice compound. Inflorescence various. Flowers strongly zygomorphic. Calyx of 5 sepals united below into a tube prolonged beyond the floral cup. Corolla of 5 petals in a characteristic arrangement termed papilionaceous: the uppermost, largest petal (banner orstandard) positioned outside the lateral two petals (wings), which are usually clawed, the two lowermost petals more or less united along their margins into a boat-shaped structure called a keel; in some genera the wings or keel or both may be absent. Stamens 10 or fewer, most often some or all of them united by their filaments, the anthers remaining free. These plants, if treated as a separate family, make up the Fabaceae (strict sense.)

Subfamily Mimosoideae-- Genera 42 to 47. Leaves primarily twice pinnately compound. Flowers usually in dense spikes, heads, or racemes, actinomorphic (except for the gynoecium). Calyx of 5 sepals fused into a tube having 5 free lobes or teeth. Corolla of 5 petals, free or united. Stamens (4)5 to many, usually much longer and showier than the perianth, the filaments often brightly colored. If treated as a separate family, these plants make up the Mimosaceae.

The gynoecium of the Fabaceae (s.l.) provides the unifying character and the primary reason for retaining these plants in one family. It consists of one superior, often slender, simple pistil; placenta 1, marginal, with the ovules in 2 alternating rows along the suture of the carpel. The style is simple and the whole gynoecium is often weakly curved upwards. Fruit usually a legume, dry at maturity and dehiscing along two lines--the suture and the midrib of the carpel; occasionally the fruit indehiscent or else constricted between the seeds and breaking into 1-seeded joints, in which case it is termed a loment. A few genera have 1-seeded indehiscent fruits. Seeds 1 to many, each with 2 integuments, a well-developed embryo, and very little endosperm.

This large family has approximately 500 genera and more than 10,000 species. There are 74 genera and about 360 species in TX; 47 genera and 121 species in our area. Some of the distributions used in this treatment are from the work of Turner (1959).

This is an important family for food crops--beans, peas, soybeans, lentils, peanuts, etc.; livestock feed and forage--clover, alfalfa, etc.; lumber--acacia, locust, etc.; and many ornamentals--Sweetpeas, Bluebonnets, Wisteria, and many more. Most of these important species belong to the Papilionideae, which is much the largest subfamily (Mabberley 1987).



1. Leaves simple ...........................................................................................................................2

1. Leaves compound ....................................................................................................................4

2(1) Plants trees; flowers pink or white .............................................................................1. Cercis

2. Plants herbs; flowers yellow .....................................................................................................3

3(2) Plants erect; leaves obovate to lance-linear .......................................................7.Crotalaria

3. Plants prostrate, trailing, or twining; leaves basically reniform .....................26.Rhynchosia

4(1) Leaves once pinnate or once palmate ....................................................................................5

4. Leaves twice pinnate (or rarely once pinnate and once palmate) .......................................48

5(4) Leaves palmately compound; if trifoliolate, all petiolules of equal length or all leaflets sessile .......................................................................................................................................6

5. Leaves pinnately compound; if trifoliolate, the petiolule of the terminal leaflet not equaling the other petiolules OR leaflets only two ...............................................................................13

6(5) Foliage and/or calyx glandular-punctate .................................................................................7

6. Foliage and calyx not glandular-punctate ...............................................................................9

7(6) Flowers yellow; leaflets usually exactly four ............................................................37. Zornia

7. Flowers blue, purple, etc., never yellow; leaflets usually 3 to 5 .............................................8

8(7) Legume enclosed by the enlarged calyx with only the elongate beak protruding; pericarp thin and papery ..............................................................................................13. Pediomelum

8. Legume exserted beyond calyx remnants, beak short; pericarp thick and leathery ................

. .......................................................................................................................14. Psoralidium

9(6) Stamens monadelphous; anthers of two different shapes ...................................................10

9. Stamens diadelphous or free; anthers all alike ....................................................................11

10. Corolla yellow; fruit a loment ...................................................................................37. Zornia

10. Corolla blue or white; fruit not a loment .................................................................8. Lupinus

11(9) Stamens free; flowers mostly yellow or cream; plants from large, woody rootstocks ............

. ................................................................................................................................9. Baptisia

11. Stamens diadelphous; flowers rarely yellow or cream; plants from taproots or fibrous root systems ...................................................................................................................................12

12(11) Leaflet margins entire or mucronate ...............................................................40. Lespedeza

12. Leaflet margins serrate, serrulate, or notched ...................................................36. Trifolium

13(5) Foliage, fruit, or flowers dotted with glands or droplets of resin. (Use a strong lens and examine more than one leaf, fruit, or flower--pigment, insect damage, or disease may at first appear to be glands. Glands are usually most obvious on the undersurfaces of leaves.) ...................................................................................................................................14

13. Foliage, fruit, or flowers not gland- or resin-dotted (glandular hairs may be present) .......19

14(13) Corolla incomplete, consisting of only 1 petal; shrubs ......................................10. Amorpha

14. Corolla complete: papilionaceous or of 5 free petals; herbs ..............................................15

15(14) Stamens 5; corolla of 5 free petals, not papilionaceous .........................................11. Dalea

15. Stamens more than 5, usually 9 or 10; corolla papilionaceous ...........................................16

16(15) Flowers white, purplish, or reddish-brown, never yellow; banner petal clawed ...................17

16. Flowers predominantly yellow when fresh; banner not clawed ............................................18

17(16) Legume glandular, smooth, not cross-wrinkled; fruit enclosed by the calyx except for the beak; pericarp thin and papery .....................................................................13. Pediomelum

17. Legume eglandular, cross-wrinkled; fruit exserted beyond the calyx; pericarp thick and leathery ..............................................................................................................15. Orbexilum

18(16) Stamens diadelphous; leaves 3-foliolate; leaf undersurfaces dotted with droplets of yellow resin ................................................................................................................26. Rhynchosia

18. Stamens monadelphous; leaves 5- to 7-foliolate; leaves dotted with dark glands ..................

. ...................................................................................................................................11. Dalea

19(13) Plants twining, trailing, or climbing ........................................................................................20

19. Plants erect or sprawling, but not twining or climbing ...........................................................29

20(19) Terminal leaflet of each leaf replaced by tendrils or bristles ................................................21

20. Terminal leaflet of each leaf present ....................................................................................22



21(20) Leaflets more than 2 per leaf; wings adnate to the keel, at least at the base .........16. Vicia

21. Leaflets usually only 2 per leaf; wings free of the keel ......................................17. Lathyrus

22(20) Plants woody vines .................................................................................................................23

22. Plants herbs and herbaceous vines .......................................................................................24

23(22) Leaflets 3 ...............................................................................................................18. Pueraria

23. Leaflets 5 or more .................................................................................................19. Wisteria

24(22) Corolla 1.5 cm long or longer .................................................................................................25

24. Corolla less than 1.5 cm long ................................................................................................26

25(24) Corolla less than 4 cm long; banner petal spurred; plants usually twining ..............................

. .......................................................................................................................20. Centrosema

25. Corolla 4 cm long or more; banner not spurred; plants rarely twining .................21. Clitoria

26(24) Leaflets 5 to 7 per leaf ...............................................................................................22. Apios

26. Leaflets only 3 per leaf ...........................................................................................................27

27(26) Keels narrow and strongly recurved or sickle-shaped, pointing back into the flower; flowers borne singly or in clusters at the tips of long peduncles ..............23. Strophostyles

27. Keels broader, not recurved; flowers borne in racemes on axillary peduncles ...................28

28(27) Leaflets lanceolate-ovate with acuminate tips; flowers yellow or purple; stipules present .....

...................................................................................................................................24. Vigna

28. Leaflets ovate-elliptic with rounded or obtuse tips; flowers pink or rose when fresh; stipules small, early deciduous ..........................................................................................25. Galactia

29(19) Flowers bright red, papilionaceous but appearing tubular, 3 cm or more long .......................

. ............................................................................................................................12. Erythrina

29. Flowers not as above .............................................................................................................30

30(29) Corolla of one petal only (actually the banner) .................................................10. Amorpha

30. Corolla of more than one petal ..............................................................................................31

31(30) Flowers with all petals free; corolla not papilionaceous .......................................................32

31. Flowers papilionaceous: banner, wing, and keel present ...................................................34

32(31) Flowers greenish; trees .........................................................................................4. Gleditsia

32. Flowers yellow to orange; shrubs or herbs ............................................................................33

33(32) Leaflets more than 5 mm wide; legume indehiscent or tardily dehiscent, never elastically dehiscent or the valves twisting .................................................................................2. Senna

33. Leaflets less than 5 mm wide; legume elastically dehiscent, the valves twisting after dehiscence ....................................................................................................3. Chamaecrista

34(31) Leaflets 5 or more per leaf .....................................................................................................35

34. Leaflets fewer than 5 per leaf .................................................................................................42

35(34) Plants trees or shrubs; leaves odd-pinnately compound .....................................................36

35. Plants herbs; if somewhat shrubby, then leaves even-pinnate ............................................37

36(35) Stamens distinct; fruit fleshy or woody, constricted between the seeds ............27. Sophora

36. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous; fruit not fleshy or woody .....................28. Robinia

37(35) Ovary and fruit stipitate; leaves paripinnate ..........................................................................38

37. Ovary sessile; leaves imparipinnate .......................................................................................39

38(37) Fruit not inflated, usually with more than 2 seeds; flowers yellow ....................29. Sesbania

38. Fruit inflated, mostly 2-seeded, flowers tinged with red-orange ......................30. Glottidium

39(37) Stamens monadelphous: nine stamens united and the tenth attached to them in the middle but free at both ends; legumes flattened; leaves with strong pinnate venation visible beneath ...................................................................................................31. Tephrosia

39. Stamens diadelphous; leaves not strongly reticulate beneath .............................................40

40(39) Corolla reddish-brown, often drying beige or pink ...........................................32. Indigofera

40. Corolla cream, lavender, or purple, often drying purple or lavender ...................................41

41(40) Keel blunt, rounded or acute ...........................................................................33. Astragalus

41. Keel with a sharp, erect or up-turned point .......................................................34. Oxytropis

42(34) Corolla 3 cm long or longer ....................................................................................21. Clitoria

42. Corolla less than 3 cm long ...................................................................................................43

43(42) Leaflets serrate or serrulate; fruit a 1- to several-seeded legume, not much flattened ......44

43. Leaflets entire or bristle-tipped; fruit a much-flattened loment or one-seeded segment .....46

44(43) Flowers in racemes 4 to 8 times as long as wide ..............................................35. Melilotus

44. Flowers in umbels or racemes less than 3 times as long as wide .......................................45

45(44) Legumes curved or coiled, often with prickly edges .........................................36. Medicago

45. Legume oblong, neither curved nor prickly ........................................................37. Trifolium

46(43) Corolla orange-yellow; stamens monadelphous ........................................39. Stylosanthes

46. Corolla cream, white, purple, pink, etc., never orange-yellow; stamens diadelphous....... 47

47(46) Fruit an uncinate-pubescent loment with 1 to several articles, the lower margin indented more deeply than the upper; leaflets usually stipellate ................................40. Desmodium

47. Fruit an ovate-rounded, flat, 1-seeded article; pubescence of legumes various, but never uncinate; leaflets estipellate ............................................................................41. Lespedeza

48(4) Plants trees and shrubs, usually taller than 1.5 m ................................................................49

48. Plants herbs and subshrubs, usually less than 1.5 m tall ....................................................54

49(48) Primary leaflets only 1 or 2 pairs per leaf ..............................................................................50

49. Primary leaflets more than 2 pairs on at least some leaves ................................................51

50(49) Secondary leaflets more than 1 cm long ...........................................................42. Prosopis

50. Secondary leaflets much less than 1 cm long ................................................5. Parkinsonia

51(49) Stamens 7 to 9 cm long, showy .......................................................................6. Caesalpinia

51. Stamens less than 7 cm long, showy or inconspicuous .......................................................52

52(51) Flowers in open panicles or racemes ...................................................................4. Gleditsia

52. Flowers in dense heads or clusters .......................................................................................53

53(52) Plants trees; flowers pink; filaments fused at the base ...........................................43. Albizia

53. Plants shrubs or small trees; flowers cream, white, yellow, or orange; filaments free ............

..................................................................................................................................44. Acacia

54(48) Stamens more than 10 per flower; flowers cream or white ...................................44. Acacia

54. Stamens 10 or fewer per flower; flower color various ..........................................................55

55(54) Flowers yellow; ovary and fruit stipitate; roots orange .......................................45. Neptunia

55. Flowers pink or white; ovary and fruit sessile; roots not orange ............................................56

56(55) Flowers bright pink when fresh .............................................................................46. Mimosa

56. Flowers white to cream .................................................................................47. Desmanthus





ROSACEAE CERCIS1. CERCIS L. Redbud, Judas Tree

Six species in temperate N.A.; we have the one TX species.

1. C. canadensis L. Deciduous, unarmed tree 5 to 10(13) m tall. Leaves simple, cordate to reniform, entire, palmately veined, 5 to 10 cm long, 6 to 15 cm wide, long-petiolate; stipules not persistent. Flowers pedicellate, in sessile, umbel-like clusters on old wood, often directly on the trunk and branches, as or before leaves appear, rose pink to purple-pink, some white-flowered cultivars occasionally persist in old landscapes. Floral cup 1 to 2 mm long; sepals united below into a tube 2 to 3 mm. long; the free lobes of the calyx broadly triangular, 0.4 to 0.6 mm long, the entire calyx broadly campanulate, basally oblique, purplish, persistent; corolla to 9 mm long, appearing papilionaceous but the banner positioned inside the wings, petals clawed; stamens 10, free. Legume stipitate, oblong to broadly linear, 4 to 10 cm long and 8 to 18 mm broad, blunt or tapering to both ends, greatly flattened and with a thin wing or margin along the upper suture, thin-walled, distinctly veined, dark brown, tardily dehiscent and often persisting on the tree through winter; seeds several to many.

Our plants are probably all var. canadensis with the leaves usually cordate and acute, dull green on both surfaces. Sandy, forested areas in E. and N. Cen. TX. The species as a whole found in the E. 1/2 of the U.S., the Great Plains, TX, OK, and CA. Readily persists and naturalizes. Spring.

After the elms, generally our first tree to bloom each spring. According to tradition, this is the tree from which Judas hanged himself, staining the flowers with his blood, hence the common names.





ROSACEAE SENNA2. SENNA Mill. Senna



Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or--in the tropics--trees. Leaves once even-pinnate, leaves spirally arranged (cf. distichous in Chamaecrista), leaflets 2 to 20 pairs, variously shaped, sometimes asymmetric at the base; petioles with 1 or more glands. Stipules caducous or persistent. Flowers in axillary racemes or terminal panicles, peduncles ebracteolate. Sepals 5, obtuse to acute or acuminate, subequal to unequal. Corolla yellow or orange-ish, rarely white, petals 5, subequal or one larger than the others. Stamens 10, poricidally dehiscent, irregularly arranged, sometimes subequal, but commonly the uppermost 3 greatly reduced and staminodial and the 3 lowermost with enlarged anthers; anther cells glabrous. Gynoecium sometimes enantiostylous (with the style pointing to one side and all the anthers to the other), ovary pubescent or puberulent. Legume usually linear, erect to pendent, tardily and inelastically dehiscent, sometimes indehiscent. Seeds several to many.

This large genus has 15 TX species, 3 of which we have. These plants have long been treated with Chamaecrista as part of the larger genus Cassia, and are now separated on the basis of stamen morphology, absence of bracts on the peduncle, the indehiscence of the legume, and other characters. Some species are toxic to livestock (Correll & Johnston 1970; GPFA 1986).

1. Leaflets 2 or 3 pairs per leaf, obovate, apex rounded or apiculate; legume 12 to 20 cm long ..................................................................................................................1. S. obtusifolia

1. Leaflets 4 or more pairs per leaf, elliptic or oblong to ovate, acute, acuminate, or obtuse; legume 10 cm long or less .......................................................................................................2

2(1) Plant an odorless perennial; leaflets 6 to 10 pairs per leaf, broadly acute to obtuse; legume flat, with conspicuous cross-septa ..................................................2. S. marilandica

2. Plant a malodorous annual; leaflets 4 to 6 pairs per leaf, acute to acuminate; legume plump, without distinct cross-septa .............................................................3. S. occidentalis

1. S. obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby Sickle-pod. Malodorous annual herb 1 to 5 dm tall, usually widely spreading with numerous ascending branches. Leaflets (2)3 pairs, 2 to 7 cm long, 1 to 3 cm wide, the terminal pair the largest, obovate, broadly rounded apically, apiculate, basally more or less symmetrical, cuneate, glabrous or the undersurface or margins pubescent; petiolar gland 1, slender, ca. 2 mm long, appressed to the rachis between the two lowest leaflets; stipules linear-falcate, 1 to 1.5 cm long, tardily deciduous. Flowers 1 to 3 (several) on short axillary peduncles; pedicels to 2 cm long (to ca. 35 mm long in fruit). Sepals unequal, oblong or oval, obtuse, 5 to 10 mm long, 2 to 5 mm wide, membranous; petals yellow, 8 to 15(17) mm long, usually wilting by midday; stamens 10, the 3(4) uppermost reduced and staminodial, the 3 lowest with enlarged anthers; ovary glabrous to pubescent. Legume linear, usually strongly down-curved, more or less tetragonal, (10)16 to 20 cm long, 3 to 5.5 mm wide; seeds numerous, transverse, dark brown, lustrous, with a linear aureole 0.3 to 0.5 mm long. Disturbed ground, sandy soil. E. TX W. to Gonzalez and Dallas Co; E. U.S., PA, IN, and MO, S. through TN, VA, GA, FL, and AL; S. through the American tropics, also Old World tropics. July-Sept. or Oct. [Cassia obtusifolia L.].

2. S. marilandica (L.) Link Maryland Senna. Perennial herb from a woody rootstock; stems (5)7 to 20 dm tall, usually simple, glabrous or very slightly pubescent, sometimes glaucous. Leaflets usually 6 to 10 pairs, 3 to 6 cm long, 1 to 2 cm wide, subequal, oblong to elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, broadly acute to obtuse, mucronate, basally asymmetrical, glabrous, glaucous beneath; petiolar gland at or just above the pulvinus at the base of the leaf, ovoid-conic, sessile or short-stipitate; stipules linear-lanceolate, caducous. Flowers in short, dense, few- to many-flowered axillary racemes or terminal panicles; floral bracts caducous. Sepals subequal, ovate, obtuse, 4 to 6(8) mm long, light yellow, glabrous, margins minutely ciliate; petals yellow, obovate or elliptic, 9 to 11 mm long, subequal; stamens 10, the 3 upper reduced and sterile, the others fertile, the 3 lowest with larger anthers and filaments, anthers brownish. Ovary appressed-pubescent. Legume linear, usually down-curved, flattened, 7 to 11 cm long, 8 to 11 mm wide, margins undulate, impressed and conspicuously septate between the seeds, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, black at maturity; seeds transverse, ovate, 4 to 5 mm long, 2 to 3.5 mm wide, black and lustrous. Mostly in sandy open woods, fields, and creek margins. E. TX W. to Johnson and Washington Cos.; E. U.S., PA and IA W. to NE, S. to KY, TN, VA, and FL, W. again to TX. Aug.-Sept. [Cassia marilandica L., C. medsgeri Shafer, Ditremexa medsgeri (Shafer) Britt. & Rose; D.marilandica (L.) Britt. & Rose].

3. S. occidentalis (L.) Link Coffee Senna, Bricho. Erect, taprooted, malodorous annual herb; stems 1 to 2 dm tall, sulcate, usually with a few to several ascending branches. Leaflets 4 to 6 pairs per leaf, lanceolate to ovate, acuminate, basally asymmetrical, 2 to 9 cm long, 1 to 2.5 cm wide, the terminal pair the largest, somewhat glaucous below; petiolar gland borne on the pulvinus or 3 to 5 mm from base of petiole, sessile, globose or conical; stipules linear-lanceolate, acuminate, caducous. Flowers axillary, solitary or in few-flowered, bracteate racemes. Sepals oblong, obtuse, 6 to 9 mm long, subequal; petals yellow to yellow-orange, wilting by midday, broadly ovate or elliptic, 10 to 20 mm long; stamens 10, the upper 3(4) sterile, reduced, fertile stamens often of 2 different sizes, the lower ones with elongate filaments; ovary pubescent on the faces. Legume linear, slightly to strongly curved, usually erect, 8 to 12(14) cm long, (5)7 to 10 mm wide, beaked, flat at first and becoming plump at maturity, elevated over the seeds but not septate, dark brown medially, the margins paler; seeds many, transverse, ovoid, flattened, 4 to 5 mm long, dull brown. Disturbed places, roadsides, etc. Gulf Coast inland to Cherokee, Robertson, Travis, and Comal Cos.; SE. U.S., TN and VA S. to GA, FL, AL, MS, and TX; also tropics of the Old and New World, often weedy. [Cassia occidentalis L.;Ditremexa occidentalis (L.) Britt. & Wils.].

The seeds have been used as a passable substitute for coffee and in folk medicines and have antibiotic properties (Mabberley 1987).



ROSACEAE CHAMAECRISTA3. CHAMAECRISTA L.



Annual or perennial herbs, stems erect (most of ours) to prostrate. Leaves distichous, once even-pinnate, leaflets 2 to 20 or more pairs per leaf, sometimes asymmetrical. Petiole bearing one or more glands or glandless. Stipules caducous or persistent. Flowers generally 1 to several in axillary clusters or racemes; pedicels each with 2 small bractlets. Sepals generally 5, obtuse or acute to acuminate,subequal to unequal. Corolla yellow to orange-ish, rarely white, petals usually 5, subequal or one larger than the others. Stamens 5 or 10, if 10 subequal and sometimes in 2 cycles, but not of two different forms (cf. Senna), anthers poricidally dehiscent, anther cells ciliolate. Gynoecium sometimes enantiostylous (style exserted to one side and the stamens to the other), ovary glabrous to pubescent or puberulent. Legume generally linear, elastically dehiscent, the valves twisting upon separation; seeds several to many.

Five species in TX and 2 here. These plants were long treated with Senna as part of the larger genus Cassia, but are now separated on the basis of stamen morphology, presence of floral bracts, legume dehiscence, and other characters. Some species contain toxins (Mabberley 1987).

1. Stamens 5; petals less than 8 mm long; pedicels 1 to 4 mm long ..........................1. C. nictitans

subsp. nictitans var. nictitans

1. Stamens 10; petals 10 mm long or longer; pedicels 5 to 10 mm long ...............2. C. fasciculata

1. C. nictitans (L.) Moench subsp. nictitansa var. nictitans Sensitive Pea, Sensitive Plant, Sensitive Partridge Pea. Taprooted annual herb; stems 1 to 5 dm tall, usually branched an spreading, slender, puberulent with incurved trichomes. Leaves somewhat touch-sensitive; leaflets mostly (7)8 to 20(22) pairs per leaf, oblong or linear-oblong, mucronate, obtuse to rounded, (6)7 to 15(16) mm long, 2 to 3.5 mm wide, glabrous, the margins ciliate, midvein dividing leaflet blade asymmetrically; petiolar gland stipitate or subsessile, umbrella-shaped, discoid, or cupulate, 0.4 to 0.8 mm long, located between the lowest pair of leaflets; stipules linear-lanceolate, acuminate, striate, ciliate, 4 to 8 mm long, persistent. Flowers rather inconspicuous, 1 to 3 in supra-axillary clusters or racemes; pedicels 1 to 4 mm long, puberulent. Sepals lanceolate, acuminate, pubescent, 3 to 4 mm long; petals yellow, wilting by midday, unequal, ranging from 3 to 8 mm long in a single flower, the lowermost about twice as long as the other four; stamens 5, unequal, anthers pinkish to rose when fresh; ovary pubescent. Legume linear to oblong, flattened, erect, (2)2.5 to 5 cm long, 3.5 to 5(6) mm wide, sparsely to densely appressed-pubescent to villous or glabrate, elastically dehiscent, the valves twisting after dehiscence; seeds 5 to 10, oblique or quadrate (squarish), 3 to 3.5 mm long, black, lustrous, with faint rows of pits. Sandy open woods and disturbed areas. NE. TX W. to Grayson and Tarrant Cos., S. to Bastrop and Jefferson Cos.; most of E. 1/2 U.S., NY, MA, OH, and IL, SE. to KS, S. to FL and TX. Sept.-Oct.(Nov.) [Cassianictitans L. var. nictitans, etc.].

2. C. fasciculata (Michx.) Greene Partridge Pea. Annual; stems variously decumbent and mat-forming to erect, erect forms 1 to 6 dm tall, glabrous to hirsute or villous. Leaflets somewhat touch-sensitive, 5 to 20 pairs per leaf, linear-oblong, mucronate, glabrous to pubescent; petiolar gland solitary, sessile to short-stipitate, truncate, to about 1.5 mm in diameter, located below the lowest pair of leaflets; stipules linear, attenuate, striate, ciliolate, 5 to 10 mm long, persistent. Flowers in short 1- to 7-flowered axillary or supra-axillary racemes or fascicles, usually one flower open at a time; pedicels usually 1 to 2 cm long. Sepals lanceolate, acuminate, 10 to 15 mm long, glabrous to hirsute; petals obovate, yellow (rarely white), often the upper 4 each with a red spot at the base, wilting by midday, the lowermost the longest and incurved, ca 1 to 2 cm long; stamens 10, subequal, in some varieties the anthers purple; ovary often pubescent, ca. 6 to 8 mm long. Legume linear, often curved, obtuse, mucronate, glabrous to hirsute. Seeds 10 to 20, flattened, oval to somewhat triangular, ca. 3 to 5 mm long. Summer to fall. [Includes var. fasciculata, var. ferrisiae (Britt.) Turner, var. macrosperma (Fern.) C. F. Reed, var. puberula (Greene) Macbride, and var. robusta (Poll.) Macbride; Cassia chamaecrista L; Cassia fasciculata Michx., etc.].

Reportedly toxic to stock when green--as hay or with the seeds. Sometimes planted as a nitrogen-building cover crop and occasionally grown for ornament (Correll and Johnston 1970).

Turner (1959) recognized 5 varieties in TX, and Isley (1975), 4 varieties. Because the variants intergrade to such an extent, many treatments no longer recognize them. Kartesz (1998) recognizes two, in which case ours plants are var. fasciculata.

ROSACEAE GLEDITSIA4. GLEDITSIA L. Honey Locust



Trees or shrubs; trunks and branches often armed with straight or branched thorns developed from adventitious or supra-axillary buds. Leaves once or twice pinnately compound, both kinds often found on the same tree. Leaflets estipellate, crenulate, usually ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 9 to 18 pairs on the once-compound leaves, secondary leaflets 9 to 18 pairs on each of the 2 to 8 pairs of primary leaflets on the twice-compound leaves. Stipules minute and caducous. Flowers sometimes solitary, usually in axillary spikelike racemes (3)4 to 8 cm long. Plants polygamous--with both perfect and imperfect flowers; flowers only slightly zygomorphic. Floral cup campanulate. Sepals 3 to 5, subequal. Petals 3 to 5, as many as the sepals, nearly equal, 4 to 5 mm long, very narrow, yellow or green-yellow, "banner" or uppermost petal positioned inside the others in bud. Stamens 3 to 10, exserted, the filaments free, anthers in female flowers abortive. Pistil obsolete or absent in staminate flowers, partially exserted in pistillate flowers. Legume flattened, 15 mm broad or broader, at least somewhat tough-walled, dehiscent or indehiscent, 1-to many-seeded.

Eleven species of N. and S. Amer., Asia, and Africa; 2 species in TX, both found here. The name is sometimes incorrectly spelled Gleditschia.

1. Legume linear-oblong, sometimes twisted or curled, many-seeded, indehiscent; ovary pubescent along both margins; midvein of leaflets pubescent at maturity ..............................

......................................................................................................................1. G. triacanthos

1. Legume ovate, oblique, 1- to 3-seeded, tardily dehiscent; ovary glabrous; midvein of leaflets glabrous at maturity ..............................................................................2. G. aquatica

1. G. triacanthos L. Honey Locust. Large shrub or more commonly tree to 25(45) m tall; trunk and branches armed with simple or branched thorns, thorns 3 to 15(40) cm long, terete but flattened at the base, shiny brown. Leaves either once pinnate, usually in fascicles of 3 to 6 on the older wood, with 18 to 28 leaflets 1.5 to 4 cm long, lanceolate or oblong, and/or leaves twice pinnate, on new growth, with 4 to 16 primary leaflets each with 10 to 20 secondary leaflets, these elliptic to oblong, 1.5 to 2.5 cm long, leaflets puberulent on the midvein below; stipules obsolete. Flowers all greenish; floral cup campanulate, 1 to 2.5 mm long; calyx lobes 2 to 3 mm long; petals 4 to 5 mm long. Staminate inflorescences predominating, often of fascicles of 1 to 7 racemes from spur shoots, (2)5 to 10 cm long, rarely inflorescence branched, flowers numerous, sessile to short-pedicellate, yellow-pubescent; sepals 3(5); stamens 4(5 to 7). Fertile inflorescences axillary or from spurs, usually solitary, including pistillate and perfect flowers, flowers pedicellate; sepals 3(5); petals 3(5); somewhat longer than the sepals, ovary densely pubescent along both margins, more or less sessile. Legumes 1 to 3 per peduncle, broadly linear to oblong, flattened but plump, straight or curved, 7 to 40 cm long, 2 to 3.5 cm broad, indehiscent, many seeded; seeds embedded in a sweet pulp, 9 to 11 mm long, 5 to 7 mm wide, smooth. Ours usually where moisture is available. Scattered in the E. 1/2 of TX, SW. to Bexar and Karnes Cos., rarely to Tom Greene Co.; E. U.S. W. to the Great Plains, introduced elsewhere. Spring.

The wood is strong and used for tool handles, furniture, lumber, fuel, and some carving (Elias 1980). The flowers contribute to a good honey. The pulp around the seeds is a favorite wildlife food and is edible by humans, made into a drink or nibbled as is. The young legumes are reportedly edible raw or cooked like green beans (Tull 1987). A thornless variety, formainermis, is popular with gardeners. Some cultivars have yellowish leaves.

2. G. aquatica Marsh. Water Locust. Large shrub or more commonly tree to 20 m; branches with thorns 7 to 14 cm long, thorns unbranched or with 1 or 2 short branches. Leaves once pinnate with 12 to 18 leaflets or twice pinnate with 12 to 15 primary leaflets, ultimate divisions of both kinds of leaves 2 to 3(5) cm long, 8 to 12 mm wide, glabrous at maturity. Staminate flowers usually in fascicled racemes ca. 5 to 10 cm long; pistillate and perfect flowers in fewer-flowered solitary racemes. Flowers greenish; calyx tube campanulate, lobes 2 to 3 mm long; petals 4 to 5 mm long; ovary with glabrous (sometimes sparsely ciliate) sutures, stipitate. Legume ovate-elliptic, to 5 cm long but usually less, 2 to 3 cm broad, 1- to 3-seeded; seeds circular and flat, not embedded in pulp. Mostly along streams and in other wet areas. E. and SE. TX; Cen. U.S., MO, TN, and KY, S. to AL, MS, GA, and FL. May-June.



ROSACEAE PARKINSONIA5. PARKINSONIA L.



Thirty-four species in the warmer parts of N. and S. America; we have the 1 TX species.

1. P. aculeata L. Retama, Paloverde. Small, often multi-trunked trees to 10 m tall; branches green, armed with slightly recurved, needle-like spines (modified rachises) to 2.5 cm long. Foliage feathery and open in texture; leaves twice pinnately compound, almost sessile, pinnae (primary leaflets) 1 or 2 pairs, borne at almost the same point on the short, spinose rachis so that the pinnae look like individual leaves clustered at the nodes, pinnae elongate, 1 to 3(5) dm long, each rachilla flat and ribbonlike, 1 to 2 mm broad; secondary leaflets very numerous, 2 to 6 mm long, elliptic to linear or oblong-oblanceolate, readily deciduous (especially after collection); petiolules to ca. 0.5 mm long, each with a minute black gland at the base. Flowers in short racemes or sometimes solitary in the axils, ca. 1 to 2.5 cm across, bilaterally symmetrical, not papilionaceous. Sepals 5, separate above the floral cup; petals 5, to ca. 1.5 cm long, bright yellow, more or less obovate, subequal, the uppermost within the others in bud; stamens 10. Legumes (3)5 to 10 cm long, only slightly flattened, to ca. 1 cm broad over the one to several seeds and constricted between them, generally with a tapered "empty space" before the first seed and after the last, brown, thin-valved, dehiscent; seeds about as thick as broad, oriented longitudinally in the legume. Frequent, especially in poorly-drained areas. Rio Grande Plains, N. at least to Williamson and Robertson Cos.; often cultivated, widespread in the U.S.; perhaps adventive and truly native to S. America. Spring-fall.

The seeds, minus the coats, can be made into an edible flour, though the work is tedious. The wood makes a good fuel and is often used for paper pulpwood. The flowers make a good honey and yellow dyes for wool can be obtained from the plant (Tull 1987).



ROSACEAE CAESALPINIA6. CAESALPINIA L.



Trees, shrubs, subshrubs, or herbaceous perennials. Leaves twice pinnately compound; primary leaflets (pinnae) 3 to 30, secondary leaflets 2 to 10 pairs per pinna, orbicular or oblong to obovate or ovate. Stipules entire or laciniate. Inflorescence terminal though sometimes exceeded by the lateral branches and so seeming lateral; floral bracts ovate, caducous; pedicels 2 to 30 mm long. Calyx with a short tube and 5 oblong-ovate, entire to fimbriate teeth. Ppetals 5, yellow, often clawed, the uppermost 1 or 2 not like the others. Stamens 10, the filaments glandular or pubescent at the base, anthers all alike. Ovary sessile or stipitate. Legume falcate, lunate, or ovate, flattened, dehiscent, few- to several-seeded.

About 150 heterogenous species worldwide, especially in the warmer parts of the Americas; 9 in TX; 1 locally. [Erythrostemon Kl., Poincianella Britt. & Rose, Pomaria Cav., and SchrammiaBritt. & Rose. Hoffmanseggia is included in the genus by some authors. Some taxa have synonyms in Poinciana].

1. C. gilliesii (Hook.) Wallich ex D. Dietr. Bird-of-paradise. Shrub or tree to 5 m. Leaves 10 to 30 cm long, primary leaflets 7 to 15 pairs per leaf, ca. 2.5 cm long; secondary leaflets 7 to 10 pairs per primary leaflet, oblong, obtuse, ca. 2 to 6 mm long, with dark glands along the margins; stipules ovate, fringed with coarse hairs, 4 to 8 mm long. Inflorescence 1 to 3 dm long, racemose; upper portion of stem, peduncle, axis, and pedicels densely covered with stalked, sticky yellow glands which usually dry brown to black; pedicels 2 to 3 cm long. Calyx 2.5 to 3 cm long, the lower/outer surface of the sepals also with stalked glands; petals 2.5 to 3 cm long, pale to bright yellow, obovate; stamens bright red to rose, short-pubescent at the base, 7 to 9 cm long, anthers also reddish; ovary densely covered with yellow glands and also pubescent; style about as long as the stamens, stigma oblique. Legume obliquely oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, glandular-pubescent, 6 to 9 cm long and ca. 1.5 cm broad, the sutures slightly thickened, light tan, the valves twisting after dehiscence; seeds 6 to 8, rectangular or oblong, flattened, ca. 9 to 10 mm long and 5 to 7 mm broad, brown mottled with black, placed transversely in the fruit, well-spaced. Widely cultivated for its beautiful flowers; sometimes escaping or persisting in Cen. and W. TX, usually in dry habitats; native to S. America. May-Sept. [Poinciana gilliesii Hook; Erythrostemon gilliesii (Hook.) Link, Kl., & Otto].

The seeds and legumes are poisonous if eaten (Tull 1987).



ROSACEAE CROTALARIA7. CROTALARIA L. Rattlebox, Rattlepod



Annual or perennial herbs (some species shrubby, but not ours) from taproots. Stems erect to ascending, sparingly- to bushy-branched. Leaves in ours simple (in other species simple or palmately 3- to 7-foliolate). Stipules varying from conspicuous to more often small; leaflets estipellate. Flowers papilionaceous, in terminal or axillary racemes, rarely solitary, each pedicel with one bract at the base--small to large, caducous or persistent--and a pair of bractlets, minute to large, subtending the calyx. Sepals fused at the base, the calyx tube obliquely campanulate and the lobes free and nearly equal. Corolla usually longer than the calyx, yellow or yellowish-red, sometimes with purplish streaks, rarely blue or purple (never in TX material), banner orbicular to ovate, longer than the wings and keel, positioned outside the wings; wings oblong; keel sickle- or scythe-shaped, sometimes beaked. Stamens 10, united into one group and of two lengths: the longer filaments bearing small, subglobose anthers and the shorter filaments bearing longer, linear anthers. Ovary usually sessile, sometimes short-stipitate. Legume oblong to cylindrical, rarely nearly globose, much inflated, 1 to several cm long, few-to many-seeded.

About 300 species in the warmer regions of the world, primarily Africa. There are 6 species in TX and 3 locally--one much more common than the others.

1. Larger leaves 2 cm wide or wider; banner 1.5 cm long or longer, greatly exceeding the calyx ...............................................................................................................1. C. spectabilis

1. Larger leaves less than 2 cm wide; banner less than 1.5 cm long, equal to or shorter than the calyx ....................................................................................................................................2

2(1) Pubescence of calyx and stems spreading and villous, the hairs 1.2 mm long ......................

...........................................................................................................................2. C. sagittalis

2. Pubescence of calyx and stems appressed and strigose, the hairs 0.3 to 1 mm long ..........

...............................................................................................................................3. C. purshii

1. C. spectabilis Roth Showy Crotalaria. Erect annual herb from woody taproot; stems 5 to 10(20) dm tall, glabrous to puberulent, dark purplish, glaucous. Leaves all simple, obovate, basally cuneate, those of the lower and midstem 5 to 15(20) cm long, upper leaves somewhat smaller; stipules broadly ovate to lanceolate, conspicuous, 5 to 8 mm long and 4 to 6 mm wide, tardily deciduous to persistent. Racemes terminal or axillary, clustered at the top of the stem, 15 to 50 cm long; pedicels (5)10 to 20 mm long, the ovate-lanceolate basal bracts persisting, 7 to 12 mm long, the 2 bractlets borne in the middle of the pedicel, ca. 1 mm long. Calyx glaucous, essentially glabrous, the tube 5 to 6 mm long, the lobes 6 to 12 mm long; corolla yellow, banner 15 to 25 mm long, its back glabrous or pubescent only along the midvein; keel manifestly shorter than the banner, pubescent along the suture. Legume stipitate, borne spreading or drooping, elongate, oblong and widened at the apex, 3 to 5 cm long, many-seeded. Perhaps not a permanent member of our flora, but escaping cultivation in various locations in the E. 1/2 of TX; also VA, GA, and FL, W. to MS. Native to the Old World tropics, scattered in the New World tropics. Blooming spring-fall.

2. C. sagittalis L. Annual or short-lived perennial; stems erect to ascending, 1 to 5 dm tall, villous-hirsute with spreading hairs to 2 mm long. Leaves all simple, lanceolate or linear to elliptic, 3 to 8 cm long and 8 to 15 mm wide, pubescent, sessile or short-petiolate; stipules usually present, triangular, decurrent on the stem for about 1/2 the length of the internode, forming an inversely-sagittate, winglike structure. Peduncles axillary and terminal, 1 to 6 cm long, (1)2- to 4-flowered; bracts ovate to lanceolate, with long, slender stalks; bractlets below calyx linear, 4 to 6 mm long. Floral cup ca. 2 mm long; calyx with spreading hairs, the tube obliquely campanulate, the lobes lance-linear, unequal. Corolla yellow, about as long as or shorter than the calyx; banner to 8 mm long, longer than the wings and keel. Legume oblong to cylindric, 20 to 35(40) mm long, about 1 cm thick. Sandy soils in E. 1/2 of TX, W. to Wilson, Bastrop, and Parker Cos.; E. and Cen. U.S., Mex. S. to S.A., also W.I. Apr.-Sept. [includes v. oblonga Michx.; C. fruiticosa Mill.].

3. C. purshii DC. Perennial herb from woody taproot; stems 2 to 4(5) dm tall, with dense, appressed pubescence, the hairs 0.3 to 1 mm long. Leaves all simple, tapered to the base, the lower ones oblong to spatulate, 2 to 3 cm long and 6 to 15 mm wide, upper leaves lanceolate to linear, 3 to 6(8) cm long and 4 to 10 mm wide; stipules of upper and midstem leaves decurrent on the stem 1/2 or more the length of the internode, forming an inversely-sagittate, winglike structure. Peduncles 3 to 12 cm long, usually (2)4- to 6-flowered; bractlets below calyx linear, appressed, 4 to 6 mm long. Floral cup about 2 mm. long; calyx above cup ca. 7 to 9 mm long, appressed pubescent; corolla yellow, as long as or longer than the calyx. Legume oblong, 25 to 40 mm long and ca. 1 cm thick, glabrous. As yet no specimens have been seen from this area, but perhaps present. Reported from several locations in the E. 1/2 of TX, probably on the basis of misidentified specimens of C. sagittalis; definitely found in the SE. U.S, Mex., and Guat. Spring-early fall. [Includes var. bracteolifera Fern. Possibly properly treated as a variety of C. sagittalis.].



ROSACEAE LUPINUS8. LUPINUS L. Bluebonnet, Lupine



Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs (all TX material herbaceous), from taproots or branched rootstocks. Stems erect to ascending, simple or branched. Leaves palmately compound, leaflets (3)5 to 15(18) per leaf, in some species with only 1 leaflet; petioles well-developed. Stipules adnate to the petioles or free. Flowers generally in terminal racemes, papilionaceous, pedicellate, subtended by (usually) caducous bracts. Calyx bilabiate, upper lip with 2 teeth, bulged to saccate or spurred, lower lip entire to 3-toothed. Corolla (in TX material) blue to purple, lavender, or white, sometimes marked with maroon, never yellow; banner often with a median groove and margins reflexed; wings often connivent at the apices and enclosing the keel; keel strongly upturned. Stamens 10, monadelphous, of two types: the longer filaments with subglobose, versatile anthers and the shorter filaments with linear, basifixed anthers. Ovary sessile. Legume oblong to broadly linear, flattened, usually somewhat constricted between the (1)2 to 12 seeds. Seeds "pebble-like"--small, round, and hard-coated.

About 200 species in the temperate regions of the world, excluding Afr. and Aus.; 6 species in TX; 2 locally.

Lupines come in all colors and sizes. Many are grown for ornament. Some species of the W. U.S. are reported to be toxic to livestock (cattle avoid ours), while others make good forage or cover crops. There are reports that the seeds of some may be more nutritious than soybeans. L.subcarnosus was originally declared to be the State Flower of Texas, but all Bluebonnets now enjoy that honor (Turner 1959; Tull 1987).

1. Wings in front view inflated; pubescence of buds and mature fruit yellowish-gray or brown; unexpanded tip of inflorescence rounded, inconspicuous from a distance; most leaflets with obtuse to rounded apices ...................................................................1. L. subcarnosus

1. Wings in front view not inflated; pubescence of buds and mature fruit silvery-white; unexpanded tip of inflorescence whitish, pointed, conspicuous from a distance; most leaflets with acute to obtuse apices ...................................................................2. L. texensis

1. L. subcarnosus Hook. Sandylands Bluebonnet, Texas Bluebonnet. Winter annual, rosettes appearing in the winter and plants flowering in the spring; stems 15 to 40 cm tall, branched from the base, the branches decumbent; herbage silky-pubescent, the hairs subappressed or spreading. Petioles 2 or more times as long as the leaves; leaves silky-pubescent below and on the margins, glabrate above, leaflets 5(6 to 7), oblanceolate, those of the lower leaves sometimes obovate, apices rounded to obtuse or truncate. Peduncles 3 to 8 cm long; racemes 6 to 12 cm long, several- to many-flowered, the unexpanded tip of the inflorescence rounded and not conspicuous, pubescence of buds and legume yellow-gray or brownish; free tips of deciduous floral bracts 5 to 6 mm long, lanceolate; pedicels 3 to 6 mm. long. Calyx 5 to 6 mm. long, upper lip 4 to 5 mm long, bifid, the lower lip entire to 3-toothed, 5 to 6 mm. long; corolla bright blue, banner with a white spot in the center which often turns purple or red with age, approximately orbicular, 11 to 13 mm long and 9 to 13 mm broad; wings in front view inflated and cheek-like, 10 to 11 mm long and 6 to 7 mm broad; keel sharply upcurved. Legume quite pubescent, 25 to 35 mm long and 6 to 8 mm broad, plump and constricted between the seeds at maturity; seeds 4 to 5, ca. 5 mm broad, gray or golden tan, plain or weakly spotted. Abundant in areas of deep sandy loam or sandy clay. S. Cen. TX: Leon Co. SW. to LaSalle Co., scattered N. to Hidalgo Co.; sometimes planted but rarely persisting; endemic. Spring, primarily Mar.-Apr.

2. L. texensis Hook. Texas Bluebonnet. Winter annual; stems ca. 15 to 40 cm tall, branched from the base, branches decumbent; herbage silky-pubescent, the hairs subappressed or spreading. Petioles 2 or more times longer than the leaves; blades silky-pubescent below and on the margins, glabrous above, leaflets 5(6 to 7), oblanceolate, the apices acute to obtuse. Peduncles 3 to 8 cm. long; racemes 6 to 12 cm long, slightly thicker and more crowded than those of L. subcarnosus, unexpanded tip of the inflorescence acute, appearing silvery-white due to pubescence, quite conspicuous from a distance, pubescence of buds and legumes also silvery-white. Calyx 6 to 8 mm long, usually longer than that of L. subcarnosus, upper lip bifid, lower lip entire to 3-toothed; corolla generally dark blue, with lighter-flowered and albino-flowered plants occurring in most populations, banner orbicular, ca. 11 to 13 mm long and 9 to 13 mm broad, with a white patch turning red or purplish with age; wings not inflated or chubby, almost straight in front view; keel sharply upcurved. Legume quite pubescent, ca. 25 to 35 mm long and 6 to 8 mm broad, plump and constricted between the seeds; seeds usually 4 or 5, about 5 mm. broad. Widespread, most often in calcareous soils in a N-S band through TX, extending W. to Taylor, Tom Greene, and Val Verde Cos. and E. to Fannin, Kaufman, Leon, and Washington Cos.; endemic. Spring, mostly Mar.-Apr.

This is the species famous for its magnificent roadside displays. It is widely planted by the highway department and the natural populations are not relished by cattle, so it is slowly increasing both in sheer numbers and in range.



ROSACEAE BAPTISIA9. BAPTISIA Vent. Wild Indigo



Perennial herbs from large, deep rootstocks, often rhizomatous. Stems erect, stout, usually simple below and well-branched above. Leaves sessile or petiolate, usually palmately 3-foliolate but occasionally some of the lower leaves simple or bilobed and sometimes the lateral leaves with leaflets decurrent on the petioles, forming leaves with a trilobed appearance, leaflets usually narrowly obovate to oblanceolate, cuneate at the base. Stipules of the lower, leafless nodes connate by their bases of for up to 3/4 of their length, the blades entire to bidentate, stipules progressively less connate above, but remaining perhaps clasping. Flowers papilionaceous, few to many in terminal or axillary racemes or solitary in the axils, subtended by persistent or fugacious bracts. Calyx campanulate, bilabiate--the upper lip entire to 2-lobed, the lower lip 3-lobed. Corolla generally white, yellow, or purple-blue (none of our local species are blue-flowered); banner equal to or shorter than the wings, its sides reflexed; wings and keel straight; keel petals scarcely united. Stamens 10, all distinct. Legume stipitate, rounded to subcylindric, beaked, 2- to many-seeded, tardily dehiscent or indehiscent. Old foliage often turning silvery over the winter and fruit remaining on the plant. Wild Indigo frequently turns black upon pressing and drying.

About 25 species in the E. U.S.; 5 in TX and 4 here. There is much confusion in this genus due to hybridization--many plants exhibit characters of several species. Most of our material, though, is fairy distinctive.

Some species are reported to be toxic to livestock (Correll & Johnston 1970). The American Medical Association (Lampe 1985) says that the whole plant is toxic and that human poisoning is possible if enough is eaten, but there are no records of actual poisonings. B. australisis supposed to be a source of blue dye. True indigo comes from species of Indigofera (Mabberley 1987).

1. Pedicels at maturity 15 to 35 mm long; floral bracts persisting .....................1. B. bracteata

1. Pedicels at maturity 10 mm or less; floral bracts early deciduous .........................................2

2(1) Flowers white; petioles of well-developed lower leaves slender, (3)5 to 12 mm long ............

....................................................................................................................................2. B. alba

var. macrophylla

2. Flowers yellow; petioles of well-developed lower leaves shorter and broader, 0.5 to 5(10) mm long ....................................................................................................................................3

3(2) Stems glabrous or occasionally pubescent; flowers all in terminal or lateral racemes ..........

..................................................................................................................3. B. sphaerocarpa

3. Stems densely short-pubescent; flowers all solitary in the axils or both axillary and in terminal racemes ...........................................................................................4. B. nuttalliana

1. B. bracteata Muhl. ex Ell. Plains Wild Indigo, Long-bracted Wild Indigo. Plants 2 to 8 dm tall, divaricately branched, glabrous to villous or lightly pilose. Leaves subsessile or with petioles 2 to 4 mm long; leaflets 3 to 10 cm long, narrowly spatulate or ovate-rhombic to obovate-lanceolate, rounded, obtuse, or acute apically, often the lateral leaflets decurrent on the petioles; stipules persistent, well-developed, ovate to lanceolate, often acuminate, 1 to 4 cm long. Inflorescences terminal, ca. 15 to 30 cm long, decumbent, flowers primarily secund (arranged on one side of the axis); pedicels (10)15 to 35(40) mm long; bracts persistent, lanceolate to oblong, 1 to 3 cm long. Calyx tube (4)6 to 10 mm long, strigose, lobes 3 to 5 mm long; corolla white or yellow, banner 15 to 22 mm long; wings and keel 20 to 28 mm long. Legume glabrous to slightly pubescent, ellipsoid or ovoid, 3 to 5 cm long, 15 to 25 mm thick, with a slender beak, seeds about 4 to 4.5 mm long, olive green to brown, warty. Sandy soils in the E. 1/2 of TX; SE. U.S. and Great Plains: MI to MN, S. to TX, AR, GA and AL, N. to NC, KY, and N. Eng. Spring, primarily Mar.-Apr. [B. leucophaea Nutt.].

There are several varieties (Isley 1978, 1981); we have two and they intergrade to some extent.

var. leucophaea (Nutt.) Kartesz & Gandhi Leaflets mostly narrowly spatulate, 10 to 35 mm broad, apices rounded or gradually narrowed to an acute apex. NE. and N. part of N. Cen. TX: AR and OK, NE. to WI and N. Eng. [Incl. var.glabrescens (Larisey) Isley; B. leucophaea Nutt. var. leucophaea].

var. laevicaulis (Gray ex Canby) Isley White-stem Wild Indigo. Leaflets mostly ovate-rhombic to ovate-cuneate, 20 to 25 mm broad, apices broadly acute or abruptly obtuse. S. part of E. and SE. TX, S. along the Gulf Coast to Cameron and Willacy Cos.; also LA. The more common variety in our area. [B. leucophaea Nutt. var. laevicaulis Canby; B. laevicaulis (Canby) Small].

2. B. alba (L.) Vent. var. macrophylla (Larisey) Isley Atlantic White Indigo, White False Indigo, Prairie False Indigo. Stems 15 to 20 dm tall. Petioles (3)5 to 12 mm long, or the smaller upper leaves sessile; leaflets obovate to elliptic, 25 to 65 mm long and 15 to 30 mm broad; stipules lanceolate, 5 mm long or less, usually caducous. Inflorescence 2 to 6 dm long; pedicels 3 to 10 mm long; floral bracts usually caducous. Calyx tube 7 to 9 mm long, lobes ca. 2.3 to 4.5 mm long; corolla white, banner white with purple splotches, 13 to 15 mm long. Legume ca. 25 to 40 mm long, 9 to 12(15) mm in diameter, short-beaked, pericarp thick and leathery. Rare in pine and oak woods E. and SE. TX; Cen. U.S.; MS to TX, N. to MN, WI, and OH. Species as a whole E. to NC and FL. Apr.-June. [B. leucantha T. & G.; B. lactea (Raf.) Thieret; B. pendulaLarisey var. macrophylla Larisey.]

There is a second white-flowered Baptisia of the SE. U.S. which has also been known as B. alba. In the nomenclatural changes of recent years, this species has become B. albescens Small (Isley 1986).

3. B. sphaerocarpa Nutt. Green Wild Indigo. Plant to 1 m high, stem simple below and branched above, glabrate. Petioles 0.5 to 10 mm long; leaflets 3 on lower leaves, often 2 or 1 on the upper leaves, oblanceolate to obovate or broadly elliptic, 25 to 80 mm long, apically rounded or rounded-obtuse; stipules to 5 mm long, caducous. Racemes either lateral and 15 to 25 cm long or terminal and 20 to 30 cm. long, many-flowered; pedicels 2 to 10 mm long; bracts caducous. Calyx tube 4 to 10 mm long, lobes ca. 3 to 4 mm long; corolla yellow, banner 10 to 18 mm long. Legume 12 to 18 mm long, globose to very shortly oblong, very thick-walled, with a slender beak 3 to 13 mm long. Frequent on loamy soils. E., SE., and N. Cen. TX; also MO, AR, OK, and LA. Apr.-May. [B. viridis Larisey].

4. B. nuttalliana Small Nuttall Wild Indigo. Stems 4 to 12 dm tall, simple below and branched above, rather densely short-pubescent, at least on the younger portions. Leaves sessile or with petioles about 1 mm long; leaflets obovate to rhombic-ovate, apices rounded to rounded-acute, sometimes emarginate, short-pubescent, more densely so below and on the margins; stipules small, ca. 3 mm long or less, deltoid to setaceous, usually early-deciduous. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves or some flowers axillary and some in short terminal racemes; pedicels 2 to 3 mm long; floral bracts 2 to 4 mm long, caducous. Calyx densely pubescent, tube (5)7 to 9 mm long, lobes ca. 3 to 5 mm long; corolla yellow, banner 8 to 15 mm long. Legume densely villous to glabrate, subglobose to ovoid, 4 to 13 mm long and 2 to 11 mm thick, with a short, recurved beak. Sandy loam soils, woodlands; frequent. E. and N. Cen. TX; MS, LA, MO, and AR. Spring, primarily April. Sometimes forms hybrids with B. bracteata.



ROSACEAE AMORPHA10. AMORPHA L.



Erects shrubs, suffrutescent to woody, often rhizomatous. Herbage and calyx usually gland-dotted or glandular-punctate. Leaves alternate, sessile or petiolate, once odd-pinnately compound with 7 or more leaflets, leaflets (4)5 to 30 mm broad, entire to crenulate, stipellate; stipules setaceous and caducous or withering and persisting. Inflorescences dense spikelike racemes, terminal and axillary, sometimes the racemes clustered and appearing paniculate. Flowers subtended by caducous linear-setaceous bracts, pedicellate, papilionaceous in derivation but highly modified. Calyx obconic, persistent, the margin 5-toothed or undulate. Corolla of 1 petal, the banner, all the others absent, purple, bluish, or whitish, clawed, erect, wrapped around the stamens and the pistil. Stamens 10, all united briefly below and free the rest of their length, exserted from the banner at maturity. Stigma capitate and style antrorsely pubescent. Legume sessile or short-stipitate, asymmetrically oblong-ovoid, 4 to 8 mm long and not much flattened, glandular-punctate or dotted, 1- to 2 seeded, indehiscent or very tardily dehiscent.

About 20 species in temperate N. America; 5 representatives in TX; 3 members of the local flora.

1. Larger leaflets (15)20 to 30 mm broad; racemes (15)20 to 40 cm long; calyx pubescent ....

.........................................................................................................................1. A. paniculata

1. Larger leaflets (2)4 to 15 mm broad; racemes (2)7 to 15(25) cm long; calyx glabrous to pubescent ..................................................................................................................................2

2(1) Leaves sessile or subsessile; herbage usually canescent ..........................2. A. canescens

2. Leaves with petioles 1 to 3 cm long; herbage generally appressed-pubescent ......................

............................................................................................................................3. A. fruticosa

1. A. paniculata T. & G. Shrub 2 to 3 m tall; branchlets sulcate (grooved), tomentose. Petioles (2)4 to 5 cm long; leaves 20 to 35 cm long, leaflets 15 to 19 per leaf, ovate to oblong, (2.5)3 to 8 cm long, (15)20 to 30 broad, generally rounded at base and apex, sometimes apices emarginate, tomentose on both surfaces when young, at maturity becoming glabrous and shiny above and remaining rather tomentose below, especially on the prominent veins, conspicuously gland-dotted below. Racemes (15)20 to 40 cm long, the axis and pedicels tomentose. Calyx narrowly campanulate, oblique, pubescent, the lobes lanceolate to triangular, about 1/2 as long as the tube; banner purple, 5 to 7 mm long. Legume 6 to 8 mm long, somewhat curved dorsally, with a short, curved style beak, pubescent and with glandular dots. Acid soils, bogs, and woodlands. E. TX; also AR, LA. May-June(July).

2. A. canescens Pursh Lead Plant. Erect or ascending shrub, often rhizomatous; stems 3 to 10(12) dm tall; herbage usually canescent, less commonly glabrous. Leaves sessile to subsessile, petioles (0.5)1 to 3(5) mm long; petiolules 0.5 to 1 mm long; leaflets (11)27 to 41(49) per leaf, ovate-oblong, oblong-elliptic, oblong, or sometimes ovate, entire to slightly revolute, apically obtuse to rounded to emarginate, with a short, slender mucro, overall (3)10 to 18(25) mm long, (2)4 to 7(12) mm broad, usually quite canescent, especially below, venation inconspicuous even when pubescence absent; stipules caducous, 1 to 3.5 mm long. Racemes several to numerous in the axils of the upper leaves, forming a compound cluster, each racemes (2)7 to 9 15(25) cm long, 10 to 15 mm thick, densely flowered, axis and pedicels canescent; pedicels 0.5 to 1.5 mm long, subtended by a caducous bract. Calyx densely pubescent, the pubescence obscuring the glands, tube turbinate, 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, the 5 lobes lanceolate to triangular, unequal, ca. 0.6 to 2.5 mm long; banner broadly obcordate, slender-clawed, 4.5 to 6 mm long, bright violet; stamens 10, united below for about 2 mm; ovary ca. 1 cm long, densely pilose, with style 4 to 6 mm long and densely antrorsely pubescent. Legume (3)3.5 to 4(5) mm long, ca. 2 mm wide, slightly stipitate, villous to canescent, glandular-punctate, tipped with 0.5 to 1.5 mm of persistent style; seeds 2 to 2.8 mm long and 1 to 1.4 mm broad, olive to brown, smooth. Sandy prairies in the E. Panhandle and scattered in SE. and S. Cen. TX, S. to Aransas Co.; in a broad band from S. Cen. Can. S. to NM, TX, and WY in the W. and to MI, IL, and AR in the E. May-July.

Once a very important part of the native prairie.

3. A. fruticosa L. Bastard Indigo, False Indigo. Erect shrub 1 to 4(5) m tall; stems 1 to several from the base; herbage glabrous to densely pubescent. Petioles (1)2 to 3(4) cm long; leaves (0.5)1 to 3 dm long, leaflets 11 to 27(35) per leaf, fairly widely spaced, with short petiolules, elliptic-oblong, rounded or narrowed basally, apically rounded to acute or emarginate, sometimes mucronate, ca. 1.5 to 3 cm long and 7 to 15(20) mm broad at maturity the upper surface glabrate to sparsely pubescent and slightly reticulate-veined, lower surface glabrate or more commonly pubescent, at least on the veins, sparingly gland-dotted (rarely conspicuously glandular). Racemes solitary or in groups of 3 to several, erect, (5)8 to 15(20) cm long, axis and pedicels sparsely pubescent; pedicels 1 to 2 mm long; bracts 3 to 4 mm long. Calyx 3 to 4 mm long, glabrous to pubescent, the tube obconic, 2 to 3 mm long, lobes all shorter than the tube, villous-margined, the upper 2 broad and obtuse, the lower 3 triangular and acute; banner dark blue to purplish, obovate, obscurely clawed; stamens 10, 6 to 8 mm long, united basally for 1 to 3 mm. Legume (5)6 to 7(9) mm long, 2 to 3 mm broad, recurved dorsally, usually glabrous and conspicuously gland-dotted; seeds 3.5 to 4.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, reddish brown, smooth. Widespread, often along streams and riverbanks, ditches, and roadsides. E. 1/2 U.S., also WY, CO, NM, and W. to S. CA. Apr.-June. [Incl. var. angustifolia Pursh and others--subspecific taxa are no longer recognized.].



ROSACEAE DALEAL11. DALEAL. Prairie Clover, Dalea, Petalostemon



Annual or perennial herbs or (not ours) small shrubs. Herbage unarmed, glandular-dotted. Leaves alternate, once odd-pinnate or sometimes simple (but not in ours); leaflets 3 to many, generally narrow, oblong or linear. Stipules persistent, sometimes reduced to glands. Flowers in terminal heads, racemes, or spikes, these often dense, each flower subtended by a bract and in some species by a small, bristle-like bracteole as well. Calyx tube obconic or narrowly campanulate, often ribbed and with flat panels between the ribs, lobes 5, narrow or subulate, shorter than to exceeding the tube. Corolla variously colored--white, yellow, pink, or purple, papilionaceous or nearly so; banner (uppermost petal, often not larger than the others) inserted at the top of the floral cup and the other 4 petals (all similar) attached at the rim of the floral cup, at various levels on the "stamen tube," or all at the summit of the "stamen tube." Stamens 5 to 10 (always 5 in plants formerly in Petalostemon), monadelphous, the filaments coalescent nearly their entire length, forming a tube. Legume 1- or 2-seeded, usually indehiscent, obovate or nearly orbicular, enclosed by the persistent calyx or protruding slightly from it.

About 280 to 300 species in the warmer parts of the Americas; 34 in TX; 8 here. One of the major changes in the classification of legumes in recent years has been the re-merging ofPetalostemon (Petalostemum) with Dalea. Technically, Petalostemon was separated from Daleaon the basis of having the petals attached to the rim of the stamen tube rather that along its length. The following treatment follows Barneby (1977).

The Plains Indians used the roots of D. candida and D. purpurea for food and made teas from their leaves (Kindscher 1987). Some species provide good forage for livestock.

1. Spikes very lax, the flowers separated from one another on the axis by nearly the length of the subtending bracts; flowers white .............................................................1. D. enneandra

1. Spikes usually dense, the flowers separated from one another on the axis by much less than the length of the subtending bracts; flowers variously colored (if spikes somewhat lax, then flowers rose or purple) .....................................................................................................2

2(1) Corollas yellow, even after drying ..........................................................................2. D. aurea

2. Corollas white, rose, or purple .................................................................................................3

3(2) Leaflet apices emarginate; corolla rose-purple; the "wings and keel" inserted just below the end of the stamen tube and the banner near the top ...........................3. D. emarginata

3. Leaflet apices usually round, acute, acuminate, or mucronate; corolla variously colored OR if leaflet apices emarginate then corolla white; "wings and keel" inserted at the end of the stamen tube and the banner on the rim of the floral cup .................................................4

4(3) Corolla rose or purple (rarely white); bracts of inflorescence without subtending

bracteoles, instead with sessile glands; calyx generally pubescent on the outside (always so if petals white) or tomentose in lines below the sinuses ....................................................5

4. Corolla white; bracts of inflorescence subtended by linear bracteoles; calyx commonly glabrous on the outside, sometimes puberulent .....................................................................6

5(4) Leaflets of major stem leaves 5 to 8(10) pairs +1, the terminal leaflet smaller; foliage villous-pilose; spikes somewhat lax, the flowers not concealing the axis after anthesis .........

...............................................................................................................................4. D. villosa

var. grisea

5. Leaflets of major stem leaves (1)2 to 3(4) pairs +1, the terminal leaflet longer than the last pair; foliage glabrous to thinly pilose; spikes dense, the flowers concealing the axis after anthesis ............................................................................................................5. D. compacta

var. pubescens

6(4) Leaflets of well-developed leaves 25 to 41; orifice of calyx quite oblique; each panel of calyx with at least 3 glands .............................................................................6. D. phleoides

var. microphylla

6. Leaflets of well-developed leaves 3 to 25; orifice of calyx not oblique or only slightly so; each panel of calyx with at most 1 or 2 glands .......................................................................7

7(6 Spikes (or at least the main one of each stem) greater than 1.5 cm long; leaflets of major stem leaves 2 to 4 pairs +1 .................................................................................7. D. candida

var. candida

7. Spikes short, globose to oblong, the axis 1(1.2) cm long;leaflets of major stem leaves (3)4 to 5(6) pairs of leaflets +1 .................................................................................8. D. multiflora

1. D. enneandra Nutt. Nine-anther Prairie Clover. Perennial herb from a yellow taproot and knobby crown or short rootstock; stems solitary to about 3 from the base, erect, (1.5)3 to 10(12) dm tall, simple below and branched above; herbage glabrous except for the calyces. Leaves subsessile, major stem leaves ca. 1.3 to 3 cm long, though often fallen by flowering time; leaflets (2)3 to 6 pairs +1, 4 to 12 mm long, linear to narrowly oblanceolate or elliptic, obtuse or acute, glaucous and conspicuously gland-dotted. Peduncles 2 to 4 cm long, slender; spikes (2-)5- to 35-flowered, 5 to 12 cm long, very lax, at anthesis, the flowers spaced nearly a flower's length apart; bracts of the inflorescence 3 to 4 mm long, broadly ovate, obovate, or obovate-truncate, short-acuminate, conspicuously gland-dotted and scarious-margined, folded around the calyces; flowers sessile or nearly so. Calyx tube turbinate, 3 to 3.7 mm long, quite silky-pilose, teeth filiform with deltoid bases, 3.3 to 4.6 mm long, plumose; corollas white, banner with blade rounded to cordate, gland-dotted below, ca. 3 mm long, with a claw 2.5 to 3.5 mm long; "wings" 2.8 to 4.1 mm long, including a claw to 1.2 mm long, inserted near the middle of the stamen tube; "keel" petals inserted higher up, 5.5 to 7 mm long, including a claw 1 to 2 mm long; stamens 9. Legume glabrous or hyaline below and densely villous above, 3 to 3.7 mm long; seed yellowish, smooth, 2.5 to 3 mm long. Common, usually in alluvial soils. N. Cen. TX W. to the Plains Country, rare SE. to Austin Co.; IA to ND, NM, TX, and MS. May-Oct. [D. laxiflora Pursh; Parosela enneandra (Nutt.) Britt.].

2. D. aurea Nutt. ex Pursh Golden Dalea, Golden Prairie Clover, Silk-top Dalea. Perennial herb, sometimes somewhat woody near the base, from a yellow taproot and short caudex; stems 1 to several, erect, (2)3 to 5(7.5) dm tall, simple or branched in the upper region; herbage silky-pilose or silky-canescent nearly throughout. Stems leafy but the upper leaves smaller and scattered; petioles 3 to 14 mm long; leaves 1 to 5 cm long, ascending, leaflets (3)5 to 7 per leaf, oblong-oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, obtuse, or obtuse and mucronate, rarely acute, 4 to 16(20) mm long, sparingly pubescent above, densely so below. Peduncles 1 to 10 cm long; spikes dense, conical, becoming oblong-cylindric, 1.5 to 7 cm long, 12 to 21 mm broad (excluding the corollas), the axis pilosulous; lowermost bracts ovate to cuneate, inner bracts lance-elliptic, acuminate, with reddish tips; flowers sessile or almost so. Calyx tube turbinate, 2.2 to 3 mm long, densely tawny silky-pilose, teeth 3.5 to 5 mm long, bristle-like, plumose; corolla yellow, unchanged in drying, banner 6.5 to 8.6 mm long, claw 3.5 to 5 mm long; "wings" 5 to 6 mm long with claws ca. 1 mm long; "keel" 5.7 to 8.5 mm long, claw 1.2 to 4 mm long, wings and keel attached slightly above the middle of the stamen tube, blades each obliquely ovate and with a rounded basal lobe; stamens 10. Legume 3 to 4 mm long, silky-villous; seed yellowish or dark brown, smooth and shiny, 2 to 2.6 mm broad. Locally common in the W. 2/3 of TX, E. to N. Cen. TX and sometimes the Gulf Plain--Brooks and Bee Cos.; SD to WY and Mex. May-July. [Parosela aurea (Nutt.) Britt.].

3. D. emarginata (T. & G.) Shinners Annual from a slender taproot; stems spreading, commonly branched near the base, 2 to 5 dm tall; herbage glabrous, gland-dotted. Leaves spreading, 2 to 5 cm long; leaflets 2 to 7 mm long, 13 to 17 per leaf, cuneate or oblong-cuneate, apically emarginate, glabrous. Spikes long-peduncled, dense, oblong to cylindric, ca. 1 cm thick without the corollas, in fruit 1 to 3 cm long; floral bracts about equalling the calyces, obovate, villous on the outer surface, the acuminate tips glabrous; flowers sessile or essentially so. Calyx with an oblique opening, villous, ca. 3 mm long, the lanceolate and acuminate lobes about equalling the tube; corollas rose-purple, banner with blade 2.5 mm long, shorter than the claw, rectangular-oblong, retuse or truncate apically and basally truncate; "wings" and "keel" with oblong, apically rounded blades ca. 2.5 mm long and short claws, inserted just below the end of the stamen tube; stamens 5. Legume oblong-obovate, somewhat crescent-shaped, villous apically. Often abundant on sandy soils. S. TX N. to Llano and Brazos Cos.; also Mex. Mar.-Dec. [Petalostemon emarginatum T. & G.].

4. D. villosa (Nutt.) Spreng. var. grisea (T. & G.) Barneby Herbaceous perennial from long, slender, orange taproot; stems erect, generally 5 to 8(9) dm tall, often reddish, striate, pilose or villous, branched above; herbage green-gray, also pilose-villous, the hairs ascending to somewhat appressed. Leaves short-petiolate or sessile, the main ones on each stem 2 to 4(4.5) cm long, spreading; rachis narrowly margined, leaflets (4)5 to 8(10) pairs +1, the terminal leaflet smaller than at least some of the others, larger leaflets greater than 1 cm long, all oblong-oblanceolate or linear-oblong, obtuse and slightly mucronate or acute to short-acuminate, curved or folded, gland-dotted beneath; stipules subulate, (1.2)2 to 6(7) mm long, drying early. Spikes short-peduncled, numerous, dense, cylindrical, in fruit 6 to 10 mm wide, 2.5 to 6 cm long, often sinuous or drooping, axis densely short-pubescent; bracts deciduous, (1.5)2 to 5.5 mm long, linear-lanceolate, caudate-attenuate, longer than the calyx, pubescent externally nearly to the tip; flowers in pressed specimens appearing 3-ranked. Calyx 2.8 to 3.8 mm long, densely pilosulous, 10-ribbed, tube 1.9 to 2.7 mm long, teeth subequal, 0.8 to 1.3 mm long, the 3 dorsal ones lanceolate or subulate, the others ovate-deltoid, all gland-tipped or sometimes also with marginal glands; corolla pink, purple, or rarely whitish, banner with ovate blade, truncate, cuneate, or cordate at the base, hooded apically, 2.3 to 3 mm long, 2 to 2.6 mm wide, the claw 2.1 to 3 mm long; "wing" and "keel" petals with blades oblong to oblanceolate, truncate or obtuse basally, apically concave, 2.1 to 3.8 mm long and 0.9 to 1.3 mm broad, the claws 0.4 to 0.7 mm long; stamens 5. Legume obliquely obovoid, in profile about 1/2 obovate, 2.5 to 3.2 mm long, curved backwards, the ventral suture concave, valves eglandular or nearly so, densely villous; seed 2 to 2.4 mm long. Deep sandy soil in E. TX, S. to Houston, NE. to Wood and Upshur Cos., E. to LA. May-June. [D. grisea (T. & G.) Shinners;Petalostemon griseum T. & G.].

5. D. compacta Spreng. var. pubescens (Gray) Barneby Showy Prairie Clover. Perennial from a woody taproot and short-branched caudex; stems 3 to 6(7) dm tall, simple or branched at or above the middle, erect or ascending but sometimes diffuse, glabrate to lightly pilosulous, striate and gland-dotted; herbage glabrous to somewhat glaucous, glandular-punctate, sometimes sparsely pubescent. Leaves petiolate, the major ones (2)2.5 to 5.5 cm long; rachis with narrow thick margins; leaflets (1)2 to 3(4) pairs, linear to linear-elliptic, generally acute and minutely mucronate, not folded but with the margins involute or inrolled, to (1)1.2 to 2.5 cm long, generally less than 3 mm broad; stipules subulate-filiform, early-drying, 1.5 to 5.5 mm long. Peduncles (1.5)2 to 15 cm long; spikes dense, conical to ovoid, oblong or subglobose, (0.5)1 to 3 cm long, 10.5 to 14(15) mm broad (without petals or bracts); axis pilosulous; lower bracts 2 to 5 mm long, equal to or shorter than the calyx, broadly ovate or ovate-acuminate or -attenuate, upper bracts obovate to oblanceolate with glabrous, subulate tips 0.7 to 4 mm long, velvety-pubescent dorsally near the middle. Calyx (4.4)5 to 6.2 mm long, glaucous and densely short plush-pilose around the opening, along the margins of the teeth, and in lines along the angles below each sinus, tube 3 to 3.8 mm long, the spaces between the ribs eglandular or minutely punctate, teeth subequal, the longest (1.2)1.4 to 2.4 mm long, the 3 dorsal ones broadly subulate, the 2 lower deltoid-ovoid; corolla rose-purple, banner ovate-oblong or -deltoid, apically hooded, basally cordate to truncate, 2.2 to 3.5 mm long and 2.4 to 3.6 mm wide, the claw 3.4 to 5.8 mm long; "wing" and "keel" petals with blades 2.8 to 4 mm long and 1.1 to 1.8 mm broad, apically hooded, obtuse, or emarginate and basally auriculate or cuneate, claws 0.6 to 1.8 mm long; stamens 5. Legume oblong to obovoid, 3 to 3.5 mm long, slightly pubescent. Limestone hills, live-oak savannahs, mesquite prairies, and coastal prairies. Hill country N. to Red River, S. to the Balcones Escarpment, W. to Eastland and Kerr Cos., SE. to Jackson Co., outlying populations in the panhandle, Trans Pecos, and Rio Grande Valley. May-July. [Petalostemon pulcherrimum (Heller) Heller; D. helleri Shinners].

Many of the purple Prairie Clover specimens from our area, mistakenly identified as D. purpurea or D. tenuis, or their corresponding Petalostemon species, are assignable to this species and variety. The variety compacta occurs on black clay soils in SE. TX N. to Polk and Tyler Cos.; also LA.

6. D. phleoides (T. & G.) Shinners var. microphylla (T. & G.) Barneby Long-bract Prairie Clover. Herbaceous perennial from a yellow to orange-red taproot and short caudex; stems 1 to several from the base, erect to ascending, often branched, 2 to 7 dm tall, grooved or striate and pilose or pilosulous with minute sinuous or incurved hairs; herbage gland-dotted. Leaves spreading to ascending (2.5)3 to 5(6.5) cm long, the major ones with 12 to 20(24) pairs +1 leaflets, leaflets 2 to 7(14) mm long, oblong, oblanceolate or oblong-elliptic, apically obtuse, glandular-mucronate, or sometimes emarginate, gland-dotted, more or less pilose or becoming glabrate with age; stipules subulate Peduncles (1)2 to 20(25) cm long; spikelets dense, cylindrical, 5.5 to 7.5 mm in diameter without the petals; axis pilosulous, (1.5) 2.5 to 9(13) cm long; lower bracts firm and persistent, upper bracts narrowly lance-acuminate or lance attenuate (the tips equal to or longer than the buds), 2.5 to 4.5 mm long, somewhat scarious near the base, pilosulous on the outer surface, somewhat glandular, deciduous but wedged between the calyces and falling with them. Calyx spreading or declined, oblique and obovoid, gibbous above, 2.5 to 3 mm long, tube 1.7 to 2.5(2.8) mm long, pilosulous, dorsal and lateral spaces between ribs with 1 or 2 glands above the middle, the ventral panels each with 3 to 5(7) glands, teeth all crowded to the lower side, all equal, the upper 3 subulate, the lower 2 deltoid-ovate; corolla white, banner (2)2.8 to 3.5(4) mm long, 2.6 to 3.6(5.2) mm wide, deltoid, cordate basally, often apically emarginate, the claw (2.5)3 to 3.8 mm long; "wings" and "keel" all alike or nearly so, blades linear-oblong or oblanceolate, ribbon-like, ca. 3 to 3.9 mm long and 0.5 to 0.9 mm wide, the claws 1.1 to 2 mm long; stamens 5. Legume oblique-obovate, ca. 2.5 to 2.9 mm long, pilosulous, sometimes glandular, the beak at right angles to its axis. Common near the coast and in E., SE., and N. Cen. TX, W. to Young, Gonzales, Goliad, and Nueces Cos.; also OK. May-July. [Petalostemon microphyllum (T. & G.) Heller; Petalostemon phleoidesT. & G. var microphyllum T. & G.; D. drummondiana Shinners].

7. D. candida Willd. var. candida Perennial from a taproot and knobby crown or caudex; stems (4)5 to 10 dm tall, commonly virgate and branched above the middle, glabrous and striate, glandular or glandless; herbage glabrous, gland-dotted. Leaves scattered and ascending, sessile to short-petiolate, the major ones 3 to 6 cm long, rachis margined, leaflets 5 to 9, the larger leaflets (12)15 to 35 mm long, usually more than 2 mm broad, elliptic to oblanceolate, acute to short-acuminate or commonly minutely mucronate, basally acute, each leaflet flat or folded; stipules deltoid-subulate to lanceolate, (1)1.5 to 5.5 mm long. Peduncle very short or absent, but the upper few nodes without leaves and so stem bare for 1 to 14(20) cm below each spike; spikes dense, in this variety remaining so after anthesis, generally oblong to cylindric or conic, (6)6.5 to 9.5(10) mm in diameter; axis glabrous or puberulent, (1)1.5 to 5.5(7) cm long; lower bracts firm, reflexed and persistent, the other bracts deciduous but sometimes held by the calyces, all bracts oblanceolate or oblong with lance-subulate tips longer than the calyces and buds, ciliolate, gland-dotted, when deciduous leaving a tiny "heel" behind on the rachis; filiform bracteoles beneath the bracts (0.5)0.6 to 1.6 mm long, ciliolate. Calyx (2.9)3 to 4.2(4.4) mm long, tube 1.9 to 2.7 mm long, glabrous externally, subsymmetrical, angular-pleated, each area between the hard ribs with 1 small, sometimes inconspicuous gland at the apex, teeth somewhat connivent, deltoid, lanceolate, ciliolate-margined, acute, shorter than the tube, 1 to 1.8 mm long, the dorsal tooth the longest; corolla white, banner hooded, deltoid-obovate, 2.3 to 3.4 mm long, 2.4 to 3.7(4.2) mm wide, apically obtuse or emarginate, basally deeply cordate, claw (1.9)2.2 to 3.8 mm long; "wing" and "keel" petals with blades 2 to 2.9 mm long, 1.3. to 1.7 mm wide. Legume (2.6)2.8 to 4(4.5) mm long, roughly half-obovate or clavate, very oblique, usually exserted from the calyx, the ventral suture straight or concave, valves sometimes pilosulous, usually gland-dotted; seed ca. 1.7 to 2.3 mm long, oblong-elliptic. This variety in E., SE., and N. Cen. TX, rarely W. into the Plains Country; also S. Can. to E. IL, W. KY, TN, and AL. Late May-Aug. [Petalostemoncandidum (Willd.) Michx.]

The other variety, var. oligophylla (Torr.) Shinners, occurs in the TX panhandle and the Trans Pecos. Spikes lax after anthesis, largest leaflets (6)9 to 20(24); calyx tube usually pubescent externally. We have some material once identified as this variety, but it has all the characters one would expect of var. candida.

8. D. multiflora (Nutt.) Shinners Round-head Petalostemon. Perennial herb from a woody caudex; stems several to many, often in clumps, erect or ascending, 3 to 9 dm tall, grooved, well-branched, the upper branches with fewer and smaller leaves; herbage gland-dotted. Leaves numerous, the major ones 2 to 4 cm long, spreading, leaflets (3)4 to 5(6) pairs + 1, linear-oblong or linear-oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, 6 to 13 mm long, obtuse or mucronate, often involute; stipules 0.4 to 2 mm long, lance-subulate. Spikes many per plant, dense, subglobose, head-like; axis glabrous, 4 to 10(17) mm long and completely concealed by the calyces, overall ca. 7 to 9 mm thick without the corollas; bracts shorter than the calyces, deciduous, rhombic-lanceolate with subulate tips ca. 2 mm long; bracteoles (0.5)0.6 to 1.6 mm long. Calyx (2.9)3 to 4.2(4.4) mm long, tube glabrous, nearly symmetrical, 1.9 to 2.7 mm long, strongly 10-ribbed or pleated, the areas between the ribs with 1(2) glands near the throat, teeth connivent, slightly unequal, the dorsal one the longest, deltoid-lanceolate, ca. 1 to 1.8 mm long, slightly shorter than the tube, glabrous except for the ciliolate margins; corolla white, banner blade reniform, 2 to 2.5 mm long and 3 mm broad, claw also 3 mm long; "wings" and "keel" with oblong blades, apically obtuse and basally truncate, 2.3 to 3.5 mm long and 1.5 to 2.1 mm wide, claws ca. 1.5 mm long. Legume ca. 3.5 mm long, obliquely obovoid, beak at right angles to the long axis. Locally common in Cen. TX, E. to Harris and Grimes Cos., S. to Maverick and Nueces Cos., W. to Taylor and Crockett Cos.; MO, to KS, OK, TX, and Mex. (Mid-May)June-Sept., ours primarily June. [Petalostemon multiflorum Nutt.]

Closely related to D. candida, differing in having more leaflets per leaf and more compact, shorter spikes.



ROSACEAE ERYTHRINA12. ERYTHRINA L. Coral Bean, Colorin



About 40 species in warm regions of the world. The one TX species is known from our area.

1. E. herbacea L. Shrub or subshrub, branches in TX material often dying to the ground each year; farther south in its range, the branches persist and the plant becomes a shrub or small tree to 8 m. Plant thorny or prickly, stems strongly ascending (often through other vegetation), 5 to 20 dm tall. Leaves stipulate, pinnately trifoliolate, rachis 20 to 75 mm long, terminal leaflet and often also the other two 3-lobed to hastate-deltoid, long-acuminate or rounded, basally truncate or broadly cuneate, (2)4 to 8(12) cm long, stipellate, glabrous or occasionally prickly beneath, rachis and petiole also sometimes prickly. Flowers in a terminal raceme or on a leafless stem arising from the crown; peduncle elongate, 20 to 75 cm long, few- to many-flowered; pedicels 3 to 9 mm long, subtended by linear-lanceolate bracts1 to 4 mm long and also with 2 caducous linear bractlets 1 to 2 mm long. Calyx approximately tubular, gibbous or spurred at the base, 5.5 to 11.5 mm long on the lower side and 5 to 10 mm long on the upper, rim entire or denticulate; corolla red, obscurely papilionaceous, elongate, 30 to 53 mm long, appearing tubular, banner 3 to 5.3 cm long, wings 5.5 to 11 mm long, keel petals 6 to 13 mm long, connate; stamens 10, diadelphous or monadelphous; ovary stipitate, pubescent, style capitate. Legume more or less woody, blackish, 7 to 15(21) cm long and 1.2 to 1.6 cm broad, beaked, terete and constricted between the several to many seeds, tardily dehiscent, 2-valved, stipe 1.5 to 4 cm long; seeds red or scarlet, 5 to 13 mm long, 4 to 8 mm broad. Sandy woods. Coastal Plain inland to Cass, Walker, Washington, Bastrop, and Gonzales Co.; NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, and MS; S. into Mex; cultivated elsewhere. Apr.-Jun., fruit dehiscing about Sept.-Oct.

All parts of this plant are toxic, containing alkaloids similar to curare. Other species of the genus are used to make insecticides (Rotenone) or are used by some peoples to make fish poisons. The flowers and leaves of some Mexican species are used for food (Turner 1959; Tull 1987).



ROSACEAE PEDIOMELUMR13. PEDIOMELUMRydb. Scurf-pea, Scurfy Pea



Erect, ascending, or procumbent herbs, usually branched, often from woody or tuberous taproots, caudex subterranean. Herbage and calyx glandular-punctate, rarely eglandular, variously pubescent. Leaves palmately or pinnately compound, leaflets entire, stipellate, the stipels perhaps early-deciduous. Stipules well-developed Flowers in dense or loose terminal or axillary racemes, usually groups of 2 or 3 flowers subtended by a conspicuous bract. Calyx tube campanulate, often gibbous basally and becoming much enlarged or inflated in fruit, usually somewhat bilabiate, 5-lobed, the 4 upper lobes equal and the lower lobe longer and broader. Corolla papilionaceous, white to blue, purple, or reddish-brown, never yellow, commonly fading to brownish with age; banner obovate, short-clawed; the wings also short-clawed, each oblong or oblanceolate with a distinct basal lobe; keel petals rounded and united by their apices, each attached to the base of the adjacent wing. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the upper one free, occasionally absent. Legume smooth, gland-dotted, globose to ovoid, little if at all compressed, with a narrow, flat, long-tapering beak, mature legume enclosed within the enlarged calyx, only the beak protruding. Fruit wall thin and papery. Seeds ovoid to ellipsoid

According to Grimes (1990), 21 species in N. Amer.; 9 in TX and 3 locally. These have long been treated, with Psoralidium and Orbexilum, as part of a larger genus, Psoralea. Psoralea, however, has been determined to be restricted to about 20 species from S. Africa (Stirton 1981) and our local species have been re-evaluated.

Several species of Pediomelum, primarily P. esculentum, P. hypogaea, and P. cuspidata, have edible tuberous roots and were a staple food of the Plains Indians, especially the Sioux (Kindscher 1987).

1. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate ......................................................................1. P. rhombifolium

1. Leaves palmately 3- to 5-foliolate (or some leaves pseudopalmate) ....................................2

2(1) Leaflets 3 to 5 mm broad; inflorescence a loose raceme or interrupted spike less than 2 cm thick .............................................................................................................2. P. digitatum

2. Leaflets 13 to 26(37) mm broad; inflorescence a dense spikelike raceme 2 to 4 cm thick ...............................................................................................................3. P. hypogaeum

var. subulatum

1. P. rhombifolium (T. & G.) Rydb. Trailing herbs from deep, fusiform rootstocks ca. 2.5 cm long and 1 cm thick; branched from the base, to 1 m long, sometimes ascending near the ends; pubescence whitish, short, appressed, sparse and becoming more dense toward tips of stems and fairly thick in the inflorescence, occasionally an entire plant with longer, denser, spreading hairs. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, petiolule of the terminal leaflet to 15 mm; leaflets 10 to 35 mm long and 10 to 30 mm broad, variously shaped, those of the lower leaves often orbicular with rounded or emarginate apices, those of the midstem leaves ovate to rhomboid or broadly lanceolate to elliptic; petioles 3 to 7(11) cm long; stipules linear to lanceolate, 2 to 6 mm long. Spikes short and dense, usually capitate, with 3 to 8 flowers; some plants may have the inflorescence elongated and interrupted with the flower clusters at distinct intervals; peduncles (2)3 to 7(10) cm long; floral bracts short and linear, similar to the stipules. Flowers 5 to 8(10) mm long; calyx 4 to 6 mm long, the lobes more or less unequal and slightly longer than the tube; petals brick-red or rusty orange, the banner a little paler than the other petals. Legume smooth, eglandular, thin-walled, 8 to 11 mm long, the body enclosed by the calyx, beak exserted, 4 to 6 mm long. Usually on sandy soils, Grayson Co. S. and W. to Andrews Co. and S. to the Rio Grande Plains, infrequent in E. and SE. TX; OK, LA, and N. 1/2 of Mex. Mar.-July. [Psoralea rhombifolia T. & G.].

2. P. digitatum (Nutt. ex T. & G.) Isley Palm-leaved Scurf-pea. Erect herb from a taproot and straight or branched rootstock; stems simple below and with ascending-spreading branches above, 3 to 8(11) dm tall; herbage appressed-canescent throughout, becoming much denser in the inflorescence. Leaves primarily palmately 5-foliolate, sometimes those on the branches 3-foliolate, leaflets linear to linear-oblanceolate, (1.5)2 to 5 cm long, 3 to 5 mm broad, glabrous above except for the midvein, strigose or silky below; petioles 2 to 5 cm long; stipules lanceolate, 5 to 10 mm long, strigose. Racemes spikelike and interrupted; peduncles 10 to 15 cm long; flowers sessile, borne in clusters of 2 to 4(11) at each node; bracts obovate to spatulate, ca. 5 mm long and nearly as wide, abruptly acuminate, sparsely glandular. Calyx ca. 5 to 8 mm long at anthesis, tube 2.5 to 3.2 mm long, lobes ovate to lanceolate, the upper lobes 3 to 4 mm long and the lower 5 to 6 mm long; corolla blue, purple, or occasionally white, fading brownish, banner clawed, the blade obovate 7 to 9 mm long; wings also clawed; keel petals united by their apices. Legume eglandular, ovoid, 7 to 8 mm. long, with a flat, straight beak, thin-walled, enclosed by the calyx at maturity; seeds ellipsoid, brown, 4 to 5 mm long. Sandy soils. [Authority also given as (T. & G.) J. Grimes; Psoralea digitata Nutt. ex T. & G.; Psoralidium digitatum (Nutt. ex T. & G.) Rydb.].

Ours probably all var. parvifolia (Shinners) Gandhi & S. E. Jones with leaflets 2 to 4 mm broad. Oak and pine woods in E. TX. Endemic. Spring (ours mostly June). [Psoralea digitata Nutt. ex T. & G. var. parvifolia Shinners].

3. P. hypogaeum (Nutt. ex T. & G.) Rydb. var. subulatum (Bush) Grimes. Erect to spreading or decumbent herb from a deep ovoid-fusiform rootstock 2 to 8 mm thick; plantsacaulescent or rarely with a short stem bearing crowded nodes; herbage covered with soft, dense, spreading hairs to 2 to mm long. Leaves palmately 3(5)-foliolate (or occasionally the terminal leaflet petiolulate), the leaflets elliptic to obovate or rhomboid, apices acute to rounded, 1 to 7.2 cm long and 0.3 to 3.7 cm broad, densely pubescent below and less so above; petioles 3.3 to 21 cm long; stipules lanceolate and scarious, 4 to 15 mm long. Inflorescence a dense, many-flowered, spikelike raceme; peduncle (2)3.5 to 14 cm long; rachis 0.6 to 5.5 cm long, with 5 to 15 nodes; flowers 11 to 18 mm long. Calyx densely pubescent, the lobes approximately equal, 4.5 to 10 mm long, the upper four lobes linear-subulate and the lower 1 lanceolate, to 2 mm broad, all enlarging with age and enclosing the fruit; corolla purple to lavender, the banner pale, often creamy, all the petals fading brownish, banner 11 to 18 mm long; wings 11 to 16 mm long; keel 6.5 to 12 mm long. Legume eglandular, papery-walled, 5 to 6.5 mm long with a subulate beak 10 to 19 mm long, densely pubescent and exserted well beyond the calyx. Localized areas in sandy open woods, E., SE., and N. Cen. TX, S. to Bexar, Wilson, & Goliad Cos.; also AR. Mar.-May. [Pediomelum subulatum (Bush) Rydb.; Psoralea subulata Bush and var. minorShinners; some specimens mistakenly annotated Pediomelum pentaphyllum (B. Juss.) Grimes].

The roots are edible (Kindsher 1987).





ROSACEAE PSORALIDIUMR14. PSORALIDIUMRydb. Scurf-pea



Creeping to erect-ascending perennial herbs from thickened or woody rootstocks. Herbage glandular-punctate, rarely eglandular, variously pubescent to nearly glabrate. Leaves palmately 3(5)-foliolate, leaflets variously shaped, stipellate, the stipels perhaps early-deciduous; stipules well-developed, deciduous or persistent. Flowers in spikelike racemes (in TX material, these open and loose), with each group of about 2 or 3 flowers subtended by a bract. Calyx tube roughly campanulate, with nearly equal lobes, not enlarging with age or enclosing the fruit at maturity, usually tearing below one sinus. Corolla papilionaceous, usually white or blue to purple, or yellow, commonly fading with age, banner usually broadly elliptic, broadly oblanceolate, or orbicular, short-clawed, each wing oblong or oblanceolate with a distinct basal lobe; keel petals united by their apices, basally attached to the adjacent wing petals. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the uppermost one becoming free or rarely absent. Legume smooth, gland-dotted in ours, ovoid to globose with a very short beak, the whole well-exserted from the calyx at maturity, pericarp thick and leathery. Seeds ovoid to ellipsoid.

According to Grimes (1990), 3 species W. N.Amer.; 2 in TX; 1 here. Psoralidium has been treated with Pediomelum and Orbexilum as part of the genus Psoralea. Psoralea, however, has been determined to be restricted to about 20 species of S. Afr. and the genus has been re-evaluated. (Stirton 1981).

1. P. tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb. Slimleaf Scurfy Pea, Slender Scurf-pea, Wild Alfalfa. Erect perennial from a deep taproot and knobby, woody caudex; stems 1 to several from the base, 2 to 6 dm tall, striate, much-branched; herbage gland-dotted, sparsely to densely strigose or sometimes with some spreading or ascending hairs. Leaves palmately 3-foliolate, some of the lower ones perhaps 5-foliolate, leaflets oblong-oblanceolate to rarely linear or obovate, 1 to 5 cm long and 5 to 12 mm broad, usually 2 to 6 times longer than broad obtuse, rounded or mucronate (rarely acute), strigose beneath and glabrate above; petioles 3 to 15(20) mm long, with spreading or appressed pubescence; stipules deltoid to lanceolate, 2 to 3 mm long. Peduncles axillary, 2 to 3 cm long, longer than the leaves; inflorescence loose and open, 15 to 40 mm long; floral bracts ca. 2 to 6 mm long, ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, each subtending 1 or 2(3 to 7) flowers; pedicels 1 to 2(4) mm long, often longer than the calices. Calyx campanulate, tube (1)2 to 2.5(3) mm long, densely glandular and sparsely strigose, lobes lanceolate and acute, about as long as the tube; corolla 5 to 7 mm long, blue (sometimes white, rarely white with a purple-tipped keel), banner rounded-- obovate to roughly orbicular, the blade 4 to 8 mm long and the claw 0.5 to 2 mm long; wings obovate to oblong, with blades 3 to 6 mm long and claws 1 to 2 mm long. Legume glabrous, gland-dotted, ovoid, 7 to 8 mm long, beak short and straight, pericarp leathery; seeds reniform, 3.8 to 4.2 mm long, olive to brown, shiny. Common in N. Cen. TX, localized in the Trans Pecos and parts of the Plains Country, scattered in the Ed. Plat. and E. and SE. TX; Cen. U.S.; IL to MT, S. to TX and AZ. May-July. [Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh; P. bigelovii (Rydb.) Tidestr.; P. floribunda T. & G.; P. obtusiloba T. & G.].

Reported to be toxic to livestock. Some Plains Indian tribes used the plant medicinally (Kindscher 1992).



ROSACEAE ORBEXILUMR15. ORBEXILUMRaf.



Erect perennial herbs from tuberous, fusiform roots. Stems 1 to few from the base, simple or branched. Herbage glabrous to pubescent. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, gland-dotted, leaflets stipellate, the stipels perhaps deciduous. Stipules persistent, commonly subulate. Flowers generally in dense, spikelike racemes with groups of 2 or 3 flowers subtended by bracts. Calyx tube approximately campanulate, the four upper lobes equal and the lowermost one a little longer, not enlarged or enclosing the fruit at maturity. Corolla papilionaceous, purple to lavender, lilac, or whitish, never yellow, fading with age; banner usually obovate, short-clawed; the wings also short-clawed, oblanceolate or oblong, each with a distinct basal lobe; keel petals rounded and united by their apices, united basally to the adjacent wing petals. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the uppermost one free, rarely absent. Legume more or less orbicular, pericarp thick, leathery, transversely rugose (cross-wrinkled), eglandular, very shortly beaked. Seeds ovoid to ellipsoid.

According to Grimes (1990), 8 species in N.A.; 2 in TX; both here. Orbexilum used to be treated, along with Pediomelum and Psoralidium, as part of Psoralea. Psoralea has been determined to be restricted to about 20 species from S. Afr., and the genus has been revised (Stirton 1981).

1. Flowers 5 to 7 mm long ...........................................................................1. O. pedunculatum

var. pedunculatum

1. Flowers 8 to 10 mm long ....................................................................................2. O. simplex

1. O. pedunculatum (P. Mill.) Rydb. var. pedunculatum Sampson's Snakeroot. As described for the genus; stems several from the base, 3 to 8 dm tall, erect or ascending, sparsely strigose or glabrous. Leaflets elliptic to lanceolate, 2.3 to 6.5 cm long and 0.7 to 1.4 cm, ca. 4 to 7 times longer than wide; petioles 1 to 6 cm. long or the upper ones shorter; stipules subulate, 3 to 8 mm long. Peduncles longer than leaves, 6.5 to 17 cm. long; racemes dense, spikelike; rachis 4.5 to 9 cm long, with 15 to 50 or more nodes, flowers 1 to 3 per node. Calyx tube strigose, not enclosing the fruit, 1.5 to 2 mm long, upper calyx teeth 1 to 1.5 mm long, the lower tooth 2 to 3 mm; corolla lavender or lilac, the keel purple-tipped, banner ovate, short-clawed, 4.5 to 6 mm long; wings 4.5 to 6 mm long; keel 3 to 4 mm long. Legume 3 to 5 mm long, eglandular, transversely wrinkled, oblong-orbicular, somewhat flattened, the beak short and incurved, pericarp thick and leathery; seeds 3 to 3.5 mm. long, ovoid, dark brown to maroon. Sandy woods, E. and SE. TX, common; SE. U.S., N. to VA, IL, and OH, W. to KS. Spring. [Psoralea pedunculata (Mill.) Vail; Psoralea psoralioides (Walt.) Cory var. eglandulosa (Ell.) F. L. Freeman and var. pedunculata(Mill.) Gandhi].

2. O. simplex (Nutt. ex T. & G.) Rydb. Single-stem Snakeroot. As described for the genus; stems simple from a fusiform or ovoid root, to 9 dm tall, simple or sometimes branched below, appressed-pubescent, glabrate in age, more or less striate. Leaflets narrowly elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or narrowly oblong, 4.4 to 7.5 cm long, 9 to 15 mm wide, apiculate, basally rounded, sparsely strigose above, sparsely to moderately so below; petioles of lower leaves 1.75 to 70 mm long, appressed-pubescent, the upper leaves subsessile; stipules subulate, 4 to 7 mm long, 0.5 to 1.5 mm broad. Peduncles 3.4 to 10 cm long; racemes with axes 2.1 to 6 cm long, with 11 to 30 nodes, flowers 1 to 3 per node; bracts linear-lanceolate, 1 to 2 mm broad, deciduous; pedicels 2 to 3 mm long. Flowers 8 to 10 mm long; calyx purplish, sparsely pubescent and glandular, 3.5 to 5 mm long including the 2 mm tube, upper teeth to 1.5 mm long, lower one lanceolate, 3 to 3.5 mm long; corolla purple, banner oblanceolate, 8 to 10 mm long, 4 to 6 m broad, with a claw 1.5 to 2 mm long, emarginate; keel 7 to 8 mm long. Fruit obliquely orbicular or depressed-obovate, 4 to 6 mm long, 3.5 to 5 mm long, with a tiny beak, glandular, cross-wrinkled; seed plump, 3 to 4 mm long, reddish-brown. Dry woods, savannahs, and prairies. E. and SE. TX; SE. OK, AR, TX, LA, S. MS. and S. AL; one population known in S. IL. Spring; local collections from May. [Psoralea simplex Nutt. ex T. & G.].



ROSACEAE VICIA16. VICIA L. Vetch



Annual, winter annual, biennial, or sort-lived perennial. Stems trailing, decumbent, climbing, or less often erect. Leaves sessile to short-petiolate, imparipinnately once compound, with the terminal leaflet modified into a bristle or a simple or branched tendril; leaflets mostly (2)6 to 24 per leaf, entire or apically notched, alternate, subopposite, or opposite on the rachis, usually linear to elliptic-oblong, several times longer than broad. Stipules persistent, herbaceous, lanceolate or often semi-sagittate (lanceolate with 1 or 2 basal lobes); stipels absent. Flowers in few-flowered axillary racemes or in short to long, loose to compact, few- to many-flowered spikelike racemes; pedicels 0 to 3 mm long. Calyx campanulate to obconic, nearly regular to bilabiate, the 5 lobes or teeth very unequal, the lowermost the longest. Corolla papilionaceous, purple to blue or white, sometimes yellow or reddish, banner obovate and broadly clawed, wings longer than the keel and coalescent to it. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the 10th and uppermost free, the stamen tube ending obliquely. Style filiform, tipped with a tuft or ring of hairs. Legume sessile to short-stipitate, linear to narrowly elliptic, flattened to terete, dehiscing along 2 sutures, 2- to many-seeded.

About 150 species in the temperate areas of the world. Of the 8 TX species, we might expect to see 4 here. This treatment is based, in part on the work of Lassetter (1984).

Among the vetches, there are many important forage, silage, ground-cover, and green manure crops, some introduced to the U.S. for these uses (Mabberley 1987).

1. Flowers few, often solitary or paired, in the axils of the leaves; peduncles, if any, much shorter than the leaves ...........................................................................................1. V. sativa

subsp. nigra

1. Flowers 1 to many on well-developed peduncles equal to or longer than the subtending leaves (rarely shorter) ...............................................................................................................2

2(1) Corolla longer than 9 mm, or else raceme (3) 10- to 40-flowered .....................2. V. villosa

2. Corolla 2 to 9 mm long; racemes (1)2 to 8(13) flowered .......................................................3

3(2) Racemes 1- or 2-flowered; calyx lobes deltoid, subequal, shorter than the tube ....................

........................................................................................................................3. V. minutiflora

3. Racemes (1-)2- to 12-flowered; calyx lobes lanceolate to subulate, subequal or unequal, equalling or longer than the tube .................................................................4. V. ludoviciana

1. V. sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. Narrow-leaved Vetch. Stems decumbent to ascending, more or less climbing, glabrous or glabrate, 1 to 8 dm long, usually branched only near the base. Leaflets 4 to 12(14) per leaf, those of the lower leaves oblong and truncate, those of the upper leaves linear to narrowly elliptic, lanceolate-attenuate, or oblong to obovate, all more or less mucronate, 15 to 30 mm long, 1 to 4 mm broad, except for the lowermost leaves usually with branching tendrils; stipules semisagittate, serrate or toothed, 2 to 7 mm long, with dark purplish or reddish nectaries, or often the nectaries absent. Flowers (1)2(4), subsessile in the axils of the upper leaves, 10 to 18 mm long; on pedicels 2 to 7 mm long. Calyx 7 to 11 mm long, glabrous to sparsely short-pubescent, tube 4 to 6 mm long, lobes linear-lanceolate, subequal, 3 to 6 mm long, the lower 3 usually with pale or stramineous nectaries on the outer surface; corolla blue or violet, sometimes white or rosy, banner 1 to 1.8 cm long, longer than the wings and keel. Legume more or less terete, 3.5 to 5 cm long, 4 to 6 mm broad, often short-pubescent and becoming glabrate, dark brown or usually black; seeds 8 to 10. Roadsides and vacant lots, etc. Native to Eur. and now escaped in parts of E. TX and also found here. Mar.-June, ours primarily Mar.-Apr. [Includes var. angustifolia (L.) Ser., var. nigra L., and var. segetalis (Thuill.) Ser.; V. angustifolia L. and var. segetalis (Thuill.) W. D. J. Koch and var. uncinata (Desv.) Rouy].

2. V. villosa Roth Hairy Vetch, Woollypod Vetch, Winter Vetch. Annual, biennial, or sometimes perennial taprooted herb; stems trailing or climbing, 0.5 to 2 m long, spreading-villous with hairs 1 to 2 mm long or with sparse appressed or curved hairs or nearly glabrous). Leaves 6 to 15 cm long, tendrils branched. Leaflets 10 to 20 per leaf, oblong to linear-lanceolate, obtuse or rounded and mucronate to acute, 1 to 3 cm long, usually more or less pubescent on both surfaces; stipules lanceolate, semisagittate, mostly 0.5 to 1.2 mm long. Peduncle elongate; racemes dense, (5-)10- to 40-(60-)flowered, often secund (with flowers borne on one side and all facing in one direction); pedicels 1 to 2 mm long, rachis and pedicels spreading-villous or sparsely appressed-pubescent to glabrate. Calyx irregular, villous or appressed-pubesceant to glabrate, tube 2 to 4 mm long, gibbous on the upper side, the pedicel appearing attached on the lower side, teeth unequal, the lower teeth linear-acicular, (1)2 to 5 mm long, upper teeth ca. 0.5 to 1.5 mm long; corolla violet and white to rose or white, banner 1.2 to 2 mm long, blade less than 1/2 as long as the claw. Legume oblong, 2 to 11 cm long, 7 to 10 mm wide, more or less flattened, obliquely beaked; seeds globose, 3.5 to 5 mm in diam., brownish to black. Common along roadsides. E. and N. Cen. TX; widely introduced from Europe. Apr.-Aug.

Three subspecies in North America; we have two.

subsp. villosa Raceme with (5)10 to 40(60) flowers, spreading-pubescent; lowest calyx lobe long-villous, 2 to 5 mm long. Rare along roadsides. E. and N. Cen TX; widely introduced from Europe. Apr.-Aug. Less common in our area than the next subspecies.



subsp. varia(Host) Corb. Raceme with (5)10 to 20 flowers, appressed-pubescent; lowest calyx lobe short-pubescent to glabrescent, 1 to 2(2.5) mm long. E. and N. Cen. TX; widely introduced from Eur. Mar.-Aug. Usually the more common type in our area. [V. dasycarpa Ten.; V. villosa Roth. var. glabrescens W. D. J. Koch].

3. V. minutiflora Dietr. Pygmy-flowered Vetch. Winter annual; stems slender, well-branched, trailing or climbing, 3 to 8 dm long; herbage glabrate or minutely pubescent. Leaves 2 to 6 cm long, often relatively few or distant, tendrils branched, leaflets 4 to 6 per leaf, linear-elongate to narrowly oblong, acute to rounded and mucronate, 10 to 35 mm long, sometimes leaflets of lower leaves obovate, 5 to 12 mm long. Stipules semisagittate, the upper ones lanceolate, subequal or sometimes one of the pair up to twice the width of the other. Peduncle widely ascending and straight, shorter than the leaves, 5 to 20 mm long, 1- or 2-flowered, the flowers terminal when solitary. Flowers 5 to 6(8) mm long; calyx slightly irregular, sparsely villous, tube 1.5 to 2 mm long and the teeth 1 to 1.5 mm long, shorter than the tube, lower teeth longer and narrower than the upper; corolla pale blue to purplish white. Legume narrowly oblong to falcate, flattened, greenish-tan, glabrous, 2 to 3 cm long, 4 to 4.5 mm broad; seeds (4)6 to 8(12), flattened-globular, generally brown to reddish tan, ca. 1.5 mm broad. Frequently encountered in E., SE., and N. Cen. TX; FL and TX, N. to TN and MO. Spring, ours primarily March. [V. micrantha Nutt. ex T. & G., but not V. micrantha Hook. & Arn.].

4. V. ludoviciana Nutt. Louisiana Vetch. Taprooted winter annual; stems decumbent to climbing, 2 to 10 dm long; herbage glabrous to pubescent. Leaves 3 to 9 cm long, tendrils forked (sometimes branched.) Leaflets 6 to 12 per leaf, linear-oblong to elliptic, broadly elliptic, or oval, acute or rounded to mucronate or emarginate apically, 6 to 25 mm long; stipules semisagittate, usually rather unequal at each node. Peduncles 2 to 4 cm long, shorter than, equal to, or exceeding the leaves; flowers (1)2 to 13 in a dense raceme, occasionally flowers solitary. Flowers 5 to 8 mm long; calyx somewhat pilose, tube 1 to 2 mm long, teeth subequal to markedly unequal, the upper 0.5 to 1 mm long, the lower 1.5 to 3 mm long and narrower; corolla lavender-blue, the banner measured as folded in the flower 1.5 to 4 mm long. Legume oblong, acute, oblique at both ends, 2 to 3 cm long, glabrous, brown at maturity, 4- to 8-seeded; seeds 2 to 2.5 mm in diam, brownish white, often purple-mottled. Widespread in the E. 1/2 of TX. Very common and much collected.

Two subspecies.

subsp. ludoviciana Deer Pea Vetch. Racemes (2-)5- to 12-flowered; calyx lobes very unequal, only the lowest equal to the tube; flowers rather showy. Legume 2 to 3 cm long; seeds 4 to 8. Widespread in the E. 1/2 of TX. Spring. [Includes var. laxiflora Shinners, var. texana (T.& G.) Shinners; V. exigua Nutt.; V. leavenworthii T. & G. var. occidentalis Shinners;V. texana (T. & G.) Small].

subsp. leavenworthii (T. & G.) Lassetter & Green Leavenworth's Vetch. Racemes (1-)2- to 5-flowered; calyx lobes subequal, about equal to or longer than the tube; flowers not very showy. Legumes 2 to 2.5 cm long; seeds 4 to 8. Frequent in the E. 1/2 of TX, rarely W. to Wichita, Taylor, Edwards, and Kinney Cos.; also MO, OK, and AR. Spring. [V leavenworthii T. & G.].



ROSACEAE LATHYRUS17. LATHYRUS L. Vetchling, Pea-vine



Annuals or perennials from taproots, rhizomes, or short rootstocks. Stems trailing or climbing, vinelike, sometimes erect. Leaves once even pinnately compound, the rachis terminating in a simple or branched tendril or bristle. Leaflets 2 to 18 per leaf (in ours, usually 2), paired or scattered on the rachis, often linear to oblong but variable, entire. Stipules persistent, usually semisagittate (lanceolate with 1 or 2 lobes on each side), the lobes entire to serrate. Flowers 1 to several (ca. 30 max.) in pedunculate axillary racemes, pedicellate, papilionaceous, each subtended by a minute, caducous bract. Calyx irregular to regular, the tube campanulate to turbinate, the teeth or lobes 5, often unequal, the lower longer than the upper. Corolla white, creamy, pink, red, or purple, banner usually clawed, reflexed; wings free of keel or essentially so, but fitting close to it; wings and keel also clawed. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the lower 9 united and the uppermost 1 free. Style flattened, pubescent or bearded on upper surface for about 1/2 its length, persistent. Legume linear to oblong, somewhat flattened, 2-valved, thin-walled or leathery, readily or tardily dehiscent. Seeds 2 to several.

About 120 species in the temperate regions of the world, Australia excluded.

L. odoratus is the fragrant Sweetpea of old-fashioned gardens and is still grown for its beautiful flowers. Lathyrus seeds are poisonous. Livestock losses can be expected when mature seeds form about 25% of the diet. The plants, however, can make good cover crops or winter forage if they are not the only source of food. Human deaths have been recorded throughout history when droughts or famines have forced people to eat the seeds (Tull 1987).



1. Ovary and legume glabrous, 2 to 4 mm broad; native plant ......................................1. L. pusillus

1. Ovary and legume pubescent, 5 to 8 mm broad; introduced species ......................2. L. hirsutus

NOTE: L. latifolius L. Perennial Sweetpea, Everlasting Sweetpea, is rare, found escaped or persisting around old homesites. Flowers 15 mm long or longer; pods 6 to 10 cm long.

1. L. pusillus Ell. Singletary Vetchling. Glabrate to sparsely pubescent, taprooted annual herb; stems prostrate to clambering or erect, (2)3 to 6(7) dm long, narrowly to broadly winged. Tendrils branched; leaflets two, linear to lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, acute, (2)3 to 7 cm long, glabrate; petioles 1 to 2 cm long, wingless or with ridges; stipules lanceolate to lance-ovate, 1/3 to 3/4 the length of the leaflets, the upper lobe 2 to 3 times the length of the lower. Peduncles axillary, 1 to 5 cm long, usually 2-flowered; pedicels glabrous, 1 to 3 mm long; subtending bracts 5 to 8 mm long. Flowers about 1 cm long; calyx 5 to 8 mm long, glabrous, tube 2 to 2.5 mm long, teeth nearly equal, linear-lanceolate, 3 to 5 mm long, about twice as long as the tube; corolla bluish or purple, banner narrowly obcordate, 6 to 10(12) mm long, slightly reflexed, the claw nearly as wide as the blade; wings and keel narrow, their blades longer than their claws. Legume (2)3 to 4(5) cm long, 2 to 5 mm broad, glabrous, the valves twisting in dehiscence, 10- to 20-seeded; seeds nearly spherical, ca. 2 mm in diam., olivaceous to deep brown, lightly and minutely wrinkled. Infrequent in E., SE., and N. Cen. TX; Gulf states N. to KS and MO, also N. Mex. Spring, ours primarily April.

2. L. hirsutus L. Singletary Pea. Annual; stems sprawling or climbing, narrowly to broadly 2-winged, essentially glabrous, 2 to 10 dm long. Tendrils well-branched, usually 3 times or more; leaflets two, linear-lanceolate to elliptic, (1.5)3 to 8 cm long, obtuse to acute, glabrous or nearly so; petioles winged; stipules sparsely hirsute, linear-lanceolate, 6 to 15 mm long, ca. 1/4 as long as the leaflets, usually entire, the upper lobe the larger. Peduncles usually exceeding the leaves, 2- to 4-flowered, often extended beyond the uppermost flower as a bristle; pedicels mostly 3 to 7 mm long, each subtended by a caducous bract 0.8 to 2 mm long. Calyx glabrous to sparsely hirsute or ciliate, 5 to 7 mm long, tube 2.5 to 3.5 mm long, lobes subequal, narrowly ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 2.5 to 4 mm long, about equal to or longer than the tube; corolla blue-violet or rarely red or white, banner broadly obcordate, 0.9 to 1.5 cm long, blade twice as long as the claw; claws of wings and keel petals shorter than their blades. Legume densely long-hirsute with swollen-based trichomes, linear-oblong, 25 to 40 mm long, 5 to 10 mm broad, 4- to 6-seeded; seeds nearly spherical or squarish, ca. 3 to 4 mm across, brown, lightly and minutely wrinkled. Rare along roadsides in E. and N. Cen. TX; native to Europe; widely introduced and escaped. Mostly Mar.-June.





ROSACEAE PUERARIA18. PUERARIA DC. Kudzu



Between 10 and 15 species from Asia, at least one of which has become an introduced weed in this country.

1. P. montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida Kudzu. Semiwoody perennial vine; stems twining, trailing, or climbing, to 20 or 30 m long; young stems densely villous. Petioles elongate, often equalling the rest of the leaf; leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, leaflets 5 to 12(20) cm long, ovate-rhombic or ovate to rotund, entire or deeply 2- or 3-lobed, abruptly tapered to an acuminate tip, pubescent below; petiolules 3 to 10 mm long; stipules ovate to lanceolate, the lower portion somewhat adnate to the stem, generally 8 to 12 mm long; stipels present, setaceous, 5 to 9 mm long. Flowers smelling rather like "artificial grape", in axillary racemes 5 to 30 cm long, densely silky appressed-pubescent; pedicels 2 to 8 mm long, each subtended by a caducous bract 2 to 3 mm long and bearing a pair of caducous bractlets that are linear-lanceolate to lanceolate and 2 to 3 mm long. Calyx campanulate, ca. 9 to 10(12) mm long, densely appressed-pubescent, tube slightly less than 1/2 the total length, 2.5 to 3.5 mm long; lobes appearing 4--the upper 2 fused completely, 5 to 7 mm long, the 2 lateral lobes 3 to 5 mm long, the lowest lobe 6 to 12 mm long; corolla papilionaceous, violet to red-purple, 15 to 25 mm long, banner obovate, 15 to 25 mm long, with a yellow patch; wings coherent to keel and a little longer; stamens 10, monadelphous, the uppermost filament attached briefly to the others by its middle and free at both ends; ovary sessile to short-stipitate. Legume linear-oblong, elongate, flattened, 4 to 5 cm long, covered with tawny to reddish-brown pubescence, thin-walled, dehiscent. Roadsides in E. and SE. TX; native to China and introduced throughout the SE. U.S. and other warm-temperate regions. Spring-fall. [P. lobata (Willd.) Ohwi;P. thunbergiana (Sieb. & Zucc.) Benth.].

Introduced to the U.S. as a ground cover and green manure, but primarily for erosion control. Extremely fast-growing and free of limiting factors and pests, it has spread rapidly until today thousands of acres in the South are covered with a solid carpet of Kudzu. The vines readily engulf old houses, cars, telephone poles, and any other stationary object, killing the existing vegetation by shading it out. Livestock do not much care for it and plowing it under only seems to propagate it. The young shoots are edible and the roots are a source of starch. The fibers make good paper and the long runners can be made into baskets (Tull 1987).







ROSACEAE WISTERIA19. WISTERIA Nutt.



Climbing vines or shrubs with twining branches, nearly glabrous. Leaves once odd-pinnately compound, petiolate; leaflets 5 to 15 per leaf, 2 to 7 cm long, thin. Stipules caducous; stipels present. Flowers in showy, drooping, axillary and terminal racemes; peduncles short, pedicels ca. 5 to 25 mm long, flowers each subtended by a caducous bract. Calyx more or less bilabiate, campanulate, the upper lip with 2 teeth which are nearly completely united, the lower lip with 3 longer, narrower teeth. Corolla papilionaceous, violet to blue or white, 15 to 20 mm long, banner reflexed, with a suborbicular blade and a short claw, the blade with 2 basal appendages or callosities; wings clawed, blades obovate, falcate, and with a basal auricle on the upper margin; keel petals clawed, coalescent apically, blades curved and with a basal lobe. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the 10th and uppermost free, or stamens monadelphous with the uppermost coalescent to the other 9 in the middle of its length. Ovary stipitate, stipe surrounded by a glandular intrastaminal ring. Legume linear to elongate-oblanceolate, flattened, ca. 7 to 20 cm long, dehiscent or tardily dehiscent, several to many-seeded.

Seven species of China, Japan, and temperate N. Amer., much cultivated for their beautiful flowers and graceful habit. The plants can be trained as shrubs. The vines become quite strong and can strangle trees upon which they grow and can pull down trellises. All parts of the plants are poisonous (Lampe 1985).

1. Ovary and legume pubescent; pedicels 10 to 25 mm long ............................1. W. sinensis

1 Ovary and legume glabrous; pedicels less than 10 mm long .....................2. W. frutescens

1. W. sinensis (Sims) Sweet Chinese Wisteria. As described for the genus. Stems to 20 m long, current year's branches densely pubescent. Leaves 1.5 to 4 dm long, leaflets (7)9 to 11(13) per leaf, densely silky-pubescent when young but becoming glabrous to appressed short-pubescent at maturity, (4)6 to 8(10) cm long, 2 to 6 cm wide. Racemes 1.5 to 3 dm long. Legume oblanceolate, 10 to 15 cm long, densely velvety-pubescent. Cultivated and often found as an escape. Spring, primarily March, occasionally sporadically through the summer.

2. W. frutescens (L.) Poir. As described for the genus. Leaves 1 to 3 dm long, leaflets mostly 9 per leaf, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 3 to 7 cm long, the base rounded or cordate, the apex acuminate, silky-pubescent when young, becoming glabrate. Racemes 2 to 3 dm long; pedicels 5 to 10 mm long. Legume and ovary glabrous. Moist woods and riverbanks in E. and SE. TX; IN, IL, and MO S. to LA and TX. Apr.-Aug. [Incl. var. macrostachya (T. & G.) T. & G.; W. macrostachya (T. & G.) Robins.].



ROSACEAE CENTROSEMA20. CENTROSEMA (DC.) Benth. Butterfly Pea



In the warmer parts of the Americas, about 30 species, one of which we have.

1. C. virginianum (L.) Benth. Herbaceous perennial vine; stems twining, climbing or trailing, 2 to 16 dm long; herbage more or less minutely pubescent. Petioles well-developed, often nearly equalling the leaflets; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, 3 to 10 cm long, leaflets linear to narrowly or broadly ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or oblong to elliptic, (1)2 to 6(8) cm long, (7)15 to 25(40) mm wide, conspicuously reticulate veined, entire; stipules ovate to ovate-lanceolate, striate, 2 to 5 mm long, often deciduous; stipels minute, setaceous, rather persistent. Flowers solitary or in axillary racemes of 2 to 4; peduncle usually 1 to 5 cm long, shorter than the leaves, the axis zig-zag; pedicels 2 to 10 mm long, subtended by an ovate bract 1.5 to 3 mm long and surmounted by 2 ovate, membranaceous bractlets 8 to 12 mm long and 3 to 5 mm broad, these bractlets often concealing the calyx. Flowers 2 to 3 cm long; calyx tube hemispherical, 4 to 5 mm long, lobes linear-subulate, 6 to 14 mm long, the lowermost the longest; corolla papilionaceous, pale violet to purple-blue to nearly white, banner 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, spurred near the base; wings and keel subequal, ca. 2 mm long; stamens 10, diadelphous, the lower 9 united and the 10th and uppermost free. Legume stipitate, linear, flattened, 7 to 11 cm long and ca. 4 mm broad, beaked with the persistent remains of the style, 2-valved, the valves twisting after dehiscence; seeds 4 to 10. Frequent in the E. 1/2 of TX, W. to Erath, San Saba, Llano, and Brooks Cos.; SE. U.S.: TN, VA, GA, FL, AL, and MS; also N. Mex. Mar.-Nov., ours mostly June.











ROSACEAE CLITORIA21. CLITORIA L. Pigeon-wings, Butterfly Pea



About 35 or 40 species in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. We have the one TX species.

1. C. mariana L. Herbaceous perennial vine; stems suberect to trailing or scandent, seldom or never twining, glabrous to short-pubescent. Petioles usually (2)3 to 7 cm long; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, 5 to 13 cm long, leaflets lance-ovate, ovate, lanceolate or ovate-oblong or even elliptic, entire, acute, (1.5)2 to 7(8) cm long, glabrous above and much paler and sometimes short-pubescent beneath; stipules ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or setaceous, striate, 3 to 10 mm long, tardily deciduous; stipels present, setaceous and persistent. Racemes axillary; peduncles 0.5 to 4(6) cm long, usually shorter than the subtending leaves, 1- to 3-(4-) flowered; pedicels glabrous to short-pubescent, (2)4 to 10 mm long, each pedicel subtended by a triangular-lanceolate bract 1 to 3 mm long and with a pair of linear bractlets 3 to 6 mm long at the summit or just below. Calyx glabrous to short-pubescent, tube cylindrical, slightly flaring, bilabiate, 1 to 2 cm long, lobes deltoid or lance-acuminate, 5 to 7 mm long, the lowermost slightly the longest and narrowest, 6 to 8 mm long; corolla papilionaceous, pale blue to lavender, banner with a paler lozenge in the center, not spurred at the base (cf. Centrosema), 4 to 6 cm long and 3 to 4 cm wide; wings shorter and attached to the strongly curved keel; stamens 10, diadelphous, the uppermost free of the other 9 (some authors report monadelphous stamens). Legume with stipe 1 to 2 cm long, oblique to linear, (1)4 to 8 cm long, strongly beaked, 2-valved, the valves twisting after dehiscence, 4- to 10-seeded; seeds sticky. Frequent in the E. 1/2 of TX, W to Eastland and Llano Cos. and S. to Travis and Bastrop Cos.; mostly in the E. U.S., reported also from AZ. May-Sept.

Clitoria has some of the largest flowers in the Fabaceae. The blossoms are often borne inverted so that the banner is lowermost and the stamens and style touch a visiting insect's back rather than underside.



ROSACEAE APIOS22. APIOS Fabr. Groundnut, Potato Bean



Eight species in temperate regions in E. Asia and N. America. We have the one species which occurs in TX.

1. A. americana Medik. American Potato Bean, Groundnut. Herbaceous perennial vine from rhizomes with tubers 1 to 2(6) cm thick; stems twining and climbing or sprawling, 1 to 3(5) m long, short-pubescent to glabrate. Petioles 15 to 70(80) mm long; leaves once odd-pinnately (3-)5- to 7-foliolate, 10 to 20 cm long, glabrous to pubescent, leaflets in pairs spaced 1 to 3 cm apart along the axis, ovate to lance-ovate, basally rounded, apically acute to acuminate, sometimes mucronate, (1.5)2 to 7(15) cm long, pubescent or glabrate; stipules setaceous, early deciduous; stipels 1 to 2 mm long, deciduous. Flowers in loose or dense axillary racemes; peduncle (2)3 to 5 cm long; nodes of inflorescence swollen, flowers 1 to 2 per node on pedicels 2 to 6 mm long, each subtended by a linear-subulate bract 2 to 2.5 mm long and with 2 minute, promptly deciduous, linear-subulate bracts at the apex. Calyx 3 to 5(or more) mm long, sparsely short-pubescent, broadly hemispherical or broadly campanulate, truncate, the lobes obsolete or represented by undulations on the rim, sometimes the lowest lobe longer, 1/4 to 1/2 as long as the tube; corolla papilionaceous, 10 to 14 mm long, banner orbicular, obovate, or obcordate, reflexed, whitish dorsally and brownish-red ventrally (sometimes drying violet); wings down-curved, brownish-purple; keel strongly incurved, slender, short-clawed, brown-red; stamens 10, diadelphous, the 9 lower united and the 10th and uppermost free. Legume linear, slightly flattened, 5 to 10(12) cm long, ca. 4 mm wide, the leathery valves spirally twisted after dehiscence, 2- to many-seeded; seeds 4 to 5 mm long, oblong or squarish, dark brown, rugose. Usually in moist woods near streams. Rare to infrequent in E., SE., and N. Cen. TX, rare in the Ed. Plat (Tom Green Co.); also reported from the Panhandle; E. 1/2 of S. Can. and U.S.: Que. to MN, and ND, S to CO and TX, to FL. [Includes forma pilosa Steyerm. , f. cleistogama Fern., and var. turrigera Fern.; Glycine apios L.].

The tubers are edible raw, are better cooked, and can also be made into flour. They were a staple of the Plains Indians and can be used much like potatoes--and they have three times the protein. The seeds are also edible, cooked like common peas, if the pods are soaked or roasted first. Be sure not to confuse these with toxic legumes. As they are rare, diners should grow these plants from seed or propagate them by the tubers, rather than depleting wild populations (Kindscher 1987; Tull 1987).



ROSACEAE STROPHOSTYLES23. STROPHOSTYLES Ell. Fuzzy Bean, Wild Bean



Taprooted annual or perennial, herbaceous vine. Young stems erect and simple, but becoming branched and trailing, twining, or weakly climbing, (2)3 to 20 dm long, lowermost branches sometimes opposite. Petioles 0.5 to 4(7) cm long; leaves of the lowermost 1 to 4 nodes sometimes simple, opposite, entire, reniform, 8 to 12 mm long and 12 to 15 mm wide, seldom collected; majority of leaves alternate, pinnately trifoliolate; , leaflets entire, sometimes gently lobed, generally linear-ovate to ovate or oblong. Stipules 2 to 5 mm long, striate, persistent; stipels semi-persistent. Peduncles axillary, 5 to 30 cm long, the rachis very short and flowers few so racemes thus subcapitate. Flowers nearly sessile, each pedicel subtended by a striate bract and with 2 minute bractlets juts beneath the flower. Calyx more or less bilabiate, tube campanulate, upper lip consisting of 2 lobes fused nearly their entire length, the lower lip with 3 teeth, the middle the longest. Corolla papilionaceous, pink to purplish or cream-colored, sometimes fading greenish or yellowish, banner 5 to 15 mm long, folded over the other petals; wings shorter than keel; keel strongly incurved, curling upwards back into the flower but usually not twisted (as in Phaseolus), or only slightly so. Stamens 10, diadelphous, 9 fused and the 10th and uppermost free. Ovary sessile or nearly so, style curved, pubescent along the inner side. Legume linear, terete or slightly laterally compressed, the 2 valves twisted after dehiscence. Seeds smooth, scurfy or often pubescent, rarely glabrous.

About 4 N. American species, closely related to Phaseolus (and perhaps best treated as a section thereof) but differing in the keel which usually remains in a single vertical plane and does not twist to the side. Three species in TX; all here.

1. Flowers 5 to 8 mm long; seeds 2 to 4 mm long, glabrate; peduncles slender, usually less than 10 cm long .............................................................................................1. S. leiosperma

1. Flowers 9 to 15 mm long; seeds 3 to 10 mm long, usually pubescent; peduncles stout, usually greater than 15 cm long ..............................................................................................2

2(1) Bractlets beneath each flower acute, equal to the calyx tube or longer; leaflets lobed at the base, or if unlobed then 1 to 3 times longer than wide .................................2. S. helvula

2. Bractlets beneath each flower blunt, 1/2 as long as the calyx tube or less; leaflets not lobed at base, 3 or more times longer than wide ...........................................3. S. umbellata

1. S. leiosperma (T. & G.) Piper Slick-seed Bean. Taprooted annual herb; stems 1 to several from the branching base, often branched above, (2)4 to 10(18) dm long, trailing or climbing, retrorsely spreading-hispid or sometimes glabrate. Lowermost simple leaves 8 to 10 mm long, major leaves trifoliolate, leaflets nearly linear to lanceolate or lance-oblong to elliptic to rarely ovate or rhombic-ovate, rarely with an indentation on one side or shallowly sinuately lobed, apex acute to rounded, base rounded, slightly retrorsely pilose or else hirsute or appressed-pubescent. Peduncles axillary, 3 to 12 cm long, ca. 0.5 mm thick; racemes few-flowered; bractlets at the base of the flower lanceolate, longer than the calyx tube. Calyx tube usually densely strigose or hirsute, 1.5 to 2 mm long, upper 2 teeth 1.5 to 2 mm long, the lowermost teeth 2 to 4 mm long, and the lateral teeth 1.7 to 2.4 mm long; corolla pink to purple, fading yellow or sometimes greenish, banner blade 7 to 8 mm long and about as wide, claw 1 mm long; wings 5 to 6 mm long with 1.5 to 2 mm long claws; keel 7 to 8 mm long, sharply recurved or occasionally coiled (as in Phaseolus). Legume 15 to 35(45) mm long, somewhat scurfy at first but becoming glabrous and shiny, gray to brown, marked with black or purple. Localized in the Plains Country, N. Cen., E., and SE. TX, the Llano area, and the N. part of the Rio Grande Plain; MS and TX N. to IN, OH, and WI, also MN to NE and CO. May-Sept.

2. S. helvula (L.) Ell. Amberique Bean. Taprooted annual herb; stems 1 to several, branched at base, often branching above, 3 to 12(20) dm long, trailing to twining, retrorsely spreading pilose or glabrate. Lowermost simple leaves 8 to 12 mm long, major leaves trifoliolate, leaflets rhombic to ovate-rhombic or ovate-oblong, entire or commonly pandurately 3-lobed or with indentions on one or both sides, 2 to 6.5 cm long, the apex mucronate, broadly rounded to acute, basally rounded to cuneate, glabrous to lightly strigose on both surfaces; petioles 1 to 8 cm long; stipules lanceolate, 4 to 6 mm long, persistent. Peduncles axillary, stout, (6)15 to 30 cm long; pedicels about 1 mm long; bracts linear, 1 to 2 mm long; bractlets subtending each flower lanceolate, acute, 2 to 3 mm long, generally equal to or longer than the calyx tube. Calyx tube glabrous to lightly appressed-pubescent, 1.7 to 3 mm long, upper teeth 1.7 to 2.3 mm long, the lowermost tooth 4 to 6 mm long, lateral teeth 2.5 to 3 mm long. Corolla pink to purplish, fading yellow or green, banner blade 10 to 14 mm long and 10 to 12 mm wide, claw 1 to 1.5 mm long; wings with blades 6 to 8 mm long and claws 1.5 to 2 mm long; keel blades 12 to 14 mm long, sharply recurved, with claws 2 to 3 mm long. Legume (3) 5 to 10 cm long, 5 to 8 mm broad, nearly terete, sparsely appressed-pubescent; seeds 6 to 12 mm long, persistently scurfy or woolly. Frequent in grasslands or open woods, preferring sandy soil. E., SE., and N. Cen. TX, rarely W. and S. to Eastland, Mason, and Karnes Cos.; reported from the Panhandle; E. 1/2 Can, MI and WI, E. to SD and S. to FL and TX. June-Sept. [S. missouriensis (S. Wats.) Small; Phaseolus helvolus L. In many sources misspelled helvola; helvula is Linnaeus' original spelling.].

3. S. umbellata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Britt. Perennial; stems trailing or weakly twining, (3)6 to 15(20) dm long, at least the younger parts densely retrorsely spreading-pubescent. All leaves, except the lowermost simple ones, with leaflets narrowly (or rarely broadly) ovate to lanceolate or narrowly oblong to rarely elliptic, 3 to 8 times longer than broad, 2 to 5 cm long, not lobed, the apex broadly rounded to acute, base broadly rounded to sometimes cuneate, glabrous or glabrate to somewhat appressed pubescent beneath. Peduncles (9)12 to 30 cm long, few-flowered; pedicels to 1 mm long; bracts oblong, 0.7 mm long; bractlets beneath the flowers ovate to oblong, blunt, 0.8 to 1 mm long, half as long as the calyx tube or less. Calyx tube glabrous or glabrate, 2 to 2.5 mm long, lobes with ciliate margins and the lowermost lobe usually strigose; corolla usually pale-purplish or pink, often fading yellow, banner 1 to 1.4 cm long. Legume 3 to 6.5 cm long, 4 mm broad, sparsely appressed-pubescent; seeds 3 to 6 mm long. Sandy soils and pine woods. Frequent in E. and SE. TX and occasional here; TN and VA to FL, GA, AL, MS, and TX. June-Sept. [Phaseolus umbellatus (Willd.) Nutt.].

ROSACEAE VIGNA24. VIGNA Savi



Annual or perennial vinelike herbs. Stems usually trailing or climbing, sometimes erect. Petioles well-developed. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, stipulate; leaflets entire, stipellate. Peduncles axillary, flowers few to several, closely clustered, racemose, each pedicel subtended by a minute caducous bract and bearing 2 caducous bractlets at its apex. Calyx campanulate, more or less bilabiate, the upper 2 lobes partially to wholly united, the 2 lateral lobes shorter than the lowermost 1. Corolla papilionaceous, yellow or purple, banner auriculate; wings with obovate blade and an auricle at the base of the upper margin; keel curved but not spiraling, about as long as wings and shorter than the banner. Stamens 10, diadelphous, 9 united and the 10th and uppermost free. Ovary sessile, style bearded on its upper surface. Legume linear, terete or slightly flattened, promptly dehiscent, thin-walled, several-seeded.

About 60 species of the tropics and subtropics. One species found locally.

1. V. luteola (Jacq.) Benth. Perennial; stems twining, glabrous to retrorsely pubescent, 1 to 3 m long. Leaflets ovate to lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 2 to 8 cm long, acute to acuminate, basally rounded to cuneate, somewhat sparsely appressed-pubescent on both surfaces; stipules ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate. Peduncles well-developed, usually several times longer than the leaves, flowers few to several, closely spaced at anthesis, internodes elongating in fruit; pedicels 1 to 3 mm long; subtending bracts 1 to 1.5 mm long, pubescent; bractlets 1-nerved, pubescent, 1 to 1.5 mm long. Flowers 15 to 18 mm long; calyx tube 2 to 2.5 mm long, sparsely appressed-pubescent or glabrous, the upper 2 lobes united, 2 mm long, the lateral lobes about 1.5 mm long, and the lowermost lobes 2.5 mm long; corolla yellow, 1.4 to 1.8 cm long. Legume 3 to 7 cm long, linear, appressed-pubescent. Local in wet areas. Coastal counties inland to Hidalgo Co.; tropical Amer. N. to NC, GA, W. to MS and TX, E. to FL. Mar.-Nov., ours often Aug. [V. repens (L.) O. Ktze., not V. repens Baker].

NOTE: V. unguiculata (L.) Walp. Cowpea, Black-eyed Pea, Cream Pea. Occasionally volunteers at edges of the field where they are grown; extremely uncommon outside of cultivation in our area, but possible. Distinguished from V. luteola by the purplish corolla, glabrous legume 10 cm or more long, and stipules extending in flaps below the point of attachment to the stem. Grown for the edible seeds which are cream-colored at first and later develop the characteristic black "eye" around the hilum.



ROSACEAE GALACTIA25. GALACTIA P. Br. Milk-pea



Herbaceous or woody perennial vines. Stems trailing to twining, rarely erect or shrubby, ca. 3 to 30 dm long. Leaves once odd pinnately compound, usually with 3 leaflets, occasionally with 1, 5, 7, or 9. Leaflets entire, petiolulate, stipellate; stipels minute and setaceous. Stipules generally small and early-deciduous. Racemes pedunculate, axillary, with 1 to many flowers borne 1 to several per node, each subtended by a bract and with 2 bractlets at or near the top of the pedicel. Calyx tube more or less actinomorphic, campanulate, lobes appearing 4, the upper 2 being fused together, lateral lobes shorter than the upper and lower lobes. Corolla papilionaceous, white to pink, lavender, purple, or red, never yellow, to ca. 15 mm long. Stamens 10, diadelphous, 9 united and the 10th and uppermost free, in some species the stamens occasionally monadelphous. Ovary sessile to short-stipitate. Legume linear, flattened, to several cm long, strongly or slightly curved, few- to many-seeded, valves twisting after dehiscence (the subterranean fruits of G.canescens 1-seeded, indehiscent.)

About 50 species in warm regions of the world; 2 to be found in our area.

1. Stems twining; leaflets thin-textured or membranous, without conspicuous raised venation beneath; flowers and fruit produced on aerial racemes .................................1. G. regularis

1. Stems trailing but not twining; leaflets thick and firm, with conspicuous raised venation beneath; both aerial and below-ground racemes produced, the subterranean fruits 1- seeded and indehiscent ................................................................................2. G. canescens

1. G. regularis (L.) B.S.P. Downy Milk-pea. Perennial vine from taproot and short, branched rootstock; stems prostrate, trailing, twining, or climbing, 5 to 10 dm long, sparsely to densely pubescent or pilose with spreading or retrorse hairs, rarely retrorsely canescent. Leaflets 3 per leaf, oblong, oblong-ovate, or elliptic, (1)2 to 4 (6) cm long and 10 to 25(35) mm wide, basally obtuse, rounded, or even cordate, apically obtuse, rounded, mucronate, or slightly emarginate, thin to membranous in texture and not conspicuously reticulate-veined beneath, strigose to pilose above, below strigose, short-pilose, or glabrate; petioles 0.5 to 5 cm long, pilose; stipules 1 to 3 mm long, caducous. Peduncles 1 to 40 mm long, spreading-pilose; racemes 1 or 2 per node, 3 to 10(15) dm long, spreading-pilose; flowers 6 to 12 mm long, 1 to 3 per raceme, spaced 5 to 20 mm apart; pedicels 1 to 4 mm long. Calyx green-yellow, tube 2 to 2.5 mm long, spreading-short-pubescent, lobes 2 to 3.5 mm long; corolla pink to rose, banner 6 to 9 mm long; wings and keel petals 6 to 8 mm long. Legume linear, straight or nearly so, 2 to 5.5 cm long, 4 to 5 mm wide, flattened, pubescent with scattered spreading to antrorse-appressed hairs, valves twisting after dehiscence; seeds 3 to 4 mm long and 1.5 to 2 mm wide, smooth, yellow to dark brown, often purple-mottled. Frequent in wooded areas. E. 1/2 TX W. to Palo Pinto, Burnet, and Cameron Cos.; E. U.S., N. Eng. S. to IN, MO, and KS, S. to FL, AL, and TX. June-Aug. or Sept. [G.volubilis (L.) Britt. of recent works, and vars. volubilis and mississippiensis Vail; G. mississippiensis Vail; Dolichos regularis L.;G. pilosa Ell. (but not of Michx); G. villosa Eaton & Wright (but not of Wight and Arnott); and some material identified as G. mollisNutt. (but not Michx.)].

For years these plants were treated as G. volubilis (L.) Britt., but Duncan (1979) has determined that they are conspecific with the type of G. regularis. Many plants formerly called G. regularis are probably best treated as G. glabella. The article cited should be consulted for any local twining Galactia material which does not match the description given here.

2. G. canescens Benth. Hoary Milk-pea. Perennial; stems trailing and never twining, (5)10 to 30 dm long, prostrate, rather densely antrorsely appressed-pubescent with pale hairs. Leaflets 3 per leaf, ovate to elliptic or nearly obovate, (1)1.5 to 3.5 cm long, firm and more or less thick, the veins conspicuously raised and reticulate beneath, grayish strigose-canescent above, densely silvery appressed-pubescent below; petioles to ca. 2 cm long and terminal leaflet distinctly petiolulate, petioles, petiolules, and rachis densely antrorsely pubescent. Racemes 1 to several per node, of 2 kinds: Aerial racemes short, flowers pinkish or rose-lavender to purple, ca. 8 to 12 mm long, presumably chasmogamous; legume straight or nearly so, to several cm long, pubescent. Subterranean racemes very short, usually with a single cleistogamous flower; legume indehiscent, 1-seeded, and peanut-like, maturing below-ground. On silty or sandy soils of plains and prairies. Rio Grande Plains of S. and S. Cen. TX, N. to Travis, Comal, Medina, and Burleson Cos.; one population known from Somervell Co. Rare in our area, but known at least from one specimen (TAMU 025211) from Burleson Co. in 1953; possibly only occasional or no longer present in our area. Apr.-July.

According to Turner (1959), the underground legumes are edible.



ROSACEAE RHYNCHOSIA26. RHYNCHOSIA L. Snoutbean



Trailing, climbing, or erect perennial herbs or shrubs (ours all herbs). Stems 1 to several from the base. Leaves unifoliolate or more often pinnately 3-foliolate, the leaflets usually entire and dotted with minute amber glands or resin globules. Papilla-based hairs present on both leaf surfaces and along the stems. Stipules ovate to lanceolate; stipels usually present. Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes or in groups of 1 to a few in the axils, pedicellate, subtended by caducous bracts. Calyx bilabiate, the tube campanulate or tubular, shorter than the lobes, lobes lanceolate, subequal, the upper 2 partially united. Corolla papilionaceous, the petals yellow or sometimes tinged with red, brown, or purple, especially the banner, equal or longer than the calyx, the keel curved, somewhat falcate. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the 10th and uppermost free. Legume usually oblong to orbicular or curved, mostly 1- or 2- seeded, dehiscent usually along 2 sutures.

About 150 species in tropical and subtropical regions of the world; 7 species found in TX; 4 here. This treatment is based, in part on the work of Grear (1978). [Dolicholus Medic.].

1. Calyx lobes leaf-like; corolla equal to or shorter than the calyx .............................................2

1. Calyx lobes not leaf-like; corolla longer than the calyx ...........................................................3

2(1) Leaves trifoliolate, leaflets ovate or ovate-rhombic ...........................................1. R. latifolia

2. Leaves unifoliolate, reniform ..........................................................................2. R. americana

3(1) Flowers in elongate axillary racemes ..................................................................3. R. minima

var. minima

3. Flowers short axillary racemes or clusters ...........................................................4. R. senna

var. texana

1. R. latifolia Nutt. ex T. & G. Peavine. Stems trailing to twining; papilla-based hairs descending or spreading, thickest along the angles of the stem, 0.5 to 1.1 mm long. Leaves trifoliolate, the longest rachis 16 to 83 mm long, leaflets broadly ovate to roundly ovate-rhombic, the longest 30 to 77 mm long, with amber resin dots visible with a lens below, pubescent on both surfaces, evenly distributed above and primarily on the major veins below; stipules 2.5 to 7.5 mm long, lanceolate, pubescent-margined, often reddish when dry. Flowers in loose, elongate terminal and axillary racemes 3 to 30 cm long, axis and pedicels pubescent. Calyx 8 to 15 mm long, equal to or longer than the corolla, pubescent and resin-dotted, the lobes foliaceous; corolla yellow, drying reddish-brown, 8.5 to 13 mm long. Legume ca. 1.5 cm long, oblong with 1 margin more curved than the other, flattened, beaked with the remains of the style, pubescent and gland-dotted, 1- to 2-seeded. Woodlands, usually in sandy soils. E., SE., and N. Cen. TX; MO SW. to LA and TX. May-Aug. [R. reticulata var. latifolia (Nutt.) O. Ktze.; R. Torreyi Vail; Dolicholuslatifolius (Nutt.) Vail; D. Torreyi (Vail) Vail].

2. R. americana (Houst. ex P. Mill.) C. Metz. Stems prostrate to trailing or twining, 6 to 9 dm long, angled; pubescence spreading to descending and 0.2 to 1 mm long. Leaves unifoliolate (rarely the upper leaves 3-foliolate), suborbicular to reniform, usually wider than long, the longest blades 15 to 48 mm long, pubescent on both surfaces, the undersides velvety and with the pubescence primarily on the veins, scarcely gland-dotted; longest petioles 14 to 47 mm long; stipules 2.5 to 6.5 mm long, persistent, ovate-lanceolate, often reddish-brown when dry. Racemes 1.5 to 3 cm long, primarily axillary, sessile or with peduncles to 2.5 cm long, few-flowered; pedicels 1 to 5 mm long, subtended by caducous, lance-linear bracts 2 to 3 mm long; axis and pedicels pubescent. Calyx 7 to 13 mm long, equal to or longer than the corolla, pubescent and obscurely resin-dotted, the tube 1.5 to 2 mm long, the lobes foliaceous, 6 to 10 mm long; corolla yellow, 6 to 10 mm long. Legume 1 to 1.8 cm long, 5 to 7 mm broad, flattened, oblong, with one margin more curved than the other, short-beaked with the remains of the style, pubescent, 1- to 2 seeded. Frequent in grasslands, open woods, mostly on sandy or gravelly soils. Rio Grande Plains N. to Comal, Bastrop, Fayette, Colorado, and Harris Cos.; infrequently collected but present in our area; also N. Mex. Mar.-Oct. [R. menispermoideaDC.; Dolicholus americanus (Mill.) Vail].

3. R. minima (L.) DC. var. minima Least Snoutbean. Stems trailing or twining, angled; pubescence descending to spreading, 0.1 to 0.2 mm long. Leaves trifoliolate, the longest rachis 17 to 67 mm long, leaflets rhombic to rhombic-orbicular, longest terminal leaflet 15 to 37 mm long, sparingly pubescent to glabrate above, lower surface not conspicuously pubescent but feeling velvety below, with conspicuous amber or reddish-brown resin dots; stipules caducous, lanceolate, 1.5 to 4.5 mm long; stipels present. Flowers in loose axillary racemes 4.5 to 16.5 cm long, axis and pedicels pubescent. Calyx ca. 2.5 to 4 mm long, shorter than the corolla, lobes not leaflike, narrowly lanceolate, 1.5 to 3 mm long; corolla yellow, occasionally tinged with brown, (3.5)4 to 7 mm long. Legume 12 to 20 mm long, oblong and slightly curved ("scimitar-shaped"), 4 to 5 mm broad, apiculate, pubescent, the margins of dry fruits somewhat undulate, dehiscent along 2 sutures; seeds reniform, brown-black or mottled, ca. 3 to 5 mm long. Frequent in the Coastal Plain, inland to Newton, Travis, Bexar, and Hidalgo Cos., preferring clay soil; also LA, FL, GA. Apr.-Dec., our specimens June. [Dolicholus minimus (L.) Medic.].

The other TX variety, var. diminifolia Walraven, is found in Nueces and Cameron Cos. and has leaflets about 1/3 as big.

4. R. senna Gillies ex Hook. var. texana (T. & G.) M. C. Johnst. Texas Snoutbean, Texas Rhynchosia. Stems trailing or twining; pubescence 0.1 to 0.6 mm long, ascending or usually descending. Leaves trifoliolate, the longest rachis 8.5 to 12 mm long, leaflets linear or narrowly elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, rarely ovate, apically acute to rounded, pubescent, resin-dotted; stipules lanceolate, 1.3 to 4.5 mm long; stipels absent. Flowers 1 to 3 in short axillary racemes. Calyx lobes not foliaceous, the lower lobes lanceolate, acuminate, 1.5 to 5 mm long, upper lobes shorter; corolla yellow, often marked with brown or red, shorter than the calyx, 3.5 to 7 mm long. Legume oblanceolate, curved, the longest ones 11 to 19 mm long, short pubescent to short-pilose, dehiscent along 2 sutures; seeds 1 or 2. Frequent in calcareous and other types of soil, Trans Pecos, Ed. Plat., Rio Grande Plains, and S. part of N. Cen. TX, N. and E. to Mitchell, Palo Pinto, Dallas, McLennan, Brazos, Austin, and Calhoun Cos.; TX to AZ and N. Mex.; also Arg. and Parag. Apr.-Oct. [R. texana T. & G. and var. angustifoliaEngelm.; Dolicholus texensis (T. & G.) Vail].

This Rhynchosia is a good browse for livestock (Tull 1987).



ROSACEAE SOPHORA27. SOPHORA L.



Perennial herbs, sometimes forming colonies, or in TX more commonly shrubs or trees, deciduous or evergreen. Leaves once odd-pinnately compound, leaflets 5 to 17 per leaf. Stipules deciduous, minute; leaflets stipellate. Flowers in usually dense axillary or terminal racemes, yellow, white, or rose-pink to purple or bluish. Calyx of 5 sepals united above the floral cup, sometimes very reduced. Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens 10, all free. Legume 1- to several-seeded, woody or fleshy, indehiscent or very tardily dehiscent, usually constricted between the seeds.

About 70 species in warm areas of the world; 5 in TX; 1 here.

Several species, most notably S. secundiflora have poisonous seeds. Some are planted for their showy flowers (Mabberley 1987).

1. S. affinis T. & G. Eve's Necklace. Deciduous shrub 2 to 5 m tall or tree to 10 m, often spindly where competition is high, but well-formed when it has room; young foliage silky-pubescent, often becoming glabrate but not glossy. Leaflets 13 to 17 per leaf, alternate or sub-opposite on rachis, obovate to oblong or elliptic or lanceolate, acute to rounded, sometimes mucronate or emarginate, lighter green and often pubescent below, ca. 1.5 to 4 cm long and about 1/3 to 1/2 as wide. Flowers in racemes 3 to 10 cm long. Calyx pubescent, cup-shaped, the lobes broadly deltoid or reduced to mere undulations of the calyx rim; corolla rosy pink, often with a yellow-green center, banner ca. 0.8 to 1.4 cm long; stamens slender, all free; ovary densely silky-pubescent. Fruit about 3 to 15 cm long, black, about 8 to 9 mm broad and as thick, often beaked, leathery, strongly constricted between the seeds so that the legume looks like a string of spherical black beads, sometimes persisting on the tree over the winter. Often found in moist areas of the Ed. Plat. and N. Cen. TX; also OK, AR, and LA. Spring, ours primarily April.

The seeds reportedly contain poisonous compounds (Tull 1987).



ROSACEAE ROBINIA28. ROBINIA L.



Trees or shrubs, to 10 m, commonly spreading by underground stems. Leaves deciduous, 5 to 15(30) cm long, once odd-pinnately compound; leaflets 7 to 19 per leaf, usually obovate to elliptic, stipellate, the stipels caducous. Stipules present, paired, spine-like, nearly straight, to 1 cm long. Inflorescences nodding axillary racemes on current year's growth, usually shorter than the leaves; flowers long-pedicellate, papilionaceous. Calyx campanulate, more or less bilabiate, the upper 2 lobes united for part of their length, shorter than the lower 3 which are separate and subequal. Corolla white, red, or red-purple, petals clawed, 1 to 3 cm long, banner blade at least partially reflexed, obcordate to nearly suborbicular; wing blade oblong to obovate, with a basal auricle on the upper margin; keel petals basally auriculate. Stamens 10, monadelphous, the uppermost stamen attached to the other 9 for about 2/3 its length but free on both ends. Ovary stipitate, upper side of style barbate. Legume broadly linear, flattened, thin-valved, few- to several-seeded.

About 10 U.S. and Mexican species whose relationships are still unclear due to widespread hybridization. There are 3 species in TX and 2 in our area.

1. Previous season's growth and legumes densely hispid; petals purple to reddish or rose .......

...................................................................................................................1. R. hispida

1. Previous season's growth and legumes primarily glabrous; petals white ................................

........................................................................................................ ..........2. R. pseudoacacia

1. R. hispida L. Bristly-Locust. Rhizomatous shrub 3 to 30 dm tall, well-branched; twigs of previous season's growth with indurate or stiff bristles, usually also hispid or pilose. Leaves 1 to 3 dm long, leaflets 7 to 13(19) per leaf, ranging from oblong to oblong-elliptic, ovate, or suborbicular, ca. 2 to 6 cm long, 1 to 3.5 cm wide, both surfaces glabrous at maturity or the veins of the lower surface sparsely pubescent. Racemes 0.5 to 1.3 dm long; peduncle, rachis, and pedicels more or less hispid; flowers basically scentless. Calyx hispid; corolla purplish to red-purple or rosy, 2 to 3 cm long. Legume densely glandular-hispid, 5 to 8 cm long, 1 to 1.2 cm broad, acuminate, 3- to 5- seeded. Rare in E. TX, known from Leon Co., probably an introduced species; KY to VA, S. to GA, and AL; cultivated elsewhere. [According to one source, R. fertilis Ashe; R. longiloba Ashe; R. grandifloraAshe; R. speciosa Ashe; R. pallida Ashe; R. hispida L. var. fertilis (Ashe) Clausen]. Some sources recognize varieties.

2. R. pseudoacacia L. Black Locust. Deciduous tree to 15(25) m tall, well-branched; plants usually root-sprouting and forming colonies; bark thick and deeply furrowed; foliage nearly glabrous. Leaves (1) 2 to 3 dm long, leaflets 7 to 19(27), elliptic to oblong-ovate or ovate, opposite, subopposite, or alternate on the rachis, 2 to 5 cm long, 1 to 2(3) cm wide, entire, slightly mucronate, densely pubescent at first, becoming glabrous; stipels caducous; stipules linear-subulate, at first membranous then becoming woody spines, persistent, 0.3 to 2.5 cm long. Racemes 0.5 to 2 dm long, drooping; flowers numerous (10 to 35) and fragrant; pedicels 0.5 to 1 cm long, each subtended by a minute bract. Calyx tube campanulate, bilabiate, puberulent, 4 to 5 mm long, upper lobes 2 to 3 mm long, lower lobes 1.5 to 2 mm long, margins ciliate; corolla white except for a yellow lozenge on the banner, banner with blade 15 to 25 mm long and claw 4 to 6 mm long; wings and keel with claws 1/3 to 1/4 the length of the blades; stamens diadelphous. Legume short-stipitate, glabrous, 5 to 10 cm long and 1 to 1.5 cm broad, flattened, with a narrow wing 1 to 1.5 mm wide along the upper surface, (3-)4- to 8-(16-)seeded, valves thin, dry, legume often persisting through the winter; seeds reniform, 5 to 5.5 mm long, 2 to 3 mm wide, dark brown, often purple-mottled. Scattered in E., SE., and N. Cen. TX; perhaps introduced; E. and SE. U.S; PA and IN to WV, VA, MO, and the Great Plains, S. to GA, LA, and OK. Spring, ours primarily March and April.

Widely cultivated in the E. U.S., but not particularly suited to landscapes. Though the trees are fast-growing and have fall color, they are thorny, drop legumes, are brittle-wooded, and root-sprout incorrigibly, putting them on the nurseryman's list of "trash trees."



ROSACEAE SESBANIAS29. SESBANIAScop.



Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, or weak shrubs, branches and stems usually green. Leaves widely spaced, deciduous, once even-pinnately compound, to 2 or 3 dm long, short-petiolate; leaflets many per leaf, broadly or narrowly elliptic or linear, to 2 or 3 cm long, estipellate, sometimes glaucous beneath. Stipules caducous. Flowers in axillary racemes usually shorter than the leaves; peduncles 1 to 12 cm long, each flower subtended by a caducous bract and each pedicel with 2 minute bractlets just below the calyx. Calyx tube broadly campanulate, wider than long, more or less regular, lobes shorter than the tube, deltoid, acute, subequal. Corolla papilionaceous, yellow, red, or orange, 6 to 20 mm long, banner longer than the wings and keel, short-clawed, orbicular, reflexed; wings with oblanceolate blades and claws 1/4 to 1/3 as long; keel petals auricled, arching, with claws about equalling the blades. Stamens 10, diadelphous, 9 united basally and the 10th and uppermost free. Legume stipitate, linear, elongate, 2-valved or 4-sided or 4-winged, dehiscent or indehiscent. [Daubentonia DC.; Glottidium Desv.].

About 40 species of the tropics and subtropics; 3 in TX; 2 here, usually in areas that are seasonally wet.

All of the TX plants are toxic, with the seeds having the highest concentration of toxic saponins. There are well-documented livestock and fowl losses, as well as at least one human fatality (Tull 1987). Liver damage also occurs in people who use the plants in small doses over a long period of time, such as in herbal remedies (Lampe 1985).

1. Racemes with 10 to 30 flowers; legumes thickened, 4-winged ................1. S. drummondii

1. Racemes with 2 to 6 flowers; legumes elongate, slender, wingless ..............2. S.herbacea

1. S. drummondii (Rydb.) Cory Rattlebush, Poison Bean, Coffee Bean. Shrub 4 to 30 dm tall, in our area and further north usually dying to near the ground each year; new growth loosely pubescent. Leaves generally 1 to 2 dm long, leaflets 20 to 50 per leaf, mostly 15 to 35 mm long, 4 to 7 mm broad, rounded to broadly acute, apiculate. Peduncles 1 to 5 cm long; flowers 13 to 16 mm long. Calyx tube ca. 2 to 4 mm long, lobes 1 to 2 mm long; corolla yellow, often with thin red lines. Legume short-stipitate, short-beaked, to 5 to 6 cm long, ca. 1 cm broad, body 4-winged the full length, wings about 3 to 4 mm wide, sometimes slightly indented between the several seeds (sometimes a legume 2-seeded by abortion.) Locally abundant in seasonally moist areas. Coastal plain inland to Denton, Williamson, Travis, Comal, Wilson, McMullen, and Starr Cos; coastal states from FL to Mex. Jun.-Sept. [Daubentonia drummondii Rydb.].

When the fruits are dry, the seeds rattle in the pods, hence the name.

2. S. herbacea (P. Mill.) McVaugh Bequilla. Stout annual 7 to 40 dm tall, rarely branched; new growth with a few stray hairs. Leaves 1 to 2(3) dm long, leaflets up to 70 per leaf, 1 to 3 cm long and 2 to 6 mm broad, rounded to truncate, apiculate. Peduncles 2 to 4(8) cm long; pedicels 0.5 to 1 cm long; flowers 11 to 16 mm long. Calyx tube 3 to 4 mm long, lobes 1 to 1.5 mm long; corolla yellow. Legume liner, 10 to 20 cm long, 3 to 4 mm broad, sutures much thickened, beak 5 to 10 mm long, 30- to 40-seeded. Infrequent but locally abundant in the E. 1/3 of TX, W. to Denton, Tarrant, Travis, Hays, Comal, San Patricio, and Cameron Cos; FL to TX, N. to OK, KS, MO, VA, IL, and scattered as a waif in the NE. U.S. Aug.-Oct. [S. macrocarpa Muhl. ; S. exaltata (Raf.) Rydb.; Sesban exaltata (Raf.) Rydb.].

The Yuma Indians extracted the stem fibers for making cording. Paper can be made from the pith. Sometimes planted in citrus groves to improve the soil (Tull 1987).



30. GLOTTIDIUM Desv.

Similar to Sesbania, but the leaves with fewer leaflets, the racemes fewer-flowered, and the calyx scarcely lobed.

Several species; we have the 1species found in the U.S.

This genus has at times been considered part of Sesbania. The two are arguably distinct. The recent trend (Isley 1990; Kartesz 1998; etc.) has been to recognize the split.

1. G. vesicarium (Jacq.) Harper. Bag-pod, Bladder Pod. Annual herb; new growth sometimes sparsely ciliate or pilose. Leaves 10 to 15 cm long, leaflets 20 to 40(52) per leaf, 1 to 4 cm long, 3 to 6 mm broad, acute to rounded, very slightly emarginate, or apiculate. Peduncles 5 to 12 cm long; flowers 6 to 9 mm long. Calyx tube ca. 2 to 3 mm long, lobes 1 to 2 mm long; corolla yellow, commonly suffused with orange or red. Stipe of legume 1 to 2 cm long and 1 to 1.5 mm thick; legume oblong to elliptic, 2.5 to 8 cm long, 1.5 to 2 cm thick, inflated, with a thickened margin along both sutures, the 2 valves separating at maturity into 2 layers, the outer layer thick and the inner membranous or papery, beak ca. 5 to 7 mm long; seeds usually 2, ca. 1.5 cm long. Common in the E. 1/3 of TX, W. to Palo Pinto, Erath, Bastrop, Gonzalez, Karnes and San Patricio Cos.; coastal states, NC to TX; also W.I.; perhaps only adventitious in the U.S. Aug.-Sept. [Sesbania vesicaria (Jacq.) Ell.].

This plant is poisonous to livestock (Mabberley 1987).



ROSACEAE TEPHROSIAP31. TEPHROSIAPers. Hoary Pea



Perennial herbs (sometimes shrubs) from woody taproots or with woody crowns. Stems unbranched to sparingly branched, decumbent to erect. Herbage usually pubescent. Leaves odd-pinnately compound, leaflets (1)5 to 31(41) per leaf, entire, pubescent on both surfaces or pubescent below and glabrous above, usually with conspicuous parallel secondary veins, estipellate. Stipules present, persistent or deciduous, slender, herbaceous. Inflorescence basically racemose, terminal, axillary, or appearing to be opposite a leaf, flowers usually 2 to 10 at each node of the raceme, each group subtended by a bract and each pedicel subtended by a persistent or caducous bract; pedicels usually without bractlets (but sometimes with 1 to 3). Calyx tube obconic or rather campanulate, persistent, the 5 lobes usually lanceolate, the lowermost the longest. Corolla papilionaceous, white, pink, red, or purple, the petals clawed, banner broad, silky-pubescent dorsally; wing blades generally broadly oblong, each with an auricle near the base on the upper side, coalescent near their tips. Stamens 10, monadelphous with the 10th and uppermost free at both ends but attached to the other 9 near the middle, the 9 united for 1/2 to 2/3 their length, rarely stamens diadelphous. Base of ovary surrounded by a collar-like disk attached to the floral cup. Legume linear, straight or somewhat curved, flat, often obliquely striate, 2 to 6 cm long, 2-valved, dehiscent, several-seeded.

About 300 species in warm regions of the world; 5 in TX; 2 here. Some species yield fish poisons (Mabberley 1987).

1. Stems stiffly erect; leaflets acute; racemes short and broad, 3 to 10 cm long in full flower ...

.........................................................................................................................1. T. virginiana

1. Stems reclining or decumbent, never stiffly erect; leaflets obtuse to truncate; racemes narrow and elongate, 10 to 40 cm long in full flower ............................2. T. onobrychoides

1. T. virginiana (L.)Pers. Devil's Shoestring, Catgut, Goat's Rue. Perennial herb from slender woody roots and a woody branching or knobby rootstock; stems densely strigose to short pubescent or villous, stiff and erect, 1 to several from the base, 2 to 7 dm tall, unbranched or sparingly branched. Petioles generally shorter than the lowest leaflets; leaves 5 to 14 cm long, leaflets (9)15 to 25(31), opposite, subopposite, or alternate on the rachis, sometimes so staggered as to make the leaf appear even-pinnate, leaflets of larger leaves elliptic to linear-oblong, 10 to 31(33) mm long, (2)4 to 8(10) mm broad, 2 to 7 times longer than broad, apiculate, acute to rounded or the terminal leaflet sometimes truncate, glabrous to short-pubescent or villous above, sparsely to densely appressed- or spreading-pubescent or villous below; stipules 8 to 11 mm long. Inflorescence most often terminal (rarely on axillary branches), racemose or rarely paniculate, sessile or short-peduncled, 3 to 10 cm long; bracts subtending flower clusters and individual pedicels deciduous, linear-lanceolate to subulate, 0.4 to 2 cm long; pedicels 4 to 17(20) mm long, occasionally with 1 to 3 bractlets. Flowers 14 to 21 mm long; calyx usually densely villous or pilose, sometimes strigose, tube campanulate, 3 to 5 mm long, somewhat bilabiate, the 2 teeth of the upper lip subulate to deltoid, acuminate, 3 to 6 mm long, lowermost tooth of lower lip 4 to 7 mm long, lateral teeth 3 to 6 mm long; corolla bicolored, the banner lemon to cream outside, cream to white inside; wings and keel rose or rarely white, all fading to brown, petals with claws 2 to 3 mm long, banner reniform or orbicular, 14 to 19 mm long and about as wide; wings 15 to 20 mm long; keel nearly oval, 14 to 15 mm long; style barbate. Legume straight to down-curved, linear, 2.5 to 5.5 cm long, 3 to 4.5 mm broad, long-beaked, sparsely strigillose to densely villous, 6- to 11-seeded; seeds reniform, black, 3 to 4.5 mm long, brown with black mottling. Common in sandy soils. N. TX S. to Lubbock, Callahan, Guadalupe, DeWitt, and Jefferson Cos.; NH to FL, W. to WI, NE, CO, KS, and TX. Apr.-Jun., our collections primarily May. [Includes vars. holosericea (Nutt.) T. & G. and glabra Nutt.; T. leucosericea (Rydb.) Cory; Cracca virginiana L.;C. leucosericea Rydb.].

2. T. onobrychoides Nutt. Herbaceous perennial from a woody crown and taproot; stems 1 to several from the base, stout, reclining or decumbent (never stiffly erect), to 6 to 7 dm long; stems, petioles, rachises, and petiolules densely spreading pubescent. Petioles shorter than the lowermost leaflets; larger leaves 8 to 22 cm long, leaflets (11)13 to 25(29) per leaf, opposite or subopposite on rachis, varying from linear-oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, oblong-elliptic, or elliptic-cuneate, apically rounded to truncate, terminal leaflet generally more cuneate than the others, all mucronate-apiculate, 17 to 55(60) mm long, 4 to 16(20) mm broad, 2.5 to 6 times longer than broad, glabrous or short-pubescent to villous above, appressed- or spreading-pubescent to villous below; stipules ca. 6 to 15 mm long. Inflorescences generally terminal, sometimes on axillary branches, racemose, long-peduncled, 10 to 40 cm long; bracts subtending flower clusters and pedicels linear-subulate, ca. 4 to 10 mm long; pedicels ascending, 4 to 10 mm long. Flowers 15 to 20 mm long; calyx sparsely to densely pubescent, tube campanulate, ca. 3 to 5 mm long, upper teeth ca. 3 to 4 mm long, deltoid to subulate, lower teeth longer, subulate, the middle and lowermost one the longest, to 5 to 6 mm long; corolla white, becoming purple or crimson in age and drying beige, pink, or purple, banner blade ca. 12 to 15 mm long, claw ca. 3 mm long; wing blades ca. 12 to 14 mm long; keel blade ca. 10 to 15 mm long; style barbate. Legume straight or slightly curved, linear, long-beaked, 3.5 to 8.5 cm long, (3.5)4.5 to 5 mm broad, borne spreading or ascending, short-pubescent,

3- to 10-seeded. Sandy soils, E. and SE. TX, SW. to Wilson, Goliad, and Aransas Cos.; AL to TX and OK. Apr.-Jun. [T.angustifolia Featherm.; T. texana (Rydb.) Cory; Cracca onobrychoides (Nutt.) O. Ktze.].

ROSACEAE INDIGOFERA32. INDIGOFERA L. Indigo



Perennial herbs or shrubs. Herbage usually all gray-pubescent, the hairs appressed and neatly-spaced, often medifixed (attached in the middle and with both ends free.) Leaves once odd-pinnately compound (less often palmate or unifoliate), short-petiolate. Leaflets 5 to 15 per leaf, opposite or alternate on the rachis, commonly oblanceolate to obovate or elliptic (rarely linear), estipellate or stipels exceedingly minute and subulate, deciduous. Stipules herbaceous, setaceous to subulate. Flowers subtended by small subulate to setaceous bracts, in axillary racemes which are sometimes spikelike. Calyx gray-pubescent, 5-toothed, the teeth triangular to lance-acuminate. Corolla papilionaceous, brick red (less commonly pink or purple), banner orbicular or obovate, generally as broad as or broader than long, short-clawed; wings also short-clawed, blades oblanceolate, oblong, or linear, with a basal auricle, slightly adhering to the keel; keel blades united apically, spurred or pouched, clawed. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the 10th and uppermost free, connective between anther cells gland-bearing. Legume little-flattened, short and linear or curved, several-seeded, promptly dehiscent. Seeds separate in the pod and sessile.

About 400 species in the warm regions of the world; 3 in TX; 2 here.

It is plants of this genus, namely I. tinctoria and I. suffruticosa, which yield the blue dye indigo, formerly widely used and still used for blue jeans and by home dyers (Mabberley 1987).

1. Stems prostrate, decumbent or somewhat ascending; leaflets 5 to 9 per leaf, alternate on the rachis; upper leaf surface densely pubescent ...............................................1. I. miniata

1. Stems stiffly erect, plants suffrutescent; leaflets 9 to 15 per leaf, opposite or subopposite on rachis; upper leaf surface less densely pubescent or glabrate .............2. I. suffruticosa

1. I. miniata Ort. Scarlet Pea. Stems decumbent to procumbent or weakly ascending, 1 to 7 dm tall, from a woody taproot; herbage evenly pubescent, hairs mostly appressed. Petioles 5 to 20 mm long (see the varieties below); leaflets 5 to 9 per leaf, narrowly obovate, or oblanceolate to oblong, alternate on the rachis, generally more pubescent below than above; stipules inconspicuous if present. Calyx persistent, teeth subulate, about twice as long as the campanulate tube, to about 5 mm long. Legume 1 to 3 cm long, 2 to 3 mm thick, linear, appressed-pubescent, beaked with the remains of the style, greenish-brown, somewhat lighter medially than along the sutures. Abundant in open areas in the E. 2/3 of TX. From about May to Nov.

There are 3 varieties in TX; we have 2.

var. miniata Stem hairs appressed; stipules 3 to 5 mm long; petioles 5 to 8 mm long. Rio Grande Plains, rare N. to Lavaca and Wilson Cos.; TX, FL, Mex. and Cuba. Intergrading with the next variety in our area. [I. argentata Rydb.].

var. leptosepala (Nutt. ex T. & G.) B. L. Turner Nearly all stem hairs appressed; petioles 8 to 20 mm long. E. 2/3 of TX except the far S. portion and the Llano region, rare W. to Terrell Co. and the E. part of the Panhandle. Sometimes intergrading in our area with the previous variety.

2. I. suffruticosa P. Mill. Indigo. Stems erect, 5 to 20 dm tall, stiff, nearly woody at the base, to 7 mm or more thick; stems, petioles, rachises, and petiolules rather inconspicuously appressed-pubescent. Leaflets 9 to 15 per leaf, opposite or nearly so on the rachis, generally elliptic to oval, apiculate, glabrate above and sparsely appressed-pubescent below. Racemes shorter than the subtending leaves, peduncles sparsely appressed-pubescent. Calyx densely strigose, the teeth deltoid to lanceolate, shorter than to only slightly longer than the tube; corolla generally to about 5 mm long. Legume 15 to 20 mm long, basally acute. Local in the Coastal Plains, Harding to Cameron Cos., inland to Robertson, Brazos, Grimes, Gonzalez, and Wilson Cos.; native to tropical America and widely introduced. July-Nov.

This plant and I. tinctoria are the two sources of the blue dye indigo (Mabberley 1987).



ROSACEAE ASTRAGALUS33. ASTRAGALUS L. Milk-vetch, Loco Weed



Annual or perennial herbs (some shrubs, but not ours), caulescent or acaulescent, taprooted, the perennial species developing aerial or underground root-stocks and sometimes also rhizomatous or stoloniferous. Herbage pubescent with simple (all of ours) or dolabriform (attached at the middle and with one long and one short arm) hairs or else apparently glabrous. Petiole present or absent. Leaves usually once odd-pinnate, leaflets usually many, in some species (not ours) leaves trifoliolate, unifoliate, or reduced to just a rachis; leaflets entire or apically notched, estipellate. Stipules present, connate and often forming sheaths, in some species (but not TX material) spinescent. Flowers rarely solitary, usually in pedunculate axillary racemes (sometimes spikelike); pedicels relatively short, subtended by small, persistent bracts. Calyx tube campanulate to tubular, lobes 5, unequal or equal, deltoid to setaceous. Corolla papilionaceous, white, yellow, purple, or lavender, in TX material never red, petals clawed; banner blade oblanceolate to broadly cuneate, reflexed; wing blades shorter than the banner and longer than the keel, auriculate at the base on the upper side and with a depression; keel petals acute to obtuse, coalescent apically, basally auriculate and with protrusions that fit into the sockets on the wings. Stamens 10, 9 united and the 10th and uppermost free. Legume sessile to stipitate, globose to linear, flat to rounded, straight or curved, sometimes triangular in cross-section, usually dehiscent, valves papery, leathery, or woody, sometimes not dehiscent until the legume has fallen to the ground, one or both sutures often protruding into the locule, dividing it into 2 false locules. Seeds 1 to several.

About 1,500 species, global except for Australia; 28 species in TX; 5 here (one with a variety sometimes raised to specific status. [Includes old genera Atelophragma, Batidophaca,Cnemidophacos, Diholcos, Geoprumnon, Holophacos, Microphacos, Pisophaca, and Xylophacos, all Rydb.; Hamosa and Tium Medic.; Homalobus and Kentrophyta Nutt.; Phaca L.; and Orophaca(T. & G.) Britt.].

Many species are toxic to livestock. Some contain poorly understood alkaloids which are toxic in cumulative quantities and can prove fatal because animals find the plants attractive. Other plants accumulate selenium from selenium-rich soils on which they grow. These can be toxic, though not a preferred livestock food. A third group consists of plants known to cause poisonings in some localities but not in others; these are not fully understood. Some species, however, provide good forage. A. crassicarpus has fruits edible raw, cooked, or pickled (Correll & Johnston 1970; Tull 1987).

1. Banner (in ours) 14 mm long or longer; legume plumply ovoid or oblong, about as thick as long; strong perennials .............................................................................................................2

1. Banner (in ours) less than 14 mm long; legume linear or curved, longer than wide; annuals or short-lived perennials .............................................................................................3

2(1) Ovary and legume glabrous; stipules free ................................................1. A. crassicarpus

2. Ovary and legume pubescent; at least the lower stipules connate ...............2. A. plattensis

3(1) Perennial from a stout taproot or knotty crown or caudex; legume not dehiscing until after weathering on the ground .................................................................................3. A. distortus

var. engelmannii

3. Annual from slender taproot; legume dehiscing apically and down through the ventral and perhaps the dorsal suture .........................................................................................................4

4(3) Banner (in ours) 4.3 to 9 mm long; legume strongly incurved near the base and nearly straight thereafter or else evenly incurved through 1/3 to 1/2 a circle .......4. A. nuttallianus

4. Banner (in ours) (5.2)8.3 to 12(13.2) mm long; legume straight or nearly so, sometimes gently and evenly incurved ...........................................................................5. A. leptocarpus

NOTE: These are the species in our immediate area; for plants from outside this area, a more complete key should be consulted.

1. A. crassicarpus Nutt. Ground Plum. Perennial from a woody taproot and crown, in one variety also with a branched, underground rootstock; stems several, decumbent or sometimes suberect, 1 to 6 dm long; pubescence appressed or ascending. Leaves generally (2)4 to 13(15) cm long, short-petiolate or subsessile, leaflets (11)15 to 33 per leaf, oblanceolate, elliptic, oblong-elliptic, or suborbicular, 3 to 17(24) mm long, 3 to 6 mm wide, obtuse, acute, or those of the lower leaves truncate-emarginate, generally flat, sparsely pubescent or glabrate above, glabrate to pubescent beneath; stipules free, ovate-lanceolate, 3 to 9 mm long. Inflorescences axillary, peduncles 2 to 10 cm long; racemes with 5 to 25 flowers; pedicels ascending or arched outwards, 1 to 2.7 mm long and slender at anthesis, in fruit thick or clavate, (2)2.7 to 7.5 mm long. Calyx dark-strigose, tube ca. 6 to 9 mm long, teeth linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 1.5 to 4 mm long; corolla purple, lilac, light blue, cream, pinkish, or greenish-white, keel tip in all cases pink- or purple-tipped, banner 16 to 25(27) mm long, notched; wings 16 to 18 mm long; keel (10.7)12 to 20.7 mm long. Legumes spreading, ascending, or in one variety spread over the ground, globose or plumply obovoid-oblong, 15 to 40 mm long, 7/8 to 1 1/2 times as long as wide, obtuse and truncate at both ends or the apex retuse or with a conic beak 1 to 3 mm long, constricted into a subulate tip to ca. 6 mm long, body of legume glabrous, shallowly grooved or depressed along the sutures, succulent when green and if pressed at this stage the fruit drying flat and wrinkly, valve walls 1.2 to 5 mm thick, in 3 layers, outer and innermost layers thin, becoming leathery, middle layer of large cells juicy at first and drying pithy, exocarp intruding into locule of legume as a papery septum 8 to 15 mm wide; legume tardily dehiscent, either by weathering and overwintering or by splitting through both sutures and septum, creating 2 sealed false "carpels"; seeds 2 to 3 mm long, black.

The Plains Indians ate the fruits raw or boiled; they can also be pickled (Kindscjer 1987). If using this plant as a food source, be careful not to confuse it with similar but toxic species of Astragalus and Oxytropis.

There are 3 varieties in TX, 2 of which can be expected here.

var. berlandieri Barneby Stems solitary or few from slender, broadly forking underground stem branches, plant forming loose mats; peduncles mostly 2.0 to 6.5 cm long; calyx pilose with mixed black and white hairs or hairs mostly dark, 0.5 to 1.5 mm long; petals purple or purple-tinged. Prairies. Cen. TX; Williamson Co. SW. to Uvalde Co., scattered SE. to Victoria Co; endemic. Spring. [A. mexicanus DC.].

var. trichocalyx (Nutt.) Barneby. peduncles mostly 6 to 15 cm long; calyx and peduncles densely short-villosulous, with short (0.5 to 1 mm long), tangled hairs and some longer hairs that are brownish or cream-colored; petals greenish-white or cream. Open woods. E. TX rarer W. to N. Cen. TX; also AR, OK, MO, and IL. Reported from Madison Co. Mar.-Jun. [A.caryocarpus var. trichocalyx (Nutt.) Fern; A. trichocalyx Nutt., Geoprumnon trichocalyx Nutt.].

2. A. plattensis Nutt. Platte-River Milk-vetch. Low perennial from a deep woody taproot and a branched, creeping underground rootstock, this often rooting at the nodes; stems diffuse or decumbent, sometimes stems from all the rootstock branches entangled and mat-forming, stems of the current year subterranean from 1 to 20 cm, then emerging, 0.5 to 4 dm tall above ground; herbage green to gray-green, aerial portion of the plant, including the ovary and legume, usually thinly to densely pilose, the hairs shiny, widely ascending to spreading (rarely nearly appressed), (0.9)1 to 1.5(1.9) mm long, these mixed with shorter curled hairs. Leaves 2.5 to 11.5 cm long, short-petiolate or the upper ones subsessile, leaflets (11)15 to 27 per leaf, broadly or narrowly elliptic or ovate to oblong, acute to obtuse, rarely some or all leaves with leaflets oblong-obovate, truncate and emarginate, all leaflets (2)4 to 13(17) mm long, flat or loosely folded; stipules of the lower leafless nodes connate, forming papery, truncate or bidentate sheaths; stipules of the upper nodes green, briefly connate or free. Peduncles axillary, ascending but bent to the ground in fruit, to 7.5 cm long, usually shorter than the leaves, (3-)6- to 15-flowered; pedicels to 3 mm long (in fruit 2.4 to 3.8 mm long). Calyx 7.8 to 12.2(13.7) mm long, tube 5.4 to 7.8 mm long and teeth 2 to 6 mm long; corolla red-purple, pink-purple, or lilac, banner sometimes very pale but wings and keel at least with purple tips, often all petals drying lighter, banner usually deeply notched, (14.3)16.5 to 20(21.5) mm long; wing blades 13 to 18.4 mm long, claws 6 to 9 mm long; keel (11.5)12 to 15.5(16) mm long, claws 6 to 8.5 mm long. Legume ascending or spreading, often lying on the ground, ovoid-oblong or subglobose, 10 to 17 mm long and 10 to 15 mm thick, slightly cordate at the base, apically with a narrow conic-subulate beak 1 to 3.5 mm long, sutures thick and grooved, ventral suture straighter than dorsal, valves slightly strigillose or pilose, the hairs appressed or narrowly ascending and 0.5 to 0.8 mm long, valves becoming leathery, minutely cross-wrinkled, 0.9 to 1.3 mm thick at maturity, intruding into the locule to form a complete septum 3.6 to 6 mm wide; seeds smooth, purplish-black, 2.5 mm long. Common in prairie-type habitats. Plains Country, Ed. Plat. and N. Cen. TX, scattered S. to Victoria and Karnes Co.; ND, NE, and WY S. to CO, OK, and TX. Spring, ours mostly Apr.-May. [Geoprumnon plattense (Nutt.) Rydb.].

Safe for livestock and readily eaten, thus declining under grazing pressure (GPFA 1986).

3. A. distortus T. & G. var. engelmannii (Sheld.) M. E. Jones Ozark Milk-vetch. Low, diffuse, short-lived perennial from a taproot and knotty crown or branching rootstock; stems 1 to several, decumbent or prostrate and often mat-forming, usually 1 to 3 dm long; herbage green, sparsely strigillose, hairs appressed, 0.2 to 0.45 mm long, the lower part of the plant glabrate. Leaves (2)4 to 12(13.5) cm long (those of the basal branches often smaller and with smaller leaflets), short-petioled, upper leaves sessile; leaflets (9)11 to 25(27) per leaf, oval, obovate, elliptic-oblanceolate or suborbicular, truncate or retuse (some leaflets thus obcordate); stipules 2 to 6 mm long, free, becoming membranous. (2)3 to 12 mm long, flat, sparingly strigulose. Peduncles axillary, 3 to 15 cm long; racemes with 5 to 20 flowers; pedicels 1.5 to 2.4 mm long, somewhat thickened in fruit. Calyx 3.1 to 6.3 mm long, tube campanulate, 3 to 4 mm long, strigose with white or black hairs, teeth triangular to subulate, 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the tube, 1 to 2 mm long, corolla pink- or red-purple, lilac, or pale blue, wing tips often pale and the banner with a pale, striate eye, banner in this variety mostly 6.5 to 11.5 mm long; keel 5.5 to 7 mm long. Legume ascending or down-pointing under its weight, lying on the ground when mature, lunate-(crescent-shaped)-elliptic to obliquely oblong-ovate or obovate-elliptic, 13 to 25 mm long, 3.5 to 7 mm in diam, grooved along the upper suture but not or only obscurely so on the lower, valves green, glabrous, becoming leathery and brown or nearly black, not intruded into the locule or else only as a near-septum to 1 mm wide, legume apically dehiscent only after falling and weathering on the ground. Plentiful. N. Cen., E., and SE. TX, SW. to Wilson & Goliad Cos.; also LA. Spring. [Holophacos engelmannii Sheldon; synonym for species is H. distortus (T. & G.) Rydb.].

4. A. nuttallianus DC. Small-flowered Milk-vetch. Small, slender, taprooted annuals or winter annuals, usually living 3 to 4 months; stems 0.3 to 3 dm tall; herbage varying from green and glabrous, with only the inflorescence strigulose, to the plant silvery or gray and densely strigose, pilose, or villous, hairs 0.4 to 1.35 mm long, appressed and incurved or sometimes some of them spreading. Leaves 1 to 6.5(9) cm long, petiolate or the upper subsessile, leaflets (5)7 to 19(23) per leaf, varying in shape from linear-elliptic and acute through oblong-cuneate to obcordate, 2 to 14(17) mm long, usually flat, leaflets alike throughout or those of the lower leaflets broader; stipules free, 1.5 to 6 mm long. Peduncles axillary, to 10 cm long; racemes usually with 1 to 7 flowers clustered at the tip; pedicels in fruit 0.5 to 1.6 mm long. Calyx 2.5 to 5.7 mm long, tube 1.3 to 2.5 mm long, teeth 1.9 to 3.2 mm long; petals white, pink-lilac, or amethyst, if brightly colored then the banner with a large, pale "eye," flowers usually turning bluish or violet on drying, banner 3.7 to 10(13) mm long; wings 3.7 to 8.6(10.7) mm long; keel 3.7 to 6.8(9.3) mm long. Legume ascending, spreading, or descending, in profile linear or linear-oblanceolate, usually incurved strongly near the base and straight thereafter, less often nearly straight or evenly and gently incurved through 1/3 to 1/2 a circle, ca. 1.6 to 2.6 cm long, at first trigonous, the sides becoming sometimes slightly convex as the ovules swell, subequally 3-sided or somewhat 4-sided when ripe, valves initially green or purple-tinged, glabrous, strigose or villous, becoming papery and stramineous, brown, or nearly black, lightly cross-reticulate, valves intruding into the locule, forming a complete septum ca. 2 mm broad, sometimes septum incomplete or rather obsolete, dehiscence from the apex down along the ventral suture and part of the dorsal suture; seeds 2 to 3 mm long, slightly wrinkled, yellowish with purple spots, shiny. Mar.-May.

At least 9 more-or-less distinct varieties from CA, NV, UT, CO, and OK S. to Mex.; 6 in TX; 4 of them here.

var. nuttallianus Turkey-pea, Peavine. All leaflets retuse or truncate-emarginate, dark green, glabrous above, linear-oblong, oblong, or oblong-cuneate; raceme axis little or not elongate, less than 8(10) mm long in fruit; banner 4.3 to 7.3(7.6) mm long; keel tip deltoid-acute or sharply deltoid; legume glabrous. N. Cen. TX and E. part of Plains Country, S. to Ed. Plat. and Rio Grande Plains; also OK. Spring.

var. pleianthus (Shinners) Barneby Some or all leaves obtuse to acute; racemes mostly 4- to 10-flowered, little or not elongate, to 8(12) mm in fruit; banner usually 7 to 9 mm long; keel deltoid or narrowly deltoid at the tip, acute or nearly so, often pointing upward and forward; legume glabrous. Cen. TX W. to Sutton Co., S. to Refugio Co., N. to the Red River; endemic. Spring. Treated by Kartesz (1998) as A. pleianthus (Shinners) Isely . [A. austrinus Small var. pleianthus Shinners].

var. trichocarpus T. & G. Southwestern Milk-vetch. Some or all leaflets obtuse to acute, leaflets usually 11 to 13 per leaf; racemes 8(12) mm long in fruit, 1- to 5-(6-)floweredkeel narrowly deltoid or deltoid at the tip, acute or nearly so, commonly pointing forward and upward; banner 5 to 7 mm long; legume hirsutulous, hairs 0.5 to 1 mm long. Cen. TX, W. to Sutton Co., S. to Refugio, N. to the Red River. Intergrades with var. austrinus to the west.

var. austrinus (Small) Barneby Leaflets narrow-elliptic, never retuse or truncate-emarginate, gray or silvery strigulose, usually 7 to 11 per leaf; racemes 8(12) mm long in fruit, 1- to 5-(6-)flowered; banner usually 5 to 7 mm long; keel tip narrowly deltoid or deltoid at the tip, acute or nearly so, commonly pointing forward and up; legume glabrous or strigulose, if pubescent then the shorter hairs appressed, less than 0.5 mm long. W. 2/3 of TX, E. to N. Cen. TX and Rio Grande Plains; AZ, NM, KS, OK, and TX, S. to Mex. Spring. [Hamosa davisiana Rydb.; A. austrinus Small].

5. A. leptocarpus T. & G. Slim-pod Milk-vetch. Slender, often diminutive taprooted annual 15 to 35 cm tall; stems few to several; stems, leaf rachises and peduncles thinly (when young rather densely) strigulose, the hairs straight and appressed or subappressed. Leaves 15 to 70 mm long, the lowest short-petioled and the remainder subsessile, leaflets (7)11 to 17(19) per leaf, oblong-, obovate-, or oblanceolate-cuneate, apically retuse or emarginate, those of some of the lower leaves broadly cuneate-obcordate, all leaflets flat, rather thick, green, glabrous, 2 to 10(12) mm long; stipules free, deltoid to subulate, to 4 mm long. Peduncles axillary, ca. 4 to 7 cm long, somewhat longer in fruit than in flower; pedicels in fruit 0.8 to 1.7 mm long. Calyx (3)3.6 to 4.5(5.3) mm long, tube campanulate, ca. 2 to 4 mm long, teeth ca. 2 to 3 mm long; corolla magenta- or amethyst-purple, all drying violet, banner with a large white, striate eye, overall (5.2)8.3 to 12(13.2) mm long; wings often white-spotted near the tip on the inner margin, (5)7.2 to 9.8(11.3) mm long; keel (4.5)6 to 7.8(9) mm long. Legume spreading or ascending at a wide angle, in profile narrowly linear or linear-oblanceolate, usually straight or rarely slightly and evenly incurved, 17 to 37 mm long, 2.2 to 3.1(3.5) mm in diameter, cuneate and short-cuspidate apically, at first triquetrous, the sides flat, becoming more plump, ventrally keeled by the thick ventral suture, valves at first very slightly fleshy, green or purplish, later papery and brown, then nearly black, lightly cross-reticulate, protruding into the locule as a complete septum 1.5 to 1.8 mm wide, legume dehiscing from the apex down through the ventral suture, valves in age also splitting and somewhat coiled distally. E., SE., and N. Cen. TX, near the coast to Cameron Co.; endemic. Spring, ours primarily April.



ROSACEAE OXYTROPIS34. OXYTROPIS DC. Crazy-weed, Purple Loco



About 300 species of the N. temperate region; 1 in TX, which we have.

1. O. lambertii Pursh var. articulata (Greene) Barneby Lambert Crazy-weed, White Loco. Perennial herb from a woody, branched rootstock or a stout taproot, often with short rhizomes and colonial; stems 1 to several from the base, very short and the plants nearly acaulescent; herbage pubescent with dolabriform hairs (attached in the middle and with two branches, in this case one branch very short), hairs sparse to dense, subappressed to hirsute or villous. Leaves odd-pinnately compound, basal or alternate, (3)10 to 17(21) cm long, leaflets (7)9 to 19, narrowlylinear to linear-oblong or elliptic, sometimes falcate, 0.5 to 4 cm long, 1 to 4(6) mm broad, firm, basally asymmetrical; stipules broad, 7 to 24 mm long, persistent. Racemes usually scapose, ascending or erect; peduncles 5 to 30 cm long, usually exceeding the foliage, with (6)10 to 20(25) flowers, 2 to 4 cm broad at anthesis; flowers 15 to 26 mm long. Calyx tube silky-strigose, 6 to 8 mm long, the teeth deltoid-subulate, 1.2 to 3(4) mm long; corolla papilionaceous, pink-purple to whitish (occasionally rose), banner 18 to 25 mm long; wings 15 to 26 mm long, expanded apically; keel 14 to 19 mm long, ending in a sharp, erect point; stamens 10, diadelphous. Legume sessile or short-stipitate, more or less woody, ovoid to oblong-ovoid, ca. 7 to 10 mm long (about as long as the calyx), with a beak 3 to 5 mm long; seeds several, ca. 2 mm long, smooth. Prairies, hillsides, and outcrops. Uncommon in our area but known from Washington Co.; higher parts of the Plains Country and N. Cen. TX, S. to Tarrant and Dallas Cos., rarely S. to Travis and Comanche Cos.; this variety in TX, W. OK, and SW. KS; the species as a whole from Sask. and Man., S. and W. to AZ, NM, and TX. Apr.-June. [Astragalus lambertii (Pursh) Spreng. var. abbreviatus (Greene) Shinners; synonyms for the species include O. hookeriana Nutt.,O. involuta (A. Nels.) K. Schum, and O. plattensis Nutt.].

Readily eaten by livestock but very dangerous, particularly to horses. Consumption leads to "loco disease". Affected animals apparently become addicted, the toxin accumulating and affecting the central nervous system. Up to 2 months can pass before symptoms become noticeable (Tull 1987).



ROSACEAE MELILOTUS35. MELILOTUS Mill. Sweet Clover



Annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial herbs with taproots. Stems erect or ascending, well-branched, usually nearly glabrous, sometimes sparsely pubescent. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, leaflets usually oblanceolate to obovate, serrulate or denticulate, at least in the distal margin. Stipules obliquely ovate to lanceolate or subulate, basally partially fused to the petiole. Peduncles axillary, ascending or reflexed. Inflorescences spike-like racemes , generally elongate, to several cm long, flowers loosely spaced to crowded, subtended by minute setaceous bracts 1 to 2 mm long and usually persistent. Calyx campanulate, minute, deciduous after anthesis, lobes 5, subequal, lanceolate, acute to acuminate. Corolla papilionaceous, yellow or white, deciduous after anthesis, wings and keel somewhat coherent. Stamens 10, diadelphous, 9 united and the 10th and uppermost free. Legume globose to ovoid, longer than the calyx, straight or nearly so, usually 1-seeded (rarely to 4-seeded, commonly reticulate, indehiscent or virtually so.

About 20 species native to the Old World--the Mediterranean, Europe, Africa, and W. Asia, widely introduced in the New World as forage and soil-improving crops. There are 3 species in TX, all of which we have. These plants are very closely related to Medicago.

The herbage and flowers have a characteristic, pleasant, sweet scent which often persists in dry specimens.

1. Flowers white; legume reticulate-veined, dark brown to black when mature .......1. M. albus

1. Flowers yellow; legume cross-ribbed or smooth, yellow, gray, or light brown to tan when mature .......................................................................................................................................2

2(1) Flowers 1 to 3 mm long; legume globose; stipules of lower leaves with scarious margins, widened and auriculate below ..............................................................................2. M. indicus

2. Flowers 3 to 5 mm long; legume ovoid, longer than broad; stipules not widened below, without auricles or scarious margins ..............................................................3. M. officinalis

1. M. albus Medik. White Sweet Clover, Hubam. Annual or biennial; stems erect, branched, 3 to 15(30) dm tall, short-pubescent above, glabrous below. Leaflets oblanceolate to obovate, lanceolate, or oblong, 1 to 2.5(4) cm long, (2)8 to 12(20) mm wide, glabrous above and appressed-pubescent beneath, toothed at apex and along sides, those below the inflorescence often quite narrow; stipules 6 to 10 mm long, linear-subulate to setaceous. Racemes 4 to 15 cm long, 30- to 80-flowered; pedicels 0.8 to 2 mm long. Calyx 1.5 to 2 mm long, minutely appressed-pubescent, the tube gradually tapered to the base, teeth 0.5 to 1 mm long, deltoid to subulate, corolla white, (3)4 to 5 mm long, banner longer than wings and keel. Legume very short-stipitate, ovoid or obovoid, (2)2.5 to 4(5) mm long, 2 to 2.5 mm broad, dark brown to nearly black at maturity, reticulate-veined, glabrous. Scattered weed of pastures and roadsides. Throughout TX but rare in the Ed. Plat. and far E. TX; native to Eurasia; widespread in the U.S., including AK. Spring to early summer. [M. alba Desr.; authority sometimes given as Lam.].

Included in M. officinalis (L.) Lam. by Kartesz (1998), but distinct, at least in our area.

2. M. indicus (L.) All. Sour Clover, Alfalfilla. Annual; stems 1 to 5 dm tall, glabrate to sparsely pubescent. Leaflets mostly oblanceolate to obovate or nearly cuneate, 1.2 to 5 cm long, 5 to 10 mm wide, glabrous above and short-pubescent beneath, denticulate or serrulate in the distal portion, those below the inflorescence often quite narrow; stipules lanceolate, 5 to 7 mm long, those of the lower leaves widened basally, scarious-margined, partially sheathing the stem and with small basal auricles. Racemes 1 to 5 cm long, 10- to 60-flowered, often crowded; pedicels 0.6 to 0.9 mm long, spreading or declined, flowers 1 to 3 mm long. Calyx glabrous to lightly short-pubescent, tube campanulate, lobes 0.5 to 0.8 mm long, linear; corolla yellow, 1 to 3 mm long, banner about 3 mm long, wings about the same. Legume short-stipitate, ovoid to obovoid, 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, yellow or reddish at maturity, not reticulate-veined. Scattered in TX but rare in the Rio Grande Plains and the higher Plains Country, infrequent in the Trans Pecos and Ed. Plat; native to the Mediterranean and widely introduced in parts of N. America. Spring, primarily Mar-April. [M.indica (L.) All.].

3. M. officinalis (L.) Lam. Yellow Sweet Clover. Biennial or rarely annual; stems 4 to 10(20) dm tall, glabrous to slightly pubescent above. Leaflets narrowly oblanceolate to obovate, more or less cuneate, or somewhat elliptic, generally 1 to 2.5 dm long, 5 to 15(20) mm wide, at maturity glabrous above and glabrate below, serrulate in the distal portion, those of leaves below the inflorescence often very narrow; stipules lanceolate, 5 to 8 mm long, entire, neither widened below nor scarious-margined. Racemes 4 to 12 cm long, 30- to 70-flowered; pedicels 1.5 to 3 mm long, spreading or declined; flowers 3 to 5 mm long, somewhat crowded. Calyx lightly short-pubescent, not tapered to the base, instead tube basally rounded to somewhat gibbous or saccate, lobes subulate, 0.6 to 1 mm long, corolla yellow, 4.5 to 5(7) mm long, banner and wings nearly equal. Legume stipitate, ovoid, 2.5 to 4 mm long, 2 to 2.5 mm broad, ca. 1.5 mm thick, glabrous, light brown to tan, cross-veined, the transverse ridges more prominent than the longitudinal ones, or else irregularly rugose or veined. Common in N. Cen. TX, scattered elsewhere; introduced from Europe to most of N. America. Spring- early summer.

Not nearly as common in our area as M. indicus. Said to be a better forage than M. alba (GPFA 1986).



ROSACEAE MEDICAGO36. MEDICAGO L. Bur-clover, Medic, Medick



Annual, biennial, or perennial taprooted herbs (very rarely suffrutescent). Stems prostrate, ascending, or erect, glabrous to pubescent. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate; leaflets cuneate to obovate or nearly orbicular, the distal portion of the margin (at least) serrulate. Stipules partly adnate to the base of the petiole, entire to deeply divided and lacerate. Flowers papilionaceous, solitary, in short, few-flowered axillary clusters, or in dense, axillary, spike-like racemes; pedicels short, each subtended by a minute bract. Calyx tube campanulate and lobes nearly equal. Corolla usually yellow, in one species blue-violet, rarely white, banner obovate to oblong, longer than wings and keel; wings oblong, longer than the keel; keel obtuse. Stamens 10, diadelphous, 9 united and the 10th and uppermost free. Legume not enclosed by the calyx, slightly curved to strongly coiled, smooth or with prickles, usually indehiscent. Seeds 1 to several.

About 120 Old World species; none of the 6 TX and local species native. Widely cultivated for hay, forage, and soil improvement. Alfalfa is M. sativa (Mabberley 1987).

1. Corolla blue-violet (rarely white), (6)7 to 12 mm long; plants perennial ..............1. M. sativa

1. Corolla yellow, 2 to 5 mm long; plants annual or biennial ......................................................2

2(1) Stipules entire to slightly dentate; leaves stems, stipules, and calyces essentially pubescent .................................................................................................................................3

2. Stipules deeply divided or lacerate; plants essentially glabrous ............................................4

3(2) Legumes tightly coiled and prickly, generally light brown at maturity; flowers 2.5 to 4 mm long ......................................................................................................................2. M. minima

3. Legume prickleless or nearly so, only slightly curved, black or dark brown at maturity; flowers 1.5 to 2 mm long ....................................................................................3. M. lupulina

4(2) Legume prickleless, flat and tightly coiled, 10 to 15(18) mm in diameter; stipules divided all the way to the midrib; pedicels 2 to 3 mm long .......................................4. M. orbicularis

4. Legume prickly, loosely curled, flat, 4 to 7 mm in diameter; stipules deeply divided but with a distinct membranous base; pedicels 0.5 to 2 mm long ..........................................5

5(4) Leaflets as wide as or wider than long, usually with a dark red/purple spot in the center; stipules divided beyond the middle, each laceration typically 0.5 to 2 mm long

.............................................................................................................................5. M. arabica

5. Leaflets usually longer than wide, without a central spot; stipules not divided beyond the middle, each laceration typically 2 to 6 mm long .......................................6. M. polymorpha



1. M. sativa L. Alfalfa, Lucerne. Perennial herb from stout taproot and knobby or branching shallow rootstock; stems 1 to several, erect to decumbent, 3 to 10 dm tall, glabrous to sparsely or finely pubescent. Petioles of major leaves 1 to 5 cm long; leaflets 1 to 3 cm long, 3 to 8 mm broad, obovate to oblong or oblanceolate, denticulate in the distal portion, glabrous or pubescent; stipules lanceolate, (5)8 to 15(20) mm long, entire or slightly toothed, usually fused to the petioles for ca. 2 to 5 mm at the base. Peduncles in the axils of the upper leaves, 1 to 3 cm long; racemes crowded, spike-like, subglobose to short-cylindric, 1 to 4 cm long, and 1 to 2 cm broad, with (5)10 to 20(40) flowers; pedicels 1 to 2 mm long; bracts 1 to 3 mm long, setaceous, persistent. Calyx loosely pubescent, the tube 2 to 3 mm long, lobes 3 to 4 mm long, equal or subequal, narrowly lanceolate and acuminate; corolla violet-blue, rarely white, 7 to 12 mm long. Legumes prickleless, loosely spiralled in 1 to 2(3) turns, 4 to 5 mm in diameter, several-seeded, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Roadsides and old fields. Native to Europe; widely cultivated and naturalized in TX, absent only from the Rio Grande Plains and the Coastal Bend. Mar. or Apr.-July.

If subspecific taxa are recognized, our plants are subsp. sativa.

This is the alfalfa so often grown for hay and forage. The seeds produce tasty edible sprouts and are reported to have medicinal properties (Mabberley 1987).

2. M. minima (L.) L. Small Bur-clover, Prickly Medick. Taprooted annual herb; stems decumbent to erect, much-branched at the base, 1 to 3(5) dm tall, densely and softly spreading-pubescent. Petioles 5 to 20 mm long; leaflets obovate to cuneate or oblong, 5 to 10(16) mm long, rounded to emarginate, apiculate, denticulate (rarely toothed near the base), soft-pilose on both surfaces; stipules ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, entire or short-toothed, 4 to 7 mm long, adnate to the petioles for 1/2 their length. Racemes axillary, capitate; peduncles 1 to 2.5 cm long, with (1)3 to 6(8) flowers; pedicels 0.5 to 1 mm long, pilose; bracts 2 mm long or less; flowers 3 to 5 mm long. Calyx densely pilose, tube ca. 1 mm long, lobes 1 to 1.5 mm long; corolla bright yellow, petals 2.5 to 4 mm long. Legume 5 to 12 mm in diameter including the prickles, coiled, with 3 to 5 turns, nearly globose, often sparsely villous and glandular, with nearly straight, flexible prickles 2 to 3 mm long, each hooked at the tip; seed 2 mm long, reniform, yellow to dark brown, smooth. Frequent in N. Cen. TX and E. edge of Ed. Plat., rare farther E.; native to Europe and widely naturalized in the U.S., Great Plains to OK, AR, TX, VA, and NC. Spring, primarily Mar.-Apr. here. [authority sometimes given as (L.) L.].

3. M. lupulina L. Black Medick. Taprooted annual (or short-lived perennial); stems and branches usually decumbent, prostrate, or ascending, often much-branched, (0.5)1 to 4(6 to 8) dm long, 4-angled, glabrate to short-strigulose or villous. Petioles 0 to 3 cm long; leaflets broadly obovate or nearly orbicular to almost elliptic, (5)10 to 20 mm long, 3 to 10 mm broad, rounded to emarginate, usually apiculate, apically denticulate, sparsely to densely pubescent; stipules lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 5 to 10 mm long, entire or slightly serrate, adnate to the petiole for about 2 to 3 mm (1/4 to ca. 1/2 the length.) Racemes axillary; peduncles 0.5 to 4 cm long, 1 to 4 times as long as the leaves, pubescent or glabrous; flower clusters globose to ovoid, ca. 7 to 10 mm long, 10- to 50-flowered, elliptic to short-cylindric in fruit; pedicels 0.5(1) mm long or less; bracts persistent, 0.1 to 0.3 mm long; flowers 2 to 3 mm long. Calyx short-pubescent, tube 0.5 mm long, lobes 0.6 to 1 mm long; corolla yellow (rarely creamy), petals 1.5 to 2 mm long. Legume reniform (slightly curved), (1.5)2 to 3 mm in diameter, dark brown to almost black at maturity, prickleless, reticulate, pilose to glabrate or occasionally glandular, 1-seeded; seed greenish-brown, brown, or black, 2 mm long. Scattered and weed-like in the E. 1/2 of TX; native to Eurasia, now introduced throughout the temperate regions of the world. Spring (ours beginning as early as Feb.) [M. lupulina var. glandulosa Neilr.].

4. M. orbicularis (L.) Bartal. Button Clover. Taprooted annual herb; stems decumbent to ascending, 1 to 5 dm long, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Petioles ca. 1 to 2 cm long; leaflets obovate to obcordate or narrowly rhombic, 8 to 18 mm long, 5 to 10 mm broad, denticulate, rounded to nearly truncate, glabrous or nearly so; stipules usually less than 1 cm long, deeply lacerate, divisions extending to near the midrib or beyond. Peduncles mostly (0.5)1 to 2 cm long, arching, 1- to 5-flowered; pedicels (0.5) 2 to 3 mm long, bracts linear-subulate, 1 to 2 mm long. Calyx glabrous or with a few hairs, tube ca. 1 mm long, subulate lobes 1 to 1.5 mm long; corolla bright yellow, ca. 3 mm long. Legume prickleless, flattened, tightly coiled with 4 to 6 turns, each turn 10 to 20 mm in diameter overall, glabrous, strongly reticulate. Infrequent, scattered in N. Cen. TX and E. part of Plains Country, known from Brazos Co; native to the Mediterranean area; now introduced. Spring, ours as early as Feb.

5. M. arabica (L.) Huds. Spotted Medick, Spotted Bur-clover. Taprooted annual; stems ascending to decumbent, 1 to 6 dm long, usually mostly glabrous to slightly pubescent. Petioles to about 15 cm long, often much shorter; leaflets obovate or commonly obcordate, usually 1 to 2.5 cm long, about as broad as long or broader, usually with a central purplish spot or chevron, apically denticulate, glabrous to glabrate above, pubescent below; stipules ovate-lanceolate, mostly 5 to 10 mm long, lacerate, but lacerations extending less than 1/2 the total length, generally about 0.5 to 2 mm long. Peduncles axillary, mostly 10 to 25(30) mm long, 1- to 5-flowered; pedicels 0.2 to 0.5(1) mm long; bracts ca. 1 mm long, subulate. Calyx sparsely pubescent, tube ca. 1 mm long, lobes about 2 mm long; corolla bright yellow, petals about 4 to 5 mm long. Legume subglobose, spirally coiled in 4 to 7 tight curls, bearing 2 rows of flexible, recurved prickles ca. 2 to 3 mm long and with a furrow between the rows, 5 to 6 mm in diameter, excluding the prickles. Scattered in the E. 1/2 of TX; native to the Old World; widely introduced. Spring, primarily Mar.-Apr. here.

6. M. polymorpha L. Bur-clover. Taprooted annual; stems decumbent to ascending, 2 to 5(50) dm long, glabrous to puberulent. Petioles ca. 1 to 4 cm long; leaflets cuneate-obovate to obcordate, 6 to 15 mm long, usually longer than broad, denticulate in the distal portion, glabrous above and sparsely pubescent to glabrous below; stipules mostly 6 to 10 mm long, at least those of the distal leaves deeply lacerate, incised to the middle or beyond, the lacerations 2 to 6(10) mm long. Peduncles 1 to 3 cm long; flowers (1)3 to 5(8) per capitate cluster; pedicels 0.5 to 1 mm long; bracts 1 to 1.5 mm long, lanceolate. Calyx slightly pubescent, tube ca. 1 mm long, lobes about 2 mm long; corolla bright yellow, petals 2.5 to 4 mm long. Legume spirally coiled through 2 to 5 turns, with 2 rows of flexible prickles 2 to 3 mm long, minutely hooked apically, and separated by a ridge, coils 4 to 6 mm in diameter excluding prickles. Common as a lawn and roadside weed. Widespread in the E. 1/2 of TX, rare in the W. 1/2; native to the Old World and widely introduced. Spring, mostly Mar.-May. [M. hispida Gaertn.].

If varieties are recognized, our plants are var. vulgaris Shinners.



ROSACEAE TRIFOLIUM37. TRIFOLIUM L. Clover



Taprooted annul, biennial, or perennial herbs. Stems erect, ascending, decumbent, or sometimes stoloniferous, often weak. Leaves trifoliate, usually palmately so, but in a few species the terminal leaflet with a longer stalk and thus the leaf nearly pinnate, rarely leaves with 4 or 5 leaflets; leaflets variously elliptic, obovate, ovate, rhombic-ovate, or sometimes lanceolate, serrulate to denticulate, at least on the distal margin, glabrous to pubescent, usually less than 3 cm long. Stipules conspicuous, persistent, foliaceous or membranaceous, at least partially fused to the well-developed petiole. Inflorescence a raceme, spike, or capitulum, sessile or pedunculate, axillary or terminal, rarely flowers solitary. Cleistogamous flowers sometimes produced. Flowers sessile or pedicellate. Calyx persistent, the tube generally campanulate or cylindric, usually bilabiate, 5 to 10(30) nerved, lobes setaceous to triangular, often unequal. Corolla papilionaceous, white to cream, yellow, pink, red, or brownish, almost never blue or purple, petals commonly free in yellow-flowered species and united below to the filaments in most others; petals often withering and persisting. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the uppermost one free and the lower 9 united. Legume obovoid to oblong-linear, usually membranaceous, often enclosed by the calyx and withered corolla, indehiscent or dehiscent along a suture, rarely circumscissile. Seeds 1 to 4(8) per fruit.

About 300 species in the temperate regions of the world. A number of the 13 species found in TX are native to Europe and only introduced or naturalized here; 10 species found locally at present. It is quite possible that some of the species introduced into E. TX will in time find their way here. (In fact, one species has been found here since just since the first draft of this key.)

Clovers make good forage and fodder and are often planted as a cover crop or plowed under as green manure. Some species can be made to yield dyes and the dried blossoms of some can be used in herbal teas. Clover honey is among the finest (Mabberley 1987).

1. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate; flowers bright yellow .........................................1. T. campestre

1. Leaves palmately trifoliolate; flowers not bright yellow ...........................................................2

2(1) Flowers resupinate, inverted on the pedicel so that the banner is lowermost; corolla when fresh bright shocking-pink ..........................................................................2. T. resupinatum

2. Flowers not resupinate, banner uppermost; corolla not shocking pink .................................3

3(2) Calyx becoming inflated or gibbous, with 20 to 35 distinct nerves or striations, glabrous .......

.....................................................................................................................3. T. vesiculosum

3. Calyx not inflated or gibbous; nerves fewer, usually not very distinct, glabrous or pubescent .................................................................................................................................4

4(3) Inflorescences nearly sessile at the ends of the branches, peduncles less than 5 mm long, closely subtended by 2 slightly reduced, opposite leaves ...............................4. T. pratense

4. Inflorescence with peduncle 10 mm or more long, not closely subtended by reduced, opposite leaves .........................................................................................................................5

5(4) Inflorescence elongate, 2 or more times longer than broad, spikelike, the flowers sessile or subsessile ..................................................................................................5. T. incarnatum

5. Inflorescence shorter, about as long as wide, umbellate or racemose; flowers with pedicels 2 mm long or longer ..................................................................................................6



6(5) Mature flower clusters 25 to 40 mm broad; stems ascending or erect, not creeping .............

............................................................................................................................6. T. reflexum

6. Mature flower clusters mostly less than 25(30) mm broad; stems creeping or not, or if clusters broader than 25(30) mm then stems creeping .........................................................7

7(6) Inflorescence short-racemose, the pedicels borne over a distance of 2 to 5 mm at the tip of the peduncle; calyx lobes shorter than the tube ..............................................7. T. repens

7. Inflorescence umbellate, the pedicels all arising from the same point; at least some calyx lobes longer than the tube ........................................................................................................8

8(7) Stems rooting at the nodes; peduncles arising from the stolons; petals in mature flowers 2 to 4 times as long as the calyx .................................................................8. T. polymorphum

8. Stems not rooting at the nodes; peduncles arising from the erect to ascending stems; petals 1 to 2 times as long as the calyx ...................................................................................9

9(8) Calyx lobes 2 to 3 times longer than broad ..............................................9. T. carolinianum

9. Calyx lobes (or some of them) as broad as long ........................................10. T. bejariense

1. T. campestre Schreb. in Sturm. Low Hop Clover. Annual (or biennial); stems decumbent or ascending, 0.6 to 2(4) dm tall, usually densely appressed-pubescent, at least the younger portions, occasionally glabrate. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, the petiolule of the terminal leaflet 1 to 3 mm long, leaflets oblong to obovate or oblanceolate or even cuneate-obovate, (6)8 to 12(15) mm long and about half as wide, quite variable, apically truncate to emarginate or rounded, margins serrulate-denticulate, at least in the distal portion, glabrous to sparsely pubescent; stipules 5 to 8 mm long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Peduncles axillary, 1 to 3 cm long, often longer than the leaves; flower clusters globose to short-cylindric, 0.5 to 1.5 cm long and 0.8 to 1.2 cm broad, 20- to 40-flowered; pedicels 0.2 to 0.8 mm long. Calyx tube 0.5 to 1 mm long, campanulate, 5-nerved, glabrous, teeth very unequal, the upper 2 deltoid, 0.1 to 0.2 mm long and the lower 3 linear-subulate, 0.8 to 1.5 mm long; corolla 2.5 to 5.5 mm long, yellow, turning brown upon drying, claws of petals united below to the stamens, banner 2 to 4 mm broad, longer than wings or keel, conspicuously striate. Legume membranaceous, oblong, ca. 3 mm long including the stipe, stipe 0.8 to 1 mm long; seed 0.8 to 1.2 mm long, yellowish, smooth, shiny. Sandy soils in wooded areas and along roadsides. E. & SE. TX; introduced from Europe to much of N.A. Spring, ours primarily Mar.-Apr. [T. procumbens L.].

2. T. resupinatum L. Persian Clover. Taprooted annual or winter annual; stems erect to decumbent, 1 to 4(6) dm long or tall, mostly glabrous. Leaves palmately trifoliate, leaflets sessile or nearly so, cuneate-obovate or oblanceolate, 7 to 14(20) cm long, 7 to 10 mm broad, usually 1 to 2 times longer than wide, denticulate to serrulate apically; stipules lance-subulate, attenuate, adnate to the petiole base. Peduncles 2 to 6 cm long; inflorescence dense and head-like, at anthesis ca. 1 cm broad and long; flowers 10 to many, ca. 4 to 6 mm long, ascending to reflexed, resupinate so that the banner of each is lowermost; pedicels ca. 0.5 to 1 mm long. Calyx 1.5 to 2 mm long, with a tube 1 to 1.5 mm long, more or less striate, villous or pilose on one side, strongly bilabiate, inflated on one side; corolla bright shocking pink or tinged lavender, fading on drying, banner longer than wings and keel. Inflorescence in fruit bur-like, ca. 1.5 to 2 cm broad, fruiting calyces inflated, villous to glabrate, the 2 bottom teeth of each elongating. Legume oblong, ovoid, or lenticular, ca. 2 mm long, topped with the persistent style, enclosed in the bladdery calyx; seeds 1 (or 2), olive to blackish. Roadsides and lawns, etc. Known only very recently from Brazos and Grimes Cos.; native to the Mediterranean and W. Asia; widely introduced in N. Amer. from TN to FL, W. to AR, TX, KS and ND. Spring; our collections Mar. and Apr.

3. T. vesiculosum Savi Arrowleaf Clover. Robust erect to decumbent annual; stems 2 to 6 dm tall, glabrous or glabrate to sparsely very short-appressed-pubescent. Leaves palmately trifoliolate, leaflets 1 to 3(5) cm long, those of the lower leaves obovate with rounded apices, those of the upper leaves elliptic to lanceolate or even narrowly rhombic, apices acute to apiculate, margins spinulose-dentate, the teeth ending in small points or bristles; stipules with free portion ca. 1 to 2 cm long, attenuate, with the apex long and setaceous. Inflorescence terminal, spherical, elongating to elliptic at maturity, 20 to 60 mm long, 20 to 35 mm wide, shortly to strongly peduncled to 2 cm or less above a pair of somewhat reduced, opposite or subopposite leaves; pedicels less than 0.5 mm long or flowers sessile; flowers subtended by small bracts about as long as the calyx tube. Calyx glabrous, the tube about 5 mm long, turbinate, inflated at maturity, with (20)24 to 35 conspicuous nerves and smaller, less-conspicuous cross-nerves, teeth equalling or shorter than the tube, subulate-setaceous; corolla white to creamy yellow, becoming pink with age, narrow and stiff, 1/2 to 2 times as long as the calyx. Mature legumes not seen in U.S. material; seeds said to be 2 to 3 per pod. Cultivated and occasionally escaping; found along roadsides in TX and other SE. states--OK to VA, S. to TX and FL. In our area present for perhaps the last 10 to 15 years. Native to dry, grassy places of SE. Eur., E. to Turkey and Russia. Blooming here May-Jun.





4. T. pratense L. Red Clover. Taprooted perennial or sometimes biennial herb; stems 2 to 7 dm long, several from the base, decumbent, pilose to villous or appressed-pubescent, sometimes glabrous. Petioles 10 to 25 mm long, increasingly shorter above, the uppermost leaves almost sessile; leaves palmately trifoliolate, leaflets ovate to elliptic or cuneate-obovate, 1 to 3(6) cm long, less than three times as long as broad, usually about twice as long as broad, pubescent on both surfaces or glabrous above; stipules adnate to the petioles from more than 1/2 to almost their entire length, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 1 to 3 cm long, the tips long and setaceous, 4 to 8 mm long. Inflorescence sessile or with peduncle to 5(20) mm long, globose or subglobose to ovoid, 1 to 3 cm long, (1)2(3) cm thick, subtended by a pair of opposite, reduced leaves; flowers 30 to 90 per cluster, sessile, not reflexed after anthesis, bractless. Calyx 3 to 4.5 mm long, campanulate, basally narrowed, glabrous to lightly pilose, 10-nerved, lobes basally triangular with subulate tips, the middle tooth of the lower lobe 4 to 8 mm long and all the others 2 to 5 mm long. Corolla red to red-purple or deep rose, rarely white or creamy, 12 to 20 mm long, banner longer than the long-clawed keel and wings. Legume ovate-oblong, thickened above, ca. 3 mm long and 2 mm broad, irregularly circumscissile, smooth above and wrinkled below; seeds 1 to 2, ovoid, with a lateral lobe, 1.5 to 2 mm long, olive to yellow-brown, sometimes spotted with purple. Scattered escape in the E. 1/2 of TX. Not seen from our area as yet, but it can be expected. Native to Eur.; now widely cultivated and introduced. May-July. [T. medium L.].

5. T. incarnatum L. Crimson Clover, Italian Clover. Taprooted annual or winter annual; stems simple or branched at the base, ascending, 2 to 4(8) dm tall, pilose, villous, or appressed pubescent. Petioles well-developed, those of the lower leaves 5 to 20 cm long; leaves palmately trifoliolate, leaflets broadly obovate and somewhat cuneate to suborbicular or obcordate, 1 to 3(4) cm. long, usually 1 to 2 times longer than wide, lightly pubescent, the distal margin denticulate or slightly erose; stipules 1 to 2 cm long, membranaceous, adnate to the petioles for 1/2 or more their length, the free portion broadly ovate and often with a reddish or purple margin or tip. Inflorescence terminal; peduncle 4 to 12 cm long, densely ap-pressed pubescent; flower clusters spikelike, (2)3 to 7 cm long and 1 to 2.5 cm broad, 2 or (usually) more times longer than broad; flowers numerous, sessile, bractless. Calyx densely tawny-villous, tube cylindrical-campanulate, (2.7)3.5 to 5 mm long, 10-nerved, teeth subulate, subequal, 5 to 7 mm long; corolla scarlet to red, drying maroon, rarely white, 8 to 12 mm long overall, banner longer than wings or keel. Legume sessile, ovoid, 1-seeded; seed ovoid, smooth, 2 to 2.5 mm long, yellow or red-brown. Usually along roadsides. E. 1/2 of TX; introduced from S. Eur. Spring, ours primarily Apr.

Where this plant forms large colonies, the spring display can be quite impressive.

6. T. reflexum L. Buffalo Clover. Taprooted annual or possibly biennial herb; stems erect to ascending, 1 to several from the base, 2 to 3(5) dm tall, pilose or villous to nearly glabrous. Petioles 0.5 to 15 cm long; leaves palmately trifoliolate, leaflets ovate, elliptic, oblong, cuneate-obovate, or even oblanceolate, 1 to 3.5(4) cm long, about 2 to 3 times longer than broad, serrate to serrulate in the distal portion, pubescent to glabrate; stipules foliaceous, lanceolate to broadly ovate, acuminate, 1 to 3 cm long, adnate to the petiole for 1/4 their length. Peduncles terminal and axillary, 1 to 10 cm long, usually pubescent, when inflorescence terminal, often the 2 leaves below opposite or appearing so; flower clusters umbellate, roughly globose, 2 to 2.5 cm in diam. at anthesis, at maturity 2.5 to 4 cm broad; pedicels 2 to 5 mm long at anthesis, recurving and elongating to 10(12) mm long in fruit, each pedicel subtended by a minute hyaline scale. Calyx tube campanulate to cuplike, (1)1.5 to 2 mm long, 10-nerved, glabrous or short-pubescent, teeth slightly unequal, 4 to 7 mm long, linear-subulate, sometimes 3-nerved; corolla 7 to 12 mm long, deep red or rosy or sometimes the wings and keel whitish, all turning brown on drying, banner longer than wings and keel, pressed flowers with a blunt or truncate aspect (as opposed to the slender and pointed appearance of most pressed clover flowers). Legume oblong, body 3 to 5 mm long and the stipe 1 to 1.5 mm long, 2 to 4 seeded; seed 1.2 to 1.5 mm long, yellow-brown, minutely ridged or slightly warty. Sandy, wooded areas in NE. TX, SW. to Robertson Co; E. U.S. and Can.--Ont. and NY to IA and NE, S. to FL and TX. May-July.

7. T. repens L. White Clover, Ladino Clover, Dutch Clover. Taprooted perennial; stems creeping, rooting at the nodes, sometimes mat-forming, 1 to 4 dm long, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Petioles 5 to 20 cm long; leaves palmately trifoliolate, leaflets elliptic-obovate to cuneate-obcordate, mostly 1 to 3(4) cm long, less than 3 times longer than broad, denticulate to serrulate along almost the entire margin; stipules 3 to 10 mm long, united, forming a membranous sheath, tapering into a setaceous tip. Peduncles axillary, (5)10 to 20(30) cm long, arising from the creeping stem, usually equalling or longer than the subtending leaf; flower clusters nearly globose, about as long as thick, at maturity less than 25(30) mm thick, short-racemose, the pedicels arising from an axis 2 to 5 mm long; flowers 40 to 85 per cluster; pedicels at anthesis about 1.5 mm long, at maturity 3 to 5(6) mm long, subtended by minute scarious bracts 0.5 to 2 mm long. Calyx glabrous to sparsely pubescent, tube cylindrical, 10-nerved, 2 to 3 mm long, equalling or exceeding the teeth which are (1)2 to 3 mm long and narrowly lanceolate to triangular; corolla 6 to 12 mm long, white, sometimes creamy or pinkish, turning brown on drying, banner much longer than wings. Legume oblong to linear, 4 to 5 mm long, with (2)3 to 4 seeds; seeds yellowish, 1 to 3 mm long. Scattered escape in the E. 1/2 TX; introduced and naturalized from Europe, nearly throughout N.A. Spring and fall.

Sometimes grown in lawns as a grass substitute.

8. T. polymorphum Poir. Peanut Clover. Taprooted perennial; stems creeping, stoloniferous, rooting at the nodes, glabrous or essentially so. Petioles to about 10 cm long; leaves palmately trifoliolate, leaflets generally obcordate (more so than any of our other clovers), less than 3 times as long as broad, glabrous, the margins essentially entire; stipules herbaceous-foliaceous, united to the petioles for 1/2 or more their length, broadly lanceolate to ovate, the tips more or less setaceous. Cleistogamous flowers present, small, solitary, borne just above the ground on short peduncles, after anthesis working down into the soil to produce fruit underground (as a peanut does). Chasmogamous flowers with peduncles about 1 to 15 mm long, glabrous, arising from the creeping stem; flower clusters umbellate, about as long as wide, less than 25(30) mm broad, usually with fewer than 20 flowers; pedicels 1 to 8 mm long, subtended by minute bracts; flowers commonly all ascending so the flower cluster is flat-bottomed or even round-topped obconic. Calyx essentially glabrous, tube funnelform to narrowly campanulate, ca. 1 to 2 mm long, teeth lanceolate to long-triangular, at least some of them equalling or surpassing the tube; corolla deep red, drying rosy-brown, 2 to 4 times as long as the calyx, ca. 5 to 10 mm long, banner ovate to obovate-orbicular, the apex sometimes emarginate, usually equalling or slightly longer than the wings and keel. Legume often from underground cleistogamous flowers, ovate to orbicular, 3 to 4 mm long, often pulled up with the plant and present on herbarium specimens. Frequent in sandy wooded areas, E., SE., and N. Cen. TX, S. to Caldwell, Dewitt, and Victoria Cos.; also LA. Spring, ours primarily April. [T. amphianthumT. & G.].

9. T. carolinianum Michx. Carolina Clover. Taprooted annual or winter annual (perennial, according to some authors); stems much-branched, erect to decumbent, 1 to 3 dm long, glabrous or sparsely appressed-pubescent. Petioles usually 1 to 5 cm long; leaves palmately trifoliolate, leaflets obovate to obcordate, cuneate basally, 4 to 10 mm long, 3 to 10 mm wide, about 1 to 1.5 times as long as broad, denticulate in the distal 1/2, glabrous or sparsely pubescent; stipules ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, adnate to the petioles for about 1/3 to 1/2 their length, usually 1 cm or more long. Peduncles terminal or axillary, 3 to 10(12 or more) cm long, the length 2 to 6 times the width of the inflorescence, inflorescence umbellate, globose or somewhat flat-bottomed or subcylindrical, at anthesis 10 to 15 mm broad, 15 to 25(30) mm thick at maturity; pedicels 1 to 3 mm at anthesis, elongating to 3 to 4 mm at maturity, appressed-pubescent, subtended by minute, collar-like scales about 0.5 mm long; flowers 4 to 6(7) mm long. Calyx pubescent to lightly villous, tube campanulate, ca. 0.8 to 1 mm long, 10-nerved, lobes all 2 to 3 times longer than broad, 1 to 3 mm long, sometimes 3-nerved, somewhat ciliate-margined; corolla yellow to white, aging to brown or purplish, petals longitudinally ribbed or lined, flowers in pressed material sometimes slightly more blunt and square-tipped than some other clovers. Legume oblong, short-stipitate, 2.5 to 3.5 mm long, with 2 to 4 dark green to blackish, smooth, dull seeds 1 to 1.2 mm long. Sandy or rocky open woods or roadsides. E. and SE. TX, SW. to Travis, Comal, and Wharton Cos.; SE. U.S. NW. to KS and OK, N. to MO and VA; SE. limit is FL. Spring, ours primarily April.

10. T. bejariense Moric. Taprooted annual or winter annual; stems 1 to several from the base, ascending or decumbent, 1 to 2 dm long, glabrous or nearly so. Petioles well-developed, to 3 or 4 cm long; leaves palmately trifoliolate, leaflets obovate to obcordate, mostly 5 to 10 mm long, less than 3 times as long as wide, serrulate in the distal portion, glabrous; stipules foliaceous, lanceolate, acuminate, united to the petioles for somewhat less than half their length, ca. 0.5 to 2 cm long. Peduncles terminal and axillary, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, especially in the distal portion, 1 cm or more long, the length 2 to 6 times the width of the head and several times the length of the subtending leaves; inflorescence umbellate, globose, about as long as thick, 15 to 20 mm broad at anthesis and generally less than 25(30) mm at maturity; pedicels minutely spreading-pubescent, 1 to 8 mm long, each subtended by a minute bract ca. 0.5 mm long; flowers numerous, to about 5 to 7 mm long. Calyx reticulate-veined, bilabiate, the tube campanulate and the lobes very unequal, at least some of them as broad as long, the apices acute or toothed, the margins minutely ciliate; corolla slightly longer than the calyx, white to yellow-white, drying brown, banner and wings minutely toothed, banner longer than wings, pressed flowers somewhat more blunt-ended and squarish than those of many other clovers, which tend to have rather slender flowers. Legume 5 to 6 mm long, oblong, tardily dehiscent; seeds 2 to 4. Sands and sandy clays in open woods and grasslands. E. and N. Cen. TX, S. to Wilson, DeWitt, and Victoria Cos.; also W. AR and LA. Spring.



ROSACEAE ZORNIAJ38. ZORNIAJ. F. Gmel.



Annual or perennial herbs. Stems generally prostrate or semi-erect, slender. Leaves palmately compound, leaflets 2 to 4, these often inconspicuously punctate; petioles equalling the leaflets. Stipules elliptic to ovate, attached near but not quite at the base; stipels absent. Flowers in terminal or axillary several-flowered spikes, each flower subtended by two large bracts similar to the stipules. Calyx with campanulate tube and 5 teeth. Corolla papilionaceous, commonly yellow, 7 to 14 mm long. Stamens 10, the filaments united into a tube, anthers alternating 5 versatile and 5 sub-basifixed. Fruit a flat loment with 2 to 7 persistent articles, the articles not separating from one another at maturity.

About 80 species in the warmer parts of the world; 3 in TX; 1 species found here.

1. Z. bracteata J. F. Gmel. Bracted Zornia, Viperina. Herbaceous perennial from an elongate, knobby, woody root; stems several to many from the base, trailing, 2 to 8 dm long. Leaves 4-foliolate (rarely 1- to 3-foliolate), leaflets varying from widely obovate to oblong or elliptic to linear-lanceolate, rounded to acuminate, mucronate, generally 1 to 3 cm long, inconspicuously punctate, glabrous to appressed-pubescent on the midrib; stipules striate, 0.5 to 1.2 cm long, with basal lobes 1 to 3 mm long. Inflorescence 3 to 15 cm long; flowers 3 to 10, subsessile; enclosing bracts closely appressed, striate, ciliate, 0.7 to 1.5 mm long. Calyx 2-lipped, minutely ciliate; corolla yellow, 0.9 to 1.4 cm long; anthers alternating oblong and globose; ovary sessile. Loment 1 to 2 cm long, with 2 to 6 bristle-covered segments, each ca. 3 to 4 mm wide. Frequent in sandy or gravelly soils in the Rio Grande Plains, N. Cen., and SE. TX, rarer W. to the Llano area and to E. TX. Coastal states: VA to TX, GA, FL, AL, and MS. May-Sept.



ROSACEAE STYLOSANTHES39. STYLOSANTHES Sw. Pencil Flower



Perennial herbs, perhaps bushy-branched above, from taproots and sometimes branched rootstocks. Stems erect, ascending, or spreading-procumbent, 1 to 6 dm long. Petioles 5 to 20 mm long. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate; leaflets entire, elliptic, 1 to 2(3) cm long, conspicuously veined, estipellate. Stipules slightly shorter than petioles, adnate to the petioles nearly their full length, often with conspicuous veins. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves or in racemelike inflorescences formed by crowding of the flower-bearing nodes. Flowers 5 to 10 mm long, short-pediceled and somewhat inconspicuous. Calyx tube sometimes nearly 2-lipped, teeth or lobes 5. Corolla papilionaceous, generally orange-yellow. Stamens 10, monadelphous, filaments untied into a tube which splits on the upper side after anthesis, 5 versatile anthers alternating with 5 sub-basifixed ones. Fruit a legume with 2 joints, each flat and achenelike, separating from one another at maturity, the proximal joint persistent, sterile, reduced, the distal joint fertile and beaked.

About 25 species of Africa, Asia, and America; 2 in TX; 1 here.

1. S. biflora (L.) B.S.P. Herb from taproot and surface-level or underground short-branched rootstock; stems usually several, erect or ascending (rarely sprawling), somewhat bushy-branched, (1)2 to 6 dm long, glabrate to puberulent, bristly-hirsute, or hispid with yellow bristles. Petioles 1 to 3 mm long; leaflets elliptic to oblanceolate or lanceolate (rarely obovate), 1.5 to 4 cm long, entire or with spiny teeth in the upper margin, acute to obtuse, conspicuously veined below, parts of the veins often yellow, estipellate; petiolule of terminal leaflet 1 to 3 mm long; stipules subulate, aristate and often with side bristles, striate, adnate nearly the entire length to the petiole, free apices 3 to 8 mm long, pubescent to hirsute or hispid. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, usually about 8 nodes floriferous, all crowded into a headlike or racemelike inflorescence 1 cm long or less, or flowers appearing clustered at the branch tips. Floral cup filiform, pedicel-like, glabrous; calyx tube campanulate, short, glabrous, more or less bilabiate, upper lip with 2 united, obtuse teeth 1.2 to 1.8 mm long, middle tooth of lower lip acute, ca. 2 to 3 mm long, lateral teeth 1. to 1.5 mm long, obtuse; corolla orange-yellow to whitish, often fading pinkish, banner orbicular, 5 to 9 mm long, to 5 to 6 mm wide; wings short-clawed, 3.5 to 4 mm long; keel upcurved, about equalling the wings; stamens monadelphous, anthers alternately oblong and subglobose. Legume sessile, 2-segmented, the lower segment pedicel-like, sterile (sometimes fertile), fertile segment obliquely ovate, (2.5)3 to 4(5) mm long, reticulate, puberulent to glabrate, with a straight to curved beak 0.5 to 1 mm long, 1-seeded; seed 2 to 2.5 mm long, yellowish to brown, with irregularly rounded ridges. Frequent in E., SE., and N. Cen. TX; NJ to PA, IL, MO, and KS, S. to FL, AL and TX. Apr.-Nov. [Includes var. hispidissima (Michx.) Pollard & Ball; S. riparia Kearn.].



ROSACEAE DESMODIUM40. DESMODIUM Desv. Tick-clover, Tick-trefoil, Beggar's-ticks, Beggar Lice



Annual or perennial herbs (sometimes subshrubs, shrubs, or small trees, but not ours). Stems erect, trailing, prostrate, or ascending. Herbage variously pubescent, uncinulate (hooked) trichomes often present. Leaves usually alternate, in some species subverticillate or appearing opposite, pinnately trifoliolate (all our local plants), or occasionally the lowermost unifoliolate or rarely 5-foliolate, petiolate or some species with reduced petioles. Petioles sulcate, extending into the leaf rachis. Leaflets variously shaped, entire, usually stipellate, terminal leaflet with 2 stipels; stipels usually subulate and persistent, sometimes caducous or absent. Stipules present or occasionally absent, persistent or caducous, ovate to subulate, herbaceous to setaceous. Inflorescence paniculate or racemose, axillary or terminal, flowers apparently borne in 2's or 3's (reduced secondary racemes), each group subtended by a primary bract and each pedicel subtended by a smaller secondary bract; pedicels to 2 cm long; axis with at least some uncinate hairs. Flowers papilionaceous. Calyx slightly to strongly bilabiate, the 2 teeth of the upper lobe united for most of their length, lower 3 teeth free, the center and lowermost long-acuminate, exceeding the 2 laterals. Corolla pink, rosy, purple, white, bluish, or greenish, never yellow when fresh, sometimes drying blue-green, blue, or yellow; banner oblanceolate to suborbicular, often retuse, narrow at base; wings oblong, short-clawed; keel nearly straight to more or less falcate, apically truncate, long-clawed, slightly adherent to the wings. Stamens 10, monadelphous or in some species diadelphous, the 10th and uppermost stamen free, at least above. Fruit a stipitate loment with (1)2 to many articles, greatly flattened, the lower suture often more deeply indented than the upper, articles generally ovate to triangular or rhombic, 1-seeded, indehiscent (at least in TX material), generally uncinulate-pubescent, sometimes glabrous on the sutures in a few species and rarely glabrous on the faces (but not in ours).

About 200 species of temperate and tropic areas almost worldwide, absent from the Pacific slope, Europe, and New Zealand. The 24 TX species represent the northern limit of the southern, Mexican species and the southern limit of the northern species. Little hybridization between species occurs and the stipules, bracts, pedicels, and loments provide good key characters, but the relationships between some species are unclear due to little study (Correll and Johnston 1970). Six species are possible here. [Meibomia Heister].

The articles cling with the tenacity of a tick to skin, socks, clothing, animal fur, etc., hence the common name. Some species provide good forage for livestock. The seeds of some species are eaten by quail and other wildfowl.

1. Loment articles (1)3 to 5(6), usually angular at maturity; corolla mostly 6 to 9 mm long .....2

1. Loment articles 1 to 3(4), usually rounded on 1 or both margins; corolla 3 to 5(6) mm long ...........................................................................................................................................4

2(1) Terminal leaflet rhombic to deltoid; acute to cuneate or truncate at the base; leaflets densely tomentose beneath .........................................................................1. D. viridiflorum

2. Terminal leaflet elliptic-ovate to lanceolate, rounded at the base; leaflets at most

moderately to somewhat pilose beneath .................................................................................3

3(2) Leaflets (2.5)3 to 8(10) times longer than wide, sparsely pubescent with short, appressed hairs (rarely hairs spreading or some of them uncinulate); midstem glabrous to glabrate, hairs, if any, short and uncinulate ...............................................................2. D. paniculatum

var.paniculatum

3. Leaflets 1.2 to 3(4) times longer than wide, leaflet pubescence usually evident, longer, including some spreading and uncinulate hairs; midstem with scant or dense uncinulate hairs ..................................................................................................................3. D. glabellum

4(1) Leaflets linear-oblong (to linear-lanceolate); plants erect; petioles if present 9 mm long or less ..............................................................................................................4. D. sessilifolium

4. Leaflets ovate to ovate-oblong or orbicular; plants prostrate, ascending or erect; petioles to 27 mm long ...........................................................................................................................5

5(4) Lateral leaflets about as long as petioles, petioles 12 to 27 mm long; stem and petioles essentially glabrous (sometimes sparsely uncinulate-puberulent); pedicels (6)8 to 19 mm long ............................................................................................................5. D. marilandicum

5. Lateral leaflets much longer than the petioles, petioles (1)10 to 15 mm long; stems and petioles primarily pilose; pedicels (2)4 to 9 mm long ...........................................6. D. ciliare

NOTE: A seventh species, D. obtusum (Willd.) DC. [= D. rigidum (Ell.) DC.] has been reported from our area, probably on the basis of misidentified specimens. It is similar to D. ciliare and D.marilandicum but is recognizable by its large ( (3)5 to 6.7 cm long) terminal leaflets.

1. D. viridiflorum (L.) DC. Velvetleaf Tick-clover. Perennial; stems erect, 0.8 to 3 dm tall, usually simple, terete, somewhat grooved or ridged, moderately to sparsely pilose, also densely uncinulate-pubescent or -puberulent. Stipules lance-ovate, acuminate or long-attenuate, striate, appressed-pilose on the outer surface, ciliate-margined, 3 to 7 mm long; petioles grooved and ridged, spreading-pilose and uncinulate puberulent, 5 to 65 mm long; leaf rachis similar, 11 to 28 mm long; leaflets generally rhombic, the terminal one sometimes deltoid and basally truncate, all acute to acuminate or obtuse, ca. 2/3 as wide as long, terminal leaflet 3.5 to 11.8 cm long, 3.6 to 8.8 cm wide, lateral leaflets rather oblique, 4 to 10.2 cm long and 2 to 6.5 cm wide, all dark green, glabrate to moderately spreading pilose and/or with uncinulate hairs above, densely gray- or whitish-tomentose beneath; stipels linear to lanceolate, attenuate, puberulent and more or less pilose, ciliate, 0.5 to 4 mm long. Inflorescence racemose-paniculate; axis grooved, uncinulate-pubescent and spreading-pilose; primary bracts ovate-acuminate, striate, pilose dorsally and ciliate-margined, 2 to 4 mm long; secondary bracts lance-attenuate to linear, pilose and puberulent, ciliate, 0.5 to 1.5 mm long; pedicels rather pilose, also uncinulate-puberulent, 2.5 to 8 mm long. Calyx sparsely to densely short pubescent or spreading-pilose, upper 2 fused teeth 2 to 3 mm long, lowermost tooth of lower lip 2.5 to 4.5 mm long, lateral teeth 2 to 4 mm long; corolla pinkish to lavender-blue (said to turn greenish after anthesis), 5 to 9 mm long. Loment stipitate, stipe (2.5)3 to 6 mm long, with 4 or 5(6) more or less rhombic articles, each. 4 to 9 mm long, 3.5 to 5 mm broad, straight to slightly angled above and bluntly angular to somewhat rounded below, sides and sutures moderately to densely uncinulate-puberulent. Infrequent in dry woods. E. TX, known from Robertson Co.; SE. U.S., N. to DE and inland to AR and TN. Sept.-Oct. [Meibomia viridiflora (Nutt.) O. Ktze.].

2. D. paniculatum (L.) DC. var. paniculatum Panicled Tick-clover. Perennial; stems 1 to several from a stout taproot and knobby or branched rootstock, 0.5 to 1.5 m tall, usually with spreading branches, slender, subangled, lined, glabrous, uncommonly uncinulate-puberulent or rarely with pilose hairs. Stipules linear-lanceolate, attenuate, striate, puberulent, often pilose dorsally, ciliate, 3 to 6 mm long, caducous to semi-peristent; petioles 1.5 to 6 cm long, angled, somewhat pilose along the groove, elsewhere usually glabrous to sometimes minutely and sparsely uncinulate-puberulent; leaf rachises similar, 5 to 17 mm long; leaflets linear-lanceolate to linear-elliptic or lance-ovate, apically cute to acuminate, basally rounded, (2.5)3 to 8(10) times longer than broad, terminal leaflet generally 4.3 to 10 cm long, 1 to 2.3 cm wide, lateral leaflets slightly smaller, 4 to 9.6 cm long and 6.5 to 20 mm broad, generally glabrous, glabrate or scantily puberulent with short, appressed hairs (rarely more densely pubescent, spreading-pilose or with uncinulate hairs), margins slightly revolute and ciliate. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, racemose-paniculate, often quite diffuse; axis angled, grooved, glabrous or minutely puberulent to densely uncinulate-puberulent, only occasionally with some pilose hairs interspersed; primary bracts lanceolate to ovate, attenuate, dorsally striate, puberulent, somewhat pilose, especially at the base, ciliate-margined, deciduous, 1 to 3.5 mm long; secondary bracts linear to ovate, attenuate, puberulent and ciliate, 0.5 to 1 mm long; pedicels ascending, uncinulate-puberulent (3)4 to 12(18) mm long. Calyx glabrous to short-puberulent or with some pilose hairs mostly on the lobes but also scattered on the tube, tube 1.5 to 2. mm long, upper lobe with teeth ciliate, 1.5 to 3.5 mm long, middle tooth of lower lobe 2.5 to 5.5 mm long, lateral teeth 2 to 4 mm long; corolla just short of twice as long as the calyx, petals red-purplish, lavender, rarely white, fading blue, 6 to 8 mm long. Loments stipitate, stipe (2)3 to 4 mm long, with (1)3 to 6 triangular to subrhombic or rhombic articles, each 5.5 to 7 mm long, 3.5 to 4.5 mm wide, upper margin straight to slightly curved or angled, lower margin usually abruptly angled to obtusely rounded below, sides and sutures densely uncinulate-puberulent; seeds 4 to 4.5 mm long, smooth, light brown. Edges of open spaces in dry woods. E. 1/2 of TX; Ont. and ME S. through N. Eng., SW through the Great Plains, S. to FL, AL, MS, LA, and TX; also Mex. May-Sept. [Includes var. dillenii(Darl.) Isley; D. dichromum Shinners; D. dillenii Darl., in part; Meibomia paniculata (L.) O. Ktze.; M. dillenii (Darl.) O. Ktze., in part;M. pubens (T. & G.) Rydb.; M. chapmanii (Britt.) Small.].

Note: Over the years there has been much discussion as to whether this species, D. glabellum, and D. perplexa are 1, 2, 3, or 4 species. This treatment (which may well be revised in the future) is based on Isley (1983) and treats the plants as 3 species and also provides a system for dealing with the many intergrading plants.

The seeds of D. paniculatum are eaten by Bobwhite quail and wild turkeys (Steyermark 1963).

3. D. glabellum (Michx.) DC. Herbaceous perennial from a thick branched root to 4 dm long; stems erect, 5 to 15 dm tall, simple to branched, terete to angled, lined, generally scantily to densely uncinulate-pubescent, with some pilose hairs perhaps on the pulvini; stipules obliquely ovate-attenuate to triangular-dentate to lance-attenuate, remotely striate, pilose on the dorsal surface, hairs longer at the base than above, ciliate-margined, 2 to 5 mm long, 1 to 1.5 mm broad; petioles 4 to 38 mm long, lined and grooved, finely uncinulate-puberulent and lightly to moderately ascending-pilose; leaf rachises similar, 2 to 16 mm long; leaflets ovate to elliptic or rhombic, mostly obtuse, emarginate, mucronulate, rather conspicuously reticulate-veined, leaflets 1.2 to 3(4) times longer than wide, terminal leaflet 3 to 8 cm long and 1.8 to 5.5 cm wide, lateral leaflets mostly 2 to 6 cm long, 1 to 3.5 cm wide, elliptic, obtuse, leaflets scantily to densely uncinulate-pubescent along the veins above, moderately to abundantly appressed-pilose on both surfaces, paler beneath; stipels 1 to 2 mm long, subulate to linear-attenuate, minutely puberulent and ciliate. Inflorescences paniculate or racemose-paniculate, lax and diffuse; axis angled, densely uncinulate-puberulent and also sparsely to moderately pilose; primary bracts ovate-acuminate, striate, puberulent and also pilose to some degree, ciliate-margined, 1.2 to 3 mm long and ca. 1 mm wide; secondary bracts lanceolate to elliptic, puberulent, long-ciliate, 0.6 to 1.2 mm long; pedicels (2)4 to 8(12) mm long, densely beset with uncinulate hairs and occasionally with some pilose hairs. Calyx puberulent and also short-pilose above and on lobes, lobes ciliate-margined, fused teeth of upper lobe 1.5 to 3.5 mm long, middle tooth of lower lobe 2.5 to 5 mm long, lateral teeth 2.2 to 3.5 mm long; corolla bright to deep rose or purplish, 6 to 9.5 mm long. Loment with stipe 3 to 5(7) mm long, articles (1)2 to 4(5) each triangular to rhombic or weakly obovate, 4 to 8(12) mm long and 3 to 5 mm wide, upper suture straight to slightly curved, lower suture strongly angled (rarely somewhat rounded), densely uncinulate-pubescent on sides and sutures and also with some multicellular hairs. Sandy dry woods, E. TX S. to Fort Bend Co.; MA to MI and IL, S. to SC, AL, LA, and TX. May-Sept. [D. dillenii Darl., in part; Meibomia dillenii (Darl.) O. Ktze., in part.].

See note at previous species.

4. D. sessilifolium (Torr.) T. & G. Sessile-leaved Tick-clover. Herbaceous perennial from a stout taproot and thick, branched rootstock; stems 1 to several from the base, sometimes branched at the base, but rarely so above, 0.6 to 1.2 m tall, striate, terete to angled, densely uncinulate-puberulent and pubescent, occasionally also pilose; stipules early-deciduous to moderately persistent, lance-or ovate-attenuate, striate, puberulent and spreading-pilose on outer surface, inner surface glabrous, ciliate, 4 to 10 mm long; petioles if present mostly 1 to 3(4) mm long, up to 9 mm; leaf rachises lined, uncinulate-puberulent and also spreading-pilose along the margins of the adaxial groove, 3 to 8 mm long; occasionally unifoliolate leaves observed, leaflets narrowly elliptic to linear-lanceolate, obtuse to rounded at base and apex, mucronate, usually prominently reticulate-veined, moderately uncinulate-puberulent and also pilose above, minutely puberulent, densely long-pilose, and paler below, terminal leaflet 3.5 to 8.5(9) cm long, 7 to 18 mm wide, lateral leaflets 3 to 6.5 cm long and 6 to 12 mm wide; stipels persistent, mostly linear-lanceolate, uncinulate-puberulent, more or less ciliate, 1.5 to 3 mm long. Inflorescence racemose-paniculate, branches, if any, virgate and densely-flowered, axis terete to nearly angular, often sulcate, densely uncinulate puberulent and pubescent, occasionally also sparsely pilose; primary bracts subtending 2 or 3 flowers, ovate-attenuate, striate, puberulent on the outer surface and also somewhat pilose, ciliate-margined; secondary bracts similar, lanceolate to linear or ovate, 0.6 to 1.5 mm long; pedicels stiffly ascending, 1 to 4.5 mm long, with pubescence like that of the axis. Calyx moderately to densely short pubescent and somewhat pilose, tube 1 to 1.5 mm long, 2 united upper teeth to 2.5 mm long, central tooth of lower lobe 2.5 to 3.5 mm long, lateral teeth 2 to 3 mm long, all teeth ciliate-margined; corolla pink to lavender or white, fading yellow to white, (4)5 to 6 mm long. Loment spreading or declined, stipe 1.5 to 3 mm long, with 1 to 4 "humpbacked', suborbicular articles, , each article more strongly rounded to subangular on the lower suture, 4 to 6 mm long, 3 to 4.5 mm wide, with dense uncinulate puberulence mixed with multicellular hairs on the surfaces and sutures, sometimes slenderly beaked by the style remnants; seeds 3 to 3.5 mm long, smooth, greenish to brown. Sandy, dry soils. Common in E. and N. Cen. TX, infrequent in SE. TX, rare in the Plains Country; local in the E. U.S.; MA, MI, IL, MO, and KS, S. to SC, GA, AL, and TX. June-Sept. [Meibomia sessilifolia (Torr.) O. Ktze.].

The fruits are eaten by Bobwhite, wild turkeys, and others. It makes a nutritious, high-protein forage and is palatable for all livestock (Steyermark 1963).

5. D. marilandicum (L.) DC. Maryland Tick-clover. Herbaceous perennial from a thick taproot and knobby or short-branched rootstock; stems erect to ascending, slender, simple or branched at the base, 4 to 10(14) dm tall (including the terminal inflorescence), terete to subangled, lined, glabrous to moderately uncinulate puberulent and short-pubescent, never pilose. Stipules moderately persistent, narrowly ovate to lance-attenuate or setaceous, striate, puberulent on the outer surface, ciliate-margined, 2 to 4.5(5) mm long; petioles 12 to 27 mm long, subangled or angled, lined but not grooved (as in D. ciliare), minutely sparsely to densely uncinulate-puberulent, leaf rachis similar or slightly pilose, 5 to 10 mm long; leaflets glabrous above, more or less prominently reticulate-veined, paler and glabrate to sparsely pilose beneath, especially along the major veins and margins, terminal leaflet ovate to oval, ovate-rhombic, or suborbicular, 19 to 27 mm long, 1 to 1.7 cm wide, obtuse and mucronate, rounded to nearly truncate basally, lateral leaflets similar but more elliptic to deltoid-ovate, 15 to 25 mm long, 11 to 16 mm wide; stipules 1 to 2 mm long, subulate to lanceolate, puberulent. Inflorescences mostly terminal, racemose-paniculate, rather diffuse; axis terete and strongly lined, moderately uncinulate-puberulent; primary bracts each subtending 2 to several pedicels, ca. 2 mm long, ovate, acuminate, striate dorsally, puberulent, ciliate-margined, not persistent; secondary bracts lance-attenuate to linear, puberulent, ciliate-margined, 0.7 to 1.3 mm long; pedicels (6)10 to 20 mm long, densely and minutely uncinulate-puberulent. Calyx minutely puberulent and scattered pilose, tube campanulate, ca. 1 mm long, teeth finely ciliate, the fused teeth of the upper lobe 1.5 to 2.2 mm long, the middle tooth of the lower lobe 2 to 3.5 mm long, and the lateral teeth 1.5 to 2.5 mm long; corolla reddish, fading purplish or blue-green, 5 to 7 mm long (almost twice as long as the calyx). Stipe of loment 1 to 2 mm long; articles (1)2(3 to 4), obovate, gently curved along the upper suture, obtusely rounded or angled below, each article 4.5 to 5 mm long, 3 to 4 mm wide, sides and surfaces uncinulate-puberulent and pubescent with multi-celled trichomes interspersed; seeds 2 to 2.5 mm long, greenish to brown, small. Dry, open woods, scattered and rare in E. and SE. TX, reported from our area and probably present; Ont. to MA, MI, IL, MO, KS, S. to GA and TX. Aug.-Oct. [Meibomia marilandica (L.) DC.].

6. D. ciliare (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. Little-leaf Tick-clover, Slender Tick-clover. Perennial herb from stout taproot and branched rootstock; stems clustered, erect to ascending, often branched at the base, 0.4 to 1 m tall, subangled, lined, usually fairly densely spreading-pilose, often intermixed with uncinulate puberulence, or the pilose hairs absent, in any case becoming glabrate with age. Stipules lance-attenuate to linear-subulate, 2 to 5 mm long, striate, more or less pilose and also minutely puberulent on the outer surface, ciliate-margined, persisting at least somewhat; petioles 1 to 15 mm long, grooved, long-pilose mainly on the margins of the groove, leaf rachis similar, 2 to 9 mm long; leaflets ovate-oblong to elliptic or suborbicular to nearly rhombic, obtuse, mucronate, more or less conspicuously reticulate-veined, usually long-pilose and somewhat puberulent above, not so densely pubescent below, ciliate-margined, terminal leaflet 0.9 to 3 cm long, 5 to 17 mm wide, lateral leaflets little if at all smaller; stipels persistent, subulate, puberulent and ciliate, 0.5 to 2 mm long. Inflorescence racemose-paniculate; axis angled, uncinulate-puberulent and often scattered-pilose (rarely nearly glabrous); primary bracts early-deciduous, ovate-acuminate, striate, puberulent on the outer surface, ciliate-margined, 1.5 to 3 mm long; secondary bracts subulate to slenderly ovate, puberulent and ciliate, 0.6 to 0.9 mm long; pedicels (2)4 to 9 mm long, densely uncinulate-puberulent. Calyx minutely puberulent, tube 1 mm long, united upper teeth 1.5 to 2.1 mm long, middle tooth of lower lobe 2 to 3 mm long, lateral teeth 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, teeth all pilose and finely ciliate; corolla pink to purplish or whitish, 3 to 5 mm long (about twice as long as the calyx). Loment with stipe 1 to 2 mm long and 1 to 3 articles, articles broadly elliptic to subovate, each 3.5 to 5.5 mm long, 2.7 to 4 mm wide, upper suture somewhat curved, not deeply indented between articles, lower suture gently indented, sutures moderately uncinulate-puberulent, the faces more densely so and also with some multicelled hairs. Dry sandy woods and openings. E. and SE. TX, rare W. to N. Cen. TX; S. Can. through MA, NY, MI, OH, and IL, S. and W. to KS, S. to FL, TX, and Mex. Aug.-Oct. [Meibomia ciliaris(Muhl.) Blake.]

Very similar to D. marilandicum and perhaps not distinct from it; the complex needs work.



ROSACEAE LESPEDEZAM41. LESPEDEZAMichx. Bush Clover, Lespedeza



Annual or perennial herbs, some (but not ours) shrubs, often from woody rhizomes. Stems procumbent to erect or ascending, glabrous to pubescent. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, leaflets estipellate, entire, often mucro-tipped. Stipules persistent. Flowers in pairs, arranged in axillary spikelike or capitate racemes or in axillary fascicles, rarely in panicles. Pedicels subtended by a bract and with a pair of bractlets subtending the calyx. Usually both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers produced. Calyx campanulate or sometimes cylindric, persistent, with 5 nearly equal lobes, calyx of cleistogamous flowers shorter than those of chasmogamous flowers. Corolla pink, purple, or white, or white marked with purple, absent (actually vestigial) in cleistogamous flowers. Banner oblong, ovate to suborbicular, clawed; wings about equaling keel. Stamens 10, diadelphous, the uppermost one free. Fruit sessile to stalked, indehiscent, 1-seeded, flat, ovate to rounded or elliptic, often reticulate-veined. Style persistent (though often broken off in pressed material), elongate on chasmogamous fruits and strongly recurved on cleistogamous fruits.

About 90 species in N.A., Asia, and Aus.; 11 species are found in TX; we have 5. This treatment includes plants segregated by some in Kummerowia. Some species form hybrids, sometimes making determination difficult.

Some Asian species have been introduced for erosion control and wildlife food.

1. Stipules ovate to broadly lanceolate; lateral veins of leaflets parallel, usually unbranched and reaching the margins; plants less than 4 dm tall, annual .............................1. L. striata

1. Stipules subulate to setaceous; lateral veins of leaflets branching and anastomosing before reaching the margins; plants often taller than 4 dm, perennial ..................................2

2(1) Corolla white; calyx equalling or usually exceeding fruit .........................................2. L. hirta

2. Corolla purple; calyx half the length of the fruit or less ..........................................................3

3(2) Stems procumbent or only weakly ascending .....................................................3. L. repens

3. Stems erect or strongly ascending ..........................................................................................4

4(3) Leaflets more than 3 times longer than wide, linear to linear-oblong; raceme 4- to 8- flowered ..............................................................................................................4. L. virginica

4. Leaflets less than or up to 3 times longer than wide, oblong, elliptic, or ovate; raceme 4- to 14-flowered ...........................................................................................................5. L. stuevei

1. L. striata (Thunb.) Hook. & Arn. = Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. Japan Clover, Japanese Bush Clover. Taprooted annual 1 to 4 dm tall, bushy-branched; stems sparsely to densely retrorsely appressed-pubescent. Leaves trifoliolate, the stalk of the terminal leaflet of each leaf only slightly longer than those of the lateral leaflets, the leaves thus subpalmate; leaflets obovate to narrowly elliptic or oblong, 1 to 2 cm long and generally 1/3 to 1/2 as wide, glabrous or essentially so except for the midvein below and some marginal cilia, veins of leaflets mostly unbranched and parallel; petioles usually less than 3 mm long; stipules ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3 to 6 mm long on the larger leaves, striate. Flowers (1)2 to 3(5) in short, spikelike, axillary racemes; pedicels generally less than 1 mm long; chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers intermixed. Calyx tube ca. 1 mm long, pubescent,teeth ovate, ciliate, ca. 1 mm long, the upper two teeth partially united; corolla pink to purple, the petals 4.5 to 6 mm long. Fruit 3 to 4 mm long, acuminate, 1/2 to 3/4 covered by the calyx, inconspicuously reticulate; seed ca. 2 mm long, black, brown, or mottled. Sandy open areas in E. TX, plentiful; infrequent W. to N. Cen. TX; native to E. Asia; widely introduced to the U.S. June-Sept. or Oct.

2. L. hirta (L.) Hornem. Hairy Bush Clover, Hairy Lespedeza. Perennial from a stout, branched, woody rootstock; stems erect to ascending, 0.5 to 1.8 m tall, simple below and branched above, rather densely spreading pubescent. Leaflets elliptic to ovate or obovate, to 4 cm long and about 1/2 as broad, glabrous to appressed-pubescent above and appressed-pubescent to pilose beneath; petioles of the larger leaves 5 to 20 mm long; stipules filiform to subulate, 3 to 6 mm long. Racemes dense or loose, spikelike, extending well beyond the foliage (1 to 4 times longer than the subtending leaves), each with 16 to 44 flowers; pedicels 1 to 2 mm long. Calyx both appressed-puberulent and pilose, as long as the fruit to much longer: tube 1 to 2 mm long, teeth acuminate, 5 to 8 mm long; corolla yellowish white or white, often with a purple throat or purple veins on banner, banner 6 to 8 mm long. Legume oblong-ovate to elliptic, 4 to 7 mm long, with dense, short, spreading pubescence; seeds ca. 3 mm long, brown to purply-black, shiny. Frequent in sandy soil, E. and SE. TX, rare W. to N. Cen. TX; S. Can. and E. U.S.--ME to MI, S. to IL, MO, KS, and OK, E. to AL and FL. June-Sept.(Oct.)

Those who recognize subspecific taxa say our plants are subsp. hirta.

3. L. repens (L.) W. Bart. Creeping Bush Clover, Creeping Lespedeza. Perennial from taproot and surface-level or underground, branched caudex; stems procumbent or trailing, 3 to 8 dm long, sparsely upwardly appressed-pubescent. Leaflets elliptic or ovate to obovate-oblong, (4)8 to 25 mm long and about 1/2 as wide, glabrous to glabrate or sometimes appressed-pubescent; petioles sparsely to densely appressed-pubescent, to about 2.5 cm long; stipules subulate to setaceous, 1.5 to 4 mm long. Racemes delicate, 4- to 8-flowered, relatively long-peduncled; peduncles to 5 cm or more, much surpassing the subtending leaves, cleistogamous flowers usually sessile, chasmogamous flowers with pedicels 1 to 2.5 mm long. Calyx 1/4 to 1/2 as long as the legume, appressed-pubescent, the tube ca. 0.8 to 1.2 mm long and the teeth 2 to 3 mm long; corolla purple, petals 6 to 8 mm long, keel about as long as wings. Legume 3 to 7 mm long, broadly oval to suborbicular, apiculate, reticulate, appressed-pubescent. Frequent on gravelly or sandy soils, roadsides and open woods. E. TX, infrequent W. to N. Cen. TX; E. and Cen. U.S.--N. Eng. to OH, IL, WI and S. to FL, AL, and LA. Apr.-Sept.

Very similar to L. procumbens of E. and N. Cen. TX, which differs in having the stems pilose rather than appressed-pubescent.

4. L. virginica (L.) Britt. Slender Bush Lespedeza, Slender Bush Clover. Perennial herb from stout, knobby or branched rootstock; stems erect or strongly ascending, usually branched above, 3 to 16 dm tall, glabrate or more commonly appressed-pubescent to short-pilose. Leaflets linear to narrowly oblong, 15 to 40 mm long, 3 to 10 times longer than broad, glabrate to sparsely appressed-pubescent above (perhaps only on the midrib), generally rather densely appressed-pubescent below; petioles 3 to 25 mm long; stipules setaceous or subulate, mostly less than 4 mm long, persistent. Cleistogamous flowers in small axillary clusters along the midstem, chasmogamous flowers in axillary racemes included within to slightly exceeding the foliage, 4- to 8-flowered; pedicels 0.5 to 1.2 mm long, peduncle and pedicels densely pubescent. Calyx also densely appressed-pubescent, lobes 1.2 to 3 mm long, the upper 2 connate for 1/2 or more their length; corolla purple, 5 to 7 mm long, the keel equalling or longer than the banner and wings. Fruit 4 to 7 mm long, broadly elliptic to ovate or orbicular, strongly reticulate, sparsely pubescent, usually from the cleistogamous flowers; seed 2.5 to 3 mm long, smooth, greenish to brown. Frequent, open woods and roadsides. E. and N. Cen. TX, rare W. to the Ed. Plat.; S. Can., E. U.S.-- N. Eng. W. to MI, WI, and IA, S. to KS, OK, AL, LA, and FL; also Mex. Aug.-Oct.

Readily browsed by livestock (GPFA 1986).

5. L. stuevei Nutt. Tall Bush Clover, Tall Bush Lespedeza. Perennial from stout, knobby or branched rootstock; stems erect or strongly ascending, 3 to 18 dm tall, appressed-pubescent to pilose. Leaflets elliptic or oblong, occasionally ovate or obovate, (6)10 to 25(30) mm long, the terminal leaflets to 2 or 3 times longer than wide, pilose to appressed-pubescent above, usually densely spreading-pubescent beneath; petioles 0.5 to 30 mm long; stipules linear-subulate or setaceous, ca. 3 to 5 mm long. Cleistogamous flowers in axillary clusters, chasmogamous flowers in dense axillary racemes as long as or slightly longer than the subtending leaves, usually 4- to 14-flowered; racemes sessile or peduncled, peduncle and pedicels pubescent; pedicels 0.5 to 3 mm long. Calyx densely pubescent, 3 to 5 mm long, the lobes 1.2 to 3.5 mm long, the upper 2 connate for 1/3 (rarely 1/2) their length; corolla purple, 6 to 8 mm long, banner and wings equal, longer than the keel. Legumes mostly produced by the cleistogamous flowers, 4 to 7 mm long, enclosed by the calyx for 1/2 or less their length, elliptic to ovate, short-pubescent, conspicuously reticulate; seed 2 to 3 mm long, olive green to brown, smooth, lustrous. Frequent in sandy or gravelly soils in open woods and along roadsides. E. and N. Cen. TX, W. to the W. Cross Timbers region and rare in parts of the Ed. Plat; E. U.S.--MA S. and W. to PA, IN, MO, KS, OK, S. and E. to VA, FL, AL. May-Oct.

Sometimes confused with specimens of L. virginica having wider than usual terminal leaflets.



ROSACEAE PROSOPIS42. PROSOPIS L. Mesquite



Small shrubs to medium-size trees, often with straight, sharp, solitary or paired spines (perhaps of stipular origin). Leaves twice pinnately compound, with a gland present on the petiole or rachilla. Primary leaflets (pinnae) 1 to several pairs, secondary leaflets 4 to 30 per pinna, generally linear, glab-rous. Flowers arranged in spikes or heads, generally yellowish or cream. Sepals 5, fused above the floral cup. Petals 5, free or fused above the floral cup. Stamens 10, anthers with a gland between the two cells. Legume to several cm long, leathery, often nearly solid, indehiscent, several-seeded. Seeds partitioned from each other and surrounded by fleshy tissue.

About 40 species in warm, dry parts of the world; 4 in TX; 1 found locally. [Neltuma Raf.,Algarobia Benth., Strombocarpa Engelm. & Gray].

1. P. glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa Honey Mesquite. Shrub or small tree 4 to 6 m tall, often multi-trunked at the base, branches often with 1 or 2 spines at the nodes. Leaves petiolate, petioles 4 to 7 cm long; pinnae usually only 1 pair per leaf (less commonly 2 paris); secondary leaflets 6 to 15(18) pairs per pinna, linear or narrowly elliptic, acute, (2)3 to 4.5(6.2) cm long, 8 to 15 times longer than broad, relatively remote, foliage generally glabrous. Peduncles 1 to 3 cm long; flowers in axillary spikes (6)7 to 9 cm long, cream-yellow, sessile or with pedicels to 0.5 mm long. Calyx shallowly campanulate, ca. 1 mm long, the 5 short lobes apically pubescent; petals elliptic to obovate, ca. 3 mm long, free above the floral cup, pubescent above; ovary densely white-woolly. Legume more or less straight, (5) 7 to 20 cm long, about as thick as broad (to about 1 cm), constricted between the seeds, light brown or tan and often mottled, with a beak to 2 mm wide and 2.5 cm long; seeds several to many, 6 to 6.5 mm long, brownish, embedded in a sweet pulp. This variety is abundant in the Rio Grand Plains, parts of N. Cen. and SE. TX, and the Plains Country, also scattered in the Trans-Pecos, E. TX, and the Ed. Plat.; also KS, OK, E. NM, and S. into Mex. The species as a whole extends W. to AZ, CA, and Baja Calif. [Synonym for species Neltuma glandulosa (Torr.) Britt. & Rose. For years our plants were erroneously known as P. juliflora (Swartz.) DC. or P. chilensis (Torr.) Standl.; the latter species exists elsewhere.]

Mesquite furnishes good fodder (the legumes) as long as it is not the sole source. The pulp in the pods is quite edible, nutritious, and high in protein, though the palatability varies from tree to tree. Native Americans made great use of the legumes, especially during droughty summers. The pulp makes a good jelly and can be dried and ground into meal. The flowers make a good honey. The seeds are also edible though they require a bit of processing. Light brown to black dyes can be made from the sap and bark and splints for basket making can be made from the bark. Indians used the spines for needles and made cordage from the root fibers (Tull 1987). Mesquite wood is useful for furniture, tools, carving, and with its high heat value makes an excellent fuel. Recently there has been a craze for barbecue over mesquite charcoal. In the future mesquite may be developed as a source of gum arabic or the sweet pods used for production of fuel alcohol (Tull 1987). On the other hand, mesquite spreads perniciously and is a fierce competitor for nutrients and water on the range. Poor range management, especially overgrazing, only tends to favor mesquite, and now farmers and ranchers have a problem that will be difficult to eradicate.



ROSACEAE ALBIZIA43. ALBIZIA Durz.



About 70 species in the warmer regions of the Old World; 1 in TX. The name is often misspelled Albizzia.

1. A. julibrissin Durz. Mimosa, Mimosa-tree, Silk-tree. Sometimes shrubs but usually flat-topped small trees to 4 to 5(12) m tall. Leaves evenly twice pinnately compound, minutely pubescent, 10 to 20 dm long, petiole bearing a dark, elliptical gland ca. 2 mm long, just above the pulvinus, primary leaflets (pinnae) 4 to 10 cm long; secondary leaflets 20 to 40 per pinna, 8 to 15 mm long and 3 to 5 mm wide, sessile, very asymmetrical, the "midvein" running next to the distal margin, overall shape roughly half an oblong, apiculate. Flowers in heads and heads in panicles or clusters on the upper side of the branch ends; heads often 3 to 5 cm thick, with 15 to 25 flowers; peripheral flowers functionally only staminate, central flowers perfect. Calyx of 5 sepals, fused above the floral cup, tube 1.5 to 3 mm long, lobes 0.1 to 0.2 mm long; corolla of 5 fused petals, funnelform, deeply 5-lobed, pale green, the tube 4 to 8 mm long, lobes 2 to 3 mm long; stamens numerous, usually 20 to 40, always more than 10, filaments often connate into a tube 7 to 15 mm long below, the free portion 2 to 3 cm long, all very showy, bright pink or red, anthers minute; flowers fragrant. Legume flattened, linear-lanceolate, 8 to 18 cm long, 1 to 2(3) cm broad, tapered to base and apex, indehiscent but thin-walled and breaking easily, margins thickened; seeds placed transversely in the legume, oblong-elliptic, brown, flat, ca. 5 mm long. Often cultivated and escaping or persisting in the E. 1/2 of TX and SE. U.S.--VA, GA, FL, AL, MS, KY, and TN; introduced from Asia. May-June, fruit fully developed and mature July-Nov.

A yellow dye can be obtained from the flowers and leaves. Many people are allergic to these trees (Tull 1987). This beautiful but weak-wooded tree is best in a landscape where it can be seen from above.



ROSACEAE ACACIA44. ACACIA Mill.



Trees, shrubs, subshrubs or perennial herbs, unarmed or with stipular spines or recurved prickles. Leaves evenly twice pinnately compound, petiolar gland usually present; pinnae (primary leaflets) 1 to several pairs per leaf; secondary leaflets numerous, often minute, glabrous to pubescent, generally asymmetrical. Flowers white to yellow or yellow-orange, commonly borne in short-peduncled heads or spikes. Calyx campanulate, with 4 or 5 free or fused sepals. Petals generally 4 or 5, free, fused, or sometimes absent. Stamens numerous, 20 to 100 per flower, all free, filaments much longer than the perianth. Legume linear, oblong or oval, flattened or plump, constricted between the seeds or not so, thick- to thin-walled, promptly to very tardily dehiscent.

About 600 species in the warmer parts of the world; 11 in TX; 2 here. [Vachellia Wight & Arn., Poponax Raf., Acaciopsis Britt. & Rose, Acaciella Britt. & Rose, Senegalia Raf.].

Many acacias are grown for their sweet-smelling flowers; some, including our A. smallii, have been much used in French perfumes (Mabberley 1987). Tropical species sometimes have ants living symbiotically in large hollow spines or stems. Other tropical species furnish gum arabic, tannins (for inks and dyes), etc. Some species furnish wood for tools and fuel, and some host insects that produce the precursors of waxes, varnishes, and lacquers. The Texas species have some value as browse, though there have been some reports of livestock poisonings. The seeds of some were eaten by Native Americans, but as some species are poisonous, it is best to leave them alone. Most are good honey plants (Tull 1987).

1. Shrub or small tree; stipular spines paired and pin-like; flowers yellow ..............1. A. smallii

1. Subshrub or perennial herb; aerial stems unarmed; flowers white to cream or reddish- brown .........................................................................................................2. A. angustissima

var. hirta

1. A. smalliiIsley [=A. farnesiana (L.) Willd.] Huisache, Sweet Acacia. Shrub or more commonly small tree 2 to 4 m tall, often multi-trunked, flared outward and densely-crowned; branches armed with paired stipular spines that are pale to dark, sharp, straight, and pinlike, to ca. 1.5 cm long. Petiolar gland borne near the middle of the petiole or absent; leaves 3 to 8 cm long, pinnae (primary leaflets) 2 to 6(8) pairs, to ca. 2 cm long on flowering samples; secondary leaflets numerous, about 10 to 25 pairs, 2 to 5 mm long, linear-oblong, acute, obtuse, or mucronate, asymmetrical, glabrous to pubescent. Peduncles slender, 1 to 4 cm long, pubescent, bearing at the apex a pair of bractlets usually concealed by the flowers; flowers bright orange-yellow, fragrant, in globose heads ca. 1 cm thick; heads solitary or clustered 2 to 5 together. Calyx somewhat pubescent; corolla tubular-funnelform, about twice the length of the calyx, with 5 shallow lobes ca. 2 mm long; ovary short-stipitate, pubescent, style filiform. Legume (2)3 to 8 cm long, nearly terete but tapered to both ends, thick, woody or pulpy, valves leathery, tardily dehiscent; seeds placed transversely in fruit, in 2 rows, ovoid, shiny and brown, slightly flattened, ca. 6 mm long. Common and plentiful in S. TX N. to Travis and Brazos Cos., NW. to SE. Brewster Co.; cultivated elsewhere; throughout tropical America and cultivated in the Old World. Spring and sometimes again after rain in dry years; ours primarily Apr.-May.

For years these plants were known as A. farnesiana (L.) Willd. [Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn.], but Duane Isley concluded (1969, 1973) that that species is confined to FL, the W. Indies, and Cen. and S. America. Some sources maintain A.farnesiana as the correct name; [Kartesz (1998) lists A. minuta (M. E. Jones) Beauch. as a synonym.].

2. A. angustissima (P. Mill.) O. Kuntze var hirta (Nutt.) B. L. Robins. Fern Acacia, Whiteball Acacia, Prairie Acacia. Herbaceous perennials, stems dying to the ground each winter, or else subshrubs, often forming colonies by means of rhizomes; stems (in TX material) (5)6 to 12 dm tall, woody at the base, unarmed, unbranched or only sparingly so, graceful & wandlike, ridged, glabrate to somewhat spreading-pubescent; petioles and rachis usually hirsutulous, the herbage thus sometimes appearing brownish, glabrate forms exist. Stipules linear-lanceolate, 3 to 4 mm long; pinnae (primary leaflets) (7)10 to 14 pairs per leaf, each with 10 to 35 pairs of secondary leaflets, these 3 to 4 mm long, sessile or subsessile, crowded, linear to oblong, asymmetrical, obtuse to acute and apiculate, often ciliate-margined. Peduncles axillary, rather short; flower heads ca. 1 cm in diameter,white, cream, or rusty-white, often borne in paniculate, rather leafy arrangements. Calyx generally campanulate, 4 to 5 lobed; petals (4)5, free or united basally; stamens numerous; ovary often stipitate. Legume very flat, 4 to 7 cm long, 6 to 10 mm broad, apex cuneate, sometimes constricted between the seeds, margins thickened, thin-valved, brown, promptly dehiscent; seeds orbicular in outline, very flat, brown, 4.5 to 5 mm long. Frequent in prairies and open shrublands. E. 2/3 of TX, rarely W. to Plains Country and Brewster Co. in the Trans-Pecos; TX, OK, AR, MO, and disjunctly in FL; S. into Mex. and Cen. America. May-Sept. [Acacia hirta T. & G.; Acaciella hirta (T. & G.) Britt. & Rose].



ROSACEAE NEPTUNIA45. NEPTUNIA Lour.



Unarmed herbaceous perennials from somewhat thick orange taproots. Stems few to several, sprawling, prostrate, or decumbent (in one species floating), glabrescent to pubescent. Leaves evenly twice pinnately compound, pinnae (primary leaflets) 2 to 11 paris per leaf, sometimes with a gland between the lowest pair; secondary leaflets 8 to 43 pairs per pinna, glabrous to pubescent, asymmetrical at the base, usually linear to oblong or somewhat tapered to apex, lateral veins sometimes prominent below. Stipules well-developed, lanceolate to lance-acuminate. Peduncle axillary, several cm long, usually bearing 1 or 2 bracts along its length. Flowers yellow to yellow-green, in dense, spherical or cylindric heads, often the lower flowers of the head lacking functional reproductive parts or at least functional gynoecia, upper flowers perfect. Calyx of 5 sepals, corolla of 5 petals, both free to the top of the floral cup. Stamens 10, at least in perfect flowers, in 1 species stamens of the lower flowers staminodial and petaloid; anthers with a very small gland on the connective. Legume stipitate, broad, flat, commonly broadly oblong, 1 to 5 cm long, 6 to 17 mm broad, promptly dehiscent; seeds few to several, elongate, placed transversely in the fruit.

Eleven species in warm-temperate Americas, Africa, Asia, and Australia; 3 in TX; 2 here.

1. Flowers with stamens all alike, anther-bearing; heads in bud with 30 to 60 flowers; secondary leaflets generally 9 to 15 pairs per pinna; calyx 1 to 2 mm long; stipe of legume 4 to 15 mm long ......................................................................................................1. N. lutea

1. Flowers in lower part of head with yellow, petaloid staminodia; flower heads in bud with 20 to 30 flowers; secondary leaflets generally (12)15 to 25 paris per pinna; calyx 2 to 2.7 mm long; stipe of legume 0 to 4(5) mm long ......................................................2. N. pubescens

1. N. lutea (Leavenw.) Benth. Yellow-puff. Herbaceous perennial from an orange taproot; stems prostrate, 1 m or more long, usually minutely hirsute with hairs to 1 mm long or else glabrate. Petioles and rachises glandless; primary leaflets (pinnae) 2 to 11 paris; secondary leaflets (8)9 to 15(18) pairs per pinna, 3 to 4 mm long, oblong, ciliate, with reticulate venation beneath; stipules present, lanceolate, to 4 mm long, petiolate. Peduncles to 2 cm long, each with 1 or 2 subulate bracts 1 to 3 mm long and 1 to 2 mm broad, or these absent; heads ovoid-cylindric, to 2 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, 30 to 60-flowered. Calyx campanulate, ca. 1 mm long; petals 2 to 3 mm long, free nearly to the base; stamens 10, all functional; pistil lacking in lower flowers of the head. Stipe of legume (4)5 to 15 mm long, body of legume broadly oblong, 2.5 to 5 cm long, 10 to 15 mm wide, flat; seeds 6 to 7 mm long, 4 mm wide, glossy brown. Scattered or in some localities frequent in E. 1/2 of TX S. to Aransas and Goliad Cos., W. to N. Cen. TX; also AL, MS, AR, LA, and OK. Apr.-Oct.

2. N. pubescens Benth. Herbaceous perennial from an orange taproot. Petioles and rachis glandless; pinnae (primary leaflets) 2 to 5(6) pairs per leaf, ca. 1.5 to 3.5 cm long; secondary leaflets generally (12)15 to 25(43) pairs per leaf, ca. 3 to 4 mm long, oblong, basally asymmetrical, cuspidate, ciliate, with raised reticulate venation beneath; stipules to ca. 7 mm long, ovate-acuminate to lanceolate. Peduncles with 2 subulate bracts 1 to 3 mm long, 1 to 2 mm broad, or these absent; heads with approx. 20 to 30 flowers, rounded to ovoid. Floral cup and sepals together 2 to 2.7 mm long; flowers in upper part of head with functional stamens, those of the lower part with petaloid staminodia, these to ca. 5 mm long, yellow, drying yellow-orange. Stipe of legume 0 to 4(5) mm long; legume obliquely oblong, blunt to rounded, minutely apiculate, to ca. 3 cm or more long, and 15 mm broad, flat, margins thickened; seeds about 6 mm long and 3 to mm wide, flat. Dry, grassy or sandy areas. Along the coast and inland to Val Verde Co.

There are 2 varieties in TX, both of which are possible here.

var. pubescens Pinnae (2)3 to 5(6) pairs per leaf, variously pubescent; stipe of legume 2 to 4 mm long, exceeding the calyx, legume usually tapering to stipe, body 0.6 to 1 cm wide, 2 or more times longer than broad. Coastal plain inland to Anderson, Leon, and Gonzales Cos.; Gulf states, W.I., Mex., and Cen. Amer. to Col., Peru, Parag., and Argen. May-Oct. We definitely have this variety. [N. floridana Small; N. lindheimeri Robins.; N. pubescens Benth. var. floridana (Small) Turner and var.lindheimeri (Robins.) Turner].

var. microcarpa (Rose) Windler Pinnae 2 to 3(4) pairs per leaf, glabrous; stipe of legume to 2(3) mm long, scarcely longer than the calyx, legume usually rounded to stipe, body 0.8 to 1.5 cm broad, less than twice as long as broad. Rio Grande Plains from McMullen and Atascosa Cos. W. to Val Verde Co.; also Mex. Northern outlyers are possible in the S. portion of our area. May- July. [N. palmeri Britt. & Rose].



ROSACEAE MIMOSA46. MIMOSA L. Mimosa, Catclaw, Sensitive Brier



Shrubs, vines, or (ours) perennial herbs to 1 m tall or long. Herbage and even legumes generally armed with scattered recurved prickles and/or strigillose. Leaves twice pinnately compound, pinnae (primary leaflets) 1 to 14 pairs per leaf, each with few to many secondary leaflets. Stipules subulate, small, never spine-like. Peduncles axillary, flowers in globose heads or very short spikes, white, pink, or reddish, often fading with age or heat. Sepals 5, united above the floral cup. Corolla of (4)5 petals, united or distinct. Stamens 8 or 10(12), usually twice the number of the petals, united below or free above the floral cup, usually colored and showy. Legume often prickly, flattened or somewhat plump, (sometimes twisted), dehiscent by valves separating from the margins while they remain intact or in some species the valves often also breaking into 1-seeded articles (as in a loment).

About 400 tropical and subtropical species, chiefly in N. and S. America; 14 species in TX; 5 in our area. This includes plants formerly treated in Schrankia (see Isley 1971)--these were reduced by Barneby (1991) to varieties of varieties and subvarieties of M. quadrivalvis, but according to Turner (1994a) the plants are distinct enough to warrant recognition as separate species. [As treated here, also including old genera Leptoglottis DC. and Morongia Britt.]

The common name refers to the plants' habit of folding their leaflets and lowering their petioles when touched.

1. Plants unarmed (or with a few prickles on stems) .........................................1. M. strigillosa

1. Plants with recurved prickles on stems and peduncles ..........................................................2

2(1) Leaflets with only the midvein (or no vein at all) visible beneath ......................2. M. latidens

2. Leaflets with reticulate venation visible beneath .....................................................................3

3(2) Peduncles 5 to 12 cm long in flower, to 15(20) cm in fruit; heads in bud with bracts often protruding between the flowers; legume 2 to 4(5) cm long, not beaked ......3. M. hystricina

3. Peduncles 4 to 8 cm long in flower, rarely longer than 10 cm in fruit; heads in bud without protruding bracts; legume 4 to 10 cm long, beaked or pointed .........................4. M. nuttallii

1. M. strigillosa T. & G. Powder Puff, Vergonzosa, Herbaceous Mimosa, (Seuss Flower). Herbaceous perennial from a somewhat woody crown; stems sprawling, 1 to 2(4) m long, covered with stiff, ascending, more or less appressed, pustule-base hairs, these not prickly, also sometimes with a few scattered recurved prickles. Pinnae 4 to 6 pairs per leaf, ca. 1.5 to 3 cm long; secondary leaflets generally 10 to 15 pairs per pinna, linear to oblong, ca. 3 to 6 mm long, 0.5 to 1 mm broad, those near the end of each pinna smaller so that the pinna appear round-ended (as opposed to other species with all the secondary leaflets about the same size), very asymmetrical at the base, obtuse and slightly cuspidate. Peduncles up to 15 cm or more in flower, slightly longer in fruit; flower clusters globose to short-cylindric, pink (sometimes lavender), fading to whitish by midafternoon, ca. 1.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter, many-flowered. Legume ascending, flattened, oblong-trapezoidal in outline, 1.5 to 2 cm long and 10 to 12 mm broad, tapered to base, upper suture nearly straight, lower suture curved around seeds and back up again, slightly indented between the seeds, densely setulose on the faces, margins, and the 3 to 5 mm long, somewhat spine-like beak, but not prickly; seeds 1 to few, placed obliquely to transversely in the fruit, ca. 5 to 6 mm long. Frequent in grasslands, in open woods, and on roadsides, usually on sandy loam soils. E. and SE. TX and coastal Rio Grande Plain; SE. U.S. W. to OK, and TX; also Mex., Parag., and Argen. May-Oct.

2. M. latidens (Small) B. L. Turner Karnes Sensitive Brier. Stems prostrate to spreading, slender, moderately to weakly prickly, glabrous, lower portion distinctly 4- or 5-angled, 2 mm in diameter. Petiole and rachis together 4 to 7(10) cm long, the petiole longer than the rachis; pinnae (primary leaflets) (1)2 to 4(5) pairs per leaf, usually well-separated; secondary leaflets 5 to 9 pairs per pinna, (2)3 to 4 mm long and 2 mm broad or less, only the midvein evident or venation not evident at all, obtuse, minutely apiculate; stipules 2 to 4 mm long, ciliate. Peduncles solitary or paired, 2 to 4 cm long; heads pinkish, 1 to 1.5(1.8) cm in diameter. Legume oblong to linear, more or less tetragonal, (3)5 to 10(17) cm long and 2 to 3(4) mm wide, almost smooth to strongly prickly, with a beak (0.3)0.5 to 1.5 cm long. E. and SE. TX, often along roadsides and in other waste places, usually in sandy or gravelly soil; in wooded areas in the N. part of its range and grassy areas in the S.; E. and SE. TX, and Rio Grande Plains, N. to Grimes Co.; also Mex. (Mar.)Apr.-July(Sept.) [Schrankia latidens (Small) K. Schum.;Leptoglottis latidens (Small) Britt. & Rose; L. berlandieri Britt.; S. berlandieri (Britt.) Small; L. halliana Britt. & Rose; S. halliana(Britt. & Rose) Standl. L. potosina Britt. & Rose; S. potosina (Britt. & Rose) Standl.].

3. M. hystricina (Small ex Britt. & Rose) B. L. Turner. Bristly Sensitive Brier. Robust plant, stems arching to prostrate to 3(4) m long, puberulent or glabrous, with numerous recurved prickles. Pinnae (primary leaflets) 4 to 5 pairs per leaf, ca. 2 to 4 cm long; secondary leaflets 9 to 15 pairs, elliptic to oblong, obtuse to somewhat acute, apiculate, 4 to 7 mm long, glabrous, usually shiny and subcoriaceous, the secondary venation pale and evident beneath; stipules ca. 4 to 6 mm long. Peduncles 6 to 12 cm long in flower, to 15(20) cm long in fruit; flower heads in bud often with floral bracts protruding from between buds; at anthesis heads pink, to 3 cm broad. Legume oblong to subquadrangular in cross-section to laterally compressed, 2 to 3(5) cm long, ca. 7 to 8(10) mm wide, apically rounded and scarcely beaked, becoming very densely prickly. Usually in sandy soils, pinewoods, coastal grasslands and roadsides. SE. TX; also SW. LA. (Mar.)Apr.-June. [Schrankia hystricina (Small exBritt. & Rose) Standl.; Leptoglottis hystricina Britt & Rose].

Often confused with the next species, but distinguished by its vigor and short legumes which are laterally compressed. Intergrades between the two species occur in LA.



4. M. nuttallii(DC.) B. L. Turner. Catclaw Sensitive Brier. Stems numerous from a woody base, sprawling, prostrate and mat-forming, or the ends ascending, angular to terete, 0.5 to 2(8) m long, glabrate to slightly pubescent, armed with recurved prickles. Leaves somewhat prickly, very sensitive; primary leaflets (pinnae) 3 to 5(7) pairs per leaf, ca. 2 to 3 cm long; secondary leaflets 8 to 11(14) pairs per pinna, oblong to elliptic, (3)4 to 5(9) mm long, cuspidate, glabrous to puberulent, secondary venation paler and evident below; stipules acicular, 3 to 5(6) mm long. Peduncles solitary or paired in the axils, 4 to 8(10) cm long in flower, in fruit generally less than 10 cm long; heads many-flowered, pink (rarely white), 1.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter. Legume narrowly oblong-quadrangular, straight or somewhat curved, 4 to 8(12) cm long, 2 to 3 mm wide, with a slender and abortive beak; seeds ca. 4 mm long, quadrate-rhombic, smooth. Usually on sandy or rocky soils, frequent and often abundant in prairies, open woods, clearings, roadsides, etc. E., SE., and N. Cen. TX and the Plains Country; ND, KS, OK, and NM, S. to TX and LA. One of the few Mimosids which has advanced into the temperate regions. April-July or Aug. [Shrankia nuttallii (DC. ex Britt. & Rose) Standl.]

TX material of this species was once treated as S. uncinata Willd. Isley (1973) determined that S. uncinata was confined to FL and that our plants should be treated as S. nuttallii.

Despite the prickles, young plants are eaten by livestock.



ROSACEAE DESMANTHUS47. DESMANTHUS Willd. Bundleflower.



Perennial herbs (some, but not ours, subshrubs) from napiform, somewhat woody roots, crown also somewhat woody. Stems several, (1)2 to 10 dm long, erect to spreading, unarmed. Leaves evenly twice pinnately compound, 2 to 10 cm long; pinnae (primary leaflets) 2 to 10 pairs per leaf; secondary leaflets small and many per pinna; rachis extended, bristle-like, beyond the terminal pair of leaflets. Stipules subulate, often quite short. Peduncles axillary, each topped with a head of few to several very small flowers. Flowers usually white or whitish. Calyx of 5 sepals free to the top of the floral cup. Corolla of 5 petals, more or less free. Stamens 5 or 10, separate to the top of the floral cup, some flowers in each head with sterile stamens. Legume flattened, nearly straight to curved, 1- to several-seeded, promptly dehiscent.

About 40 species in the warmer parts of the Americas; a few species in the Old World tropics; 8 in TX; 4 here. [Acuan Medic.]. See page 578afor addendum.

Some species, notably D. illinoensis, are good forage or browse plants for all livestock (GPFA 1986).

1. Pinnae (4)7 to 12(15) pairs per leaf; plants erect or ascending, to 1 m tall, herbaceous; legume broadly falcate-oblong, 3 to 4 times longer than broad ...................1. D. illinoensis

1. Pinnae 2 to 7(8) pairs per leaf; plants somewhat prostrate to erect, usually 1.5 to 5 dm tall (rarely to 1 m), somewhat woody; legume narrowly oblong to linear, usually straight, (4)7 to 10 times longer than broad ..................................................................................................2

2(1) Pinnae generally 2 to 4 pairs per leaf; legume not constricted between the obliquely- placed seeds; stamens 10; plants subprostrate or occasionally erect ............2. D. virgatus

2. Pinnae 4 to 7(8 or more) pairs per leaf; legume constricted between the longitudinally- placed seeds; stamens 5; plants ascending to erect ...................................3. D. leptolobus

1. D. illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex Robins & Fern. Illinois Bundleflower, Prairie Mimosa, Prickleweed, False Sensitive Plant. Herbaceous perennial from a somewhat woody crown and woody taproot; stems clustered, ascending to erect, to 1.3(2) m long; herbage glabrous to minutely strigose to short-pilose on the angles. Leaves subsessile to short-petiolate, petiole and rachis together 8 to 15 cm long; rachis puberulent and with a gland between the lowest (and often the other) pair of pinnae; pinnae generally 7 to 12(15) pairs per leaf (sometimes fewer on the uppermost leaves); secondary leaflets 15 to 25(30) per pinna, oblong, more or less symmetrical, 2 to 3(5) mm long, acute to obtuse, glabrous to ciliate; stipules filiform or acicular, 5 to 12 mm long. Peduncles ascending, shorter than the leaves in flower, 2.5 to 6(7.5) cm long in fruit; flowers whitish, heads several-flowered. Calyx short-cylindric to campanulate, 1 to 1.5 mm long; corolla ca. 2 mm long; stamens 5, distinct, ca. 5 mm long; ovary asymmetrical. Legumes usually numerous and clustered, flat, broadly oblong-falcate, curving through about 90o to 180o degrees (rarely straight), 1.5 to 2.5 cm long and 5 to 6 mm wide, roughly (2)3 to 4(5) times longer than broad, glabrate, dark brown to black at maturity; seeds 3 to 5 mm long, about as wide as long, brown. Frequent in clay soils. N. Cen. TX, infrequent to rare in the Ed. Plat. and Plains Country, rare in SE. TX and the Trans-Pecos; IL, OH, ND, SD, MN, and CO, S. to FL, AL, TX, and NM. June-Sept.

Readily browsed by all livestock, frequently used in range revegetation, and considered by some the most important native legume in parts of the plains states (GPFA 1986).

2. D. virgatus (L.) Willd. Herbaceous perennial from a woody, often fusiform taproot (some populations, but not ours, suffrutescent); stems several to many, prostrate to spreading, 1 to 6 dm long or erect to 1 m tall, glabrous. Leaves subsessile to short-petiolate; glands contiguous with the lowest pair of pinnae, circular to elliptic, 0.5 to 1.5(2.5) mm in diameter; pinnae (1)2 to 4(7) pairs per leaf, to about 2 cm long; secondary leaflets 6 to 10(15) pairs, short-oblong, slightly asymmetrical, 2.5 to 5(6) mm long; stipules acicular, membranous-broadened at the base or not so, 3 to 6(8) mm long. Peduncles 1 to 3(4) cm long; heads ca. 5 mm in diameter, greenish-white, 4- to 7-(10-)flowered. Stamens 10, ca. 5 mm long. Legume oblong to linear, straight to moderately curved, 4 to 6(8) cm long, 3 to 4(5) mm wide (generally at least 7 times longer than broad), margin not constricted between the obliquely-oriented seeds; seeds 2.5 to 3 mm long.

There are 3 varieties in TX (Isley 1973), one of which we certainly have and one which is possible here. Note that there is more than one way of treating these entities:

var. acuminatus (Benth.) Isley Sharp-pod Bundleflower. Stipules usually conspicuously ciliate, scarcely membranous-broadened at the base; rachis glands elliptic, 1.2 to 1.5 mm broad. S. Cen. TX, N. to McLennan Co., S. to Goliad and Calhoun Cos., W. to Llano Co., and E. to Waller Co., endemic. Spring, ours about Apr.-June. Now treated by some as D.acuminatus Benth. [Acuan acuminatum (Benth.) O. Ktze.].

var. depressus (Humb. & Bonpl. exWilld.) Turner Stipules glabrous to only sparsely ciliate, usually membranous-widened at the base; rachis glands circular, not more than 1 mm broad. Frequent in the Rio Grande Plains N. to Harris, Travis, and Tom Greene Cos.; widespread in the warmer parts of the Americas; possible here but if so, not seen. Apr.-Nov. If the preceeding variety is raised to specific status as D. acuminatus, this can fall under a redefined D. virgatus [D.depressus Willd.; Acuan torreyi Britt. & Rose; A. texanum Britt. & Rose].

3. D. leptolobus T. & G. Prairie Bundleflower, Slender-lobed Bundleflower. Herbaceous perennial; stems clustered, ascending to nearly erect, glabrate or the angles sparsely pubescent, 0.3 to 1 m long. Leaves subsessile; leafstalk gland 0.4 to 0.6 mm in diameter, between the lowest pair of pinnae or absent; pinnae 4 to 7(8 or rarely more) pairs per leaf, ca. 1.5 to 2 cm long; secondary leaflets (8)10 to 20(26) pairs per pinna, oblong or linear-lanceolate, acute, nearly symmetrical, 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, glabrous to sparsely ciliate. Peduncles generally less than 1 cm long at anthesis, to 1 to 1.5(2.5 to 3) cm long in fruit. Calyx cylindrical, 1.5 to 2 mm long; corolla 2.5 to 4 mm long; stamens 5. Legume linear, straight or nearly so, plump, 3.5 to 6 cm long, 2 to 3 mm wide, at least 7 times longer than broad, filiform-beaked, undulate-margined or constricted between the seeds which are placed longitudinally in the legume; seeds 5 mm long. Preferring calcareous soils. Local in N. Cen. TX, rare on the Ed. Plat. and in Plains Country (W. to Lipscomb Co.), known as far S. as Robertson, Lee, and Bexar Cos.; KS, MO, and AR. May-Sept. [Acuan leptolobum (T. & G) O. Ktze.






HALORAGACEAE</STRONG>HALORAGACEAE

Water-milfoil Family



Aquatic or somewhat amphibious plants, ours herbaceous perennials. Leaves alternate or whorled, rarely opposite, simple, entire to pectinate or pinnately dissected, estipulate, often dimorphic, the emersed leaves different from the submersed. Flowers (in ours) sessile, solitary or clustered in the axils of the upper leaves or bracts, each subtended by 2 minute bracteoles, regular, epigynous, perfect or unisexual, the plants then monoecious or dioecious. Hypanthium completely fused to the ovary. Calyx lobes 2 to 4 or absent, commonly reduced in female flowers. Petals 2 to 4, often cauducous or else absent. Stamens 3 to 8. Ovary in ours of 3(4) fused, uniovulate carpels, styles or sessile stigmas 1 to 4. Fruit indehiscent, a solitary nutlet or tiny drupe, or else separating at maturity into distinct nutlets.

9 genera and about 120 species worldwide, especially the S. hemis.; 2 genera and 7 species in TX: 2 genera and 5 species here; with 1 more to watch for.

Some taxa are cultivated as aquarium plants, especially members of Myriophyllum(Mabberley 1987). The family is sometimes incorrectly given as "Haloragidaceae".

1. Leaves alternate, the emersed leaves definitely foliose; flowers perfect, 3-merous ...............

........................................................................................................................1. Proserpinaca

1. Leaves mostly whorled, the emersed leaves usually bract-like; flowers primarily unisexual, 4-merous ........................................................................................................2. Myriophyllum





HALORAGACEAE PROSERPINACA1. PROSERPINACA L. Mermaid-weed



Plants more or less amphibious or on wet margins, rhizomatous. Stems simple or sparingly branched, creeping and rooting at the lower nodes, the distal portions weakly ascending to erect. Leaves alternate, the lower commonly pinnately dissected, the upper the same or lanceolate and serrate. Flowers solitary or clustered in the leaf axils, perfect, 3-merous. Corolla none or highly reduced. Stigmas 3. Fruit a 3-angled, -celled, and -seeded "nutlet".

2 or 3 species of E. N. Amer. and the W. Indies; 2 in TX; 1 here.

1. P. palustris L. var. amblyogona Fern. Marsh Mermaid-weed. Stems repent, rooting at the nodes, the terminal portions ascending to erect or sometimes trailing up into surrounding vegetation, to 1 m long or more. Submersed leaves sessile, to 6 cm long, lanceolate to elliptic or ovate in outline, pinnatifid or deeply pectinate, with 8 to 14 linear-filiform segments per side, the segments to 3 cm long and the midrib ca. 1 mm broad; amphibious leaves petiolate, pinnatisect, to 7 cm long, lanceolate to oblanceolate, the central portion to 1 cm broad; fully emersed leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, to 8.5 cm long and 15 mm broad, serrate, the shape of the leaves often dependent on environmental conditions during formation, usually pinnatifid below and serrate above, but the two sometimes alternating and intermediate shapes common. Flowers borne in the axils of the serrate leaves only, singly or in groups of 2 to 5; bracteoles minute, lanceolate, serrate. Calyx tube 3-angled, lobes ovate to deltoid, obtuse to acute; petals vestigial. Fruit ca. 4 mm long, urceolate to pyramidal or trigonous, in our variety more or less ovoid with the angles rounded to essentially obsolete. Shallow water, bogs, along streams and lakes, in ditches, etc. The species as a whole in E. TX; Que. and N.S. to Ont. and MN, S. to FL and TX. Spring-summer. [P. amblyogona (Fern.) Small].



HALORAGACEAE MYRIOPHYLLUM2. MYRIOPHYLLUM L. Water-milfoil



Perennial aquatic herbs. Stems usually submersed except for the distal flowering portions (unless stranded by drought), often with overwintering buds (turions) on the rhizomes. Leaves usually whorled or occasionally a few alternate or opposite, submersed leaves deeply pinnately divided with linear to filiform segments, upper bracteal leaves reduced (in M. pinnatum often a portion of the stem with unreduced leaves emersed). Flowers perfect and unisexual on the same plant, often the lowermost few pistillate, a few median flowers perfect, and the upper flowers staminate, OR in some taxa (including one of our species) plants apparently monoecious; flowers usually borne above water in summer in the axils of the upper or bracteal leaves, small, sessile, each also subtended by 2 minute bracteoles. Calyx segments 4, larger in the male flowers and in pistillate flowers represented only by teeth. Petals of perfect and staminate flowers 4, deciduous, corolla absent in pistillate flowers. Stamens 4 or 8. Stigmas 4, plumose, recurved, plants wind-pollinated (Mabberley, 1987). Fruit nutlike, 4-lobed, eventually splitting into 4-parts.

About 40 to 45 species worldwide, especially Australia; 5 in TX; 4 present and the fifth to be watched for. Very difficult to identify without the fertile, emersed portions. This treatment is based in part on the work of Aiken (1981).

Some are cultivated for aquaria (Mabberley 1987). The feathery stems proved shelter and spawning areas for fish and aquatic insects (Correll and Correll 1975).

1. Leaf whorls of the lower and middle stem usually more than 1 cm apart .............................2

1. Leaf whorls of the lower and middle stem less than 1 cm apart ............................................3

2(1) Divisions of submersed leaves ca. 6 mm long or less, linear, stoutish; flowers in axils of bracteal leaves similar to the submersed leaves and longer than the flowers; flowers apparently all pistillate, whitish ......................................................................1. M. aquaticum

2. Divisions of submersed leaves usually longer than 6 mm, filiform and flaccid; flowers in whorls of a terminal spike, subtended by serrate or entire bracts shorter than the flowers; both perfect and unisexual flowers present, pink ...........................................2. M. sibiricum

3(1) Leaves all or nearly all whorled; uppermost flowers whorled; submersed leaves with ca. 5 to 10 divisions per side; dorsal ridges of carpels smooth; bracts entire to serrate ..................

.................................................................................................................3. M. heterophyllum

3. Leaves whorled, alternate, and opposite on the same plant; uppermost flowers alternate; submersed leaves with ca. 5 divisions per side; dorsal ridges of carpels tuberculate; bracts pectinate to pinnatifid .......................................................................................4. M. pinnatum

NOTE: M. verticillatum L. is known from NE. TX; given the genus' general ability to spread from vegetative propagules, it may be found here someday as it appears to be increasing its range. Distinguishing characters: lower and midstem leaves less than 1 cm apart; bracteal leaves pinnately dissected without a definite middle lamina portion, with 8 to 13 divisions per side, each minutely round- or bulb-tipped; bracteoles less than 0.1 mm long or absent, more or less palmately lobed; plant overwintering with turions.

1. M. aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. Brazilian Parrot's Feather, Water-feather. Usually with a significant portion of the stem emersed, erect or trailing, simple or with a few branches; herbage pale to light- or gray-green. Leaves of lower and midstem more than 1 cm apart, all whorled, generally stiff enough not to tangle, oblong in outline, 2 to 5 cm long, puberulent at first, becoming glabrous, pinnately dissected with 10 or more narrowly linear divisions per side, upper divisions 3 to 6 mm long and the lower reduced; emersed leaves not much reduced nor markedly different from submersed. Bracteoles filiform, 2- or 3-cleft; flowers in N. American material apparently all pistillate, ca. 1.5 mm long, the stigma plumes whitish. Fruit 1.5 to 2 mm long, minutely glandular. Widespread and fairly common in ponds, ditches, streams, sloughs, seeps, etc. Mostly in E. TX and the Ed. Plat.; native to S. Amer. and escaping cultivation as an aquarium plant; sporadically persistent in the S. U.S. [M. brasilienseCamb.; M. proserpinacoides Gill. (or Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.)].

This plant can be weedy once established, and can choke waterways (Godfrey & Wooten 1979).

3. M. sibiricum Komarov Eurasian Water-milfoil. Stems simple to often well-branched, purplish when fresh, becoming whitish or pinkish on drying; turions produced. Leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, gray-green, lower and midstem whorls less than 1 cm apart, to ca. 3 cm long, broadly ovate to elliptic in outline, deeply pinnatifid, with 6 to 13 or more filiform divisions on each side, these to 2 cm long and flaccid, the emersed bracteal leaves not at all resembling submersed leaves, the lower usually toothed or sometimes entire, usually slightly longer than the flowers, the upper obovate, entire, equalling or shorter than the flowers. Flowers in verticils on an apparently naked terminal spike to 1 dm long, lower 4 or so whorls of flowers pistillate, the middle flowers perfect, and the upper staminate; bracteoles ovate, entire, to 1 mm long. Petals of bisexual and staminate flowers reddish, oblong, concave, ca. 2.5 mm long; anthers 8, oblong, to 1.8 mm long. Fruit subglobose, 4-lobed, 2.3 to 3 mm long, carpels rounded dorsally and smooth, rugulose, or somewhat tuberculate. Ponds, streams, tanks, lakes, quiet streams, etc., commonly in brackish or calcareous water. Primarily in Cen. TX, throughout much of the state except the Gulf Prairies and Marshes and the S. TX Plains; native to Eurasia and established from Lab. and N.S. to AK, S. to WV, VA, AZ, and CA. Apr.-Sept. [M. spicata L. and var. exalbescens (Fern.) Jeps. and ssp. exalbescens (Fern.) Hultén; M. exalbescens Fern.; M. spicatum L. var. squamosum(Laestad. ex Hartman) Hartman and ssp. squamosum Laestad. ex Hartman; M. magdalenense Fern.; M. exalbescens Fern. var.magdalenense (Fern.) A. Löve. For years there has been some question whether M. spicatum and M. exalbescens were conspecific. Both are apparently appropriately identified with this Eurasian species (Kartesz, 1998)].

This species is rapidly becoming established in the SE. U.S. It often forms dense stands, impeding navigation and displacing native species. It apparently spreads via vegetative propagules (Godfrey & Wooten 1979).

3. M. heterophyllum Michx. Changeleaf Parrot's Feather. Plants from rhizomes; stems stoutish, simple or branched, to 1 m long or more. Leaves in whorls of 5 or 6 or else in sub-approximate groups of 4 to 6, less than 1 cm apart, submersed leaves pinnately dissected, 1.5 to 5 cm long, with 5 to 10(14) capillary divisions per side, the divisions to ca. 2 cm long, limp and commonly tangled, transition to emersed leaf morphology abrupt, emersed leaves lanceolate to elliptic, oblanceolate, or spatulate-lanceolate, firm, to 3 cm long and 1 cm broad, but usually smaller, entire to serrate, the upper ones shorter, more ovate, and less deeply toothed. Inflorescence an emersed spike to 40 cm long, usually much shorter; flowers in clusters of 3 to 6 in the axils of the bracteal leaves, perfect or the lower pistillate and the upper staminate, 4-merous; bracteoles 1 to 1.3 m long, 0.5 to 0.7 mm wide, deltoid-acute or ovate, margins serrate or spinose. Petals of staminate and bisexual flowers translucent, 1 to 3 mm long, acutish, spreading-reflexed at anthesis; stamens 4, anthers to 2.5 mm long. Fruit subglobose, 1 to 2 mm long and broad, carpels rounded or 2-ridged dorsally and rounded on the sides, strongly beaked, minutely papillose. Primarily on the Ed. Plat. and in SE. TX; FL to TX and NM, N. to ND, Ont. and Que. Apr.-Aug.

4. M. pinnatum (Walt.) B.S.P. Green Parrot's Feather. Plant from nearly fully submersed to essentially terrestrial, spreading from rhizomes; stems elongate if floating, simple or branched, to 1 m long. Leaves in whorls of 3 to 5 and usually some also alternate or opposite, submersed leaves 0.7 to 3.0 cm long, with (3)5(6) limp capillary divisions per side, transition to emersed leaf form gradual, upper emersed leaves usually in whorls of 4, firm, linear to oblanceolate, with a definite central lamina portion, pinnatifid with 2 to 4 pairs of divisions, pectinate, or sharply serrate, 0.5 to 2.0 cm long, 1 to 4 mm broad. Inflorescence to 15 cm or longer; proximal bracts reflexed, the middle ones horizontal, distal bracts spreading-ascending; flowers in clusters of 4 to 6 in the axils of the bracteal leaves, perfect or unisexual, 4-merous; bracteoles deltoid, acute or blunt, ca. 1 mm long, margins scarious-spinose. Petals of bisexual and staminate flowers translucent, purplish or whitish, 1.5 to 2 mm long, short-clawed, apically rounded; anthers 4, 1 to 2 mm long. Fruit ovoid to subglobose, 1 to 2 mm long, 4-loculed, each carpel at maturity with 2 flat sides and 2 tuberculate dorsal ridges. Shallow water, marshes, muddy shores, wet forests, sloughs, creeks, etc. E. and SE. TX; FL to TX, N. to MA, RI, OH, IA, KS, and ND; also Mex. and Cen. Amer. Mar.-June. [M. scabratum Michx.; M.verticillatum L. var. cheneyi Fassett; first described as Potamogeton pinnatum (Walt.)].




LYTHRACEAE</STRONG>LYTHRACEAE

Loosestrife Family



Ours herbs and shrubs (elsewhere also trees), often in wet habitats. Leaves opposite, whorled, or alternate, simple, entire, usually glabrous. Flowers solitary or racemose or cymose in the axils or in terminal racemes, perfect, regular or irregular, sometimes heterostylous, ours 4- to 7-merous, hypanthium or floral tube usually present. Calyx with 4 to 6 valvate lobes or teeth, commonly with appendages between them. Petals attached between the calyx lobes or within the hypanthium, rarely absent. Stamens 4 to many, usually as many as or twice as many as the sepals, often of two lengths, inserted on the floral tube below the petals, anthers versatile. Ovary superior, free of the floral tube, sometimes subtended by a gland, style simple or absent, stigma capitate. Fruit (in ours, at least) a 2- to 4-celled, thin-walled capsule, variously dehiscent or indehiscent, placentation axile but the partitions not always reaching the apex. Seeds several to many, with little or no endosperm.

About 26 genera and 580 species, primarily of the tropics, but a few in temperate regions; 9 genera and 17 species listed for TX; 6 genera and 8 species definitely here, with another 2 to be looked for.

The family is important for several ornamentals, mainly in the genera Cuphea, Lythrum, and Lagerstroemia. The latter is the Crape Myrtle, abundantly cultivated in our area for its showy summer bloom. (Mabberley 1987). Native to China, it cannot be considered truly naturalized in our area, as it is almost always merely persisting or sucker-sprouting from a purposely-planted individual.

1. Plants aquatic shrubs; branches often rooting at the tips; flowers in axillary cymes ...............

................................................................................................................................1. Decodon

1. Plants herbaceous or woody only at the base, not tip-rooting; inflorescences axillary or terminal .....................................................................................................................................2

2(1) Calyx irregular, gibbous or spurred basally; petals unequal ..................................2. Cuphea

2. Calyx regular or nearly so, not spurred or gibbous; petals equal ...........................................3

3(2) Floral tube cylindric or tubular ................................................................................3. Lythrum

3. Floral tube campanulate or turbinate, becoming broader in fruit ...........................................4

4(3) Flowers 2 to many in the axils; capsule splitting irregularly ...............................4. Ammannia

4. Flowers solitary in the axils; capsule indehiscent or regularly dehiscent ...............................5

5(4) Plants submerged aquatics; corolla absent; capsule indehiscent .........................5. Didiplis

5. Plants terrestrial or on boggy soil; corolla present; capsule dehiscent ...................6. Rotala



LYTHRACEAE DECODON1. DECODON J. F. Gmel.



A monotypic genus.

1. D. verticillatus (L.) Ell. Water-willow, Swamp Loosestrife. Perennial or the lower part woody and suffrutescent, usually definitely shrub-size, ultimate branch ends herbaceous, usually arching and at least some rooting at the tips; stems 4- to 6-angled, to 2.5 m tall; submerged bark soft and corky, emersed bark red-brown and exfoliating in long strips; young stems downy pubescent, becoming glabrate with age. Leaves opposite or whorled, short-petiolate, elliptic-lanceolate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate, acute basally, the larger ones to 20 cm long and 5 cm wide, usually smaller. Flowers in short-peduncled axillary cymes, pedicellate, ca. 2.5 cm broad. Floral tube broadly campanulate, becoming hemispheric in fruit; calyx teeth 5 to 7, erect bristle-tipped, to ca. 3 mm long, appendages alternate with the calyx teeth, spreading and horn-like; petals 5(to 7), magenta or bright pink, more or less clawed, blades lanceolate, ca. 12 mm long, crinkly; stamens 8 to 10, exserted, flowers trimorphic, with 3 stamen lengths possible and 2 occurring in any given flower; style slender, ca. 1.4 cm long. Fruit closely invested by the persistent hypanthium, globose, 3- to 5-celled, loculicidally dehiscent, dark brown to black, 3 to 5 mm broad; seeds ca. 2 mm long, irregularly obpyramidal, surface finely reticulate and slightly shiny, olive green with a brown spot on one side. Bogs, shallow pools, margins of ponds and lakes. Known at least from Leon Co.; E. TX; N. S. and Ont. to MN and IL, S. to Cen. FL and TX. July-Aug. [Includes var. laevigatus T. & G.].



LYTHRACEAE CUPHEA2. CUPHEA P. Br. Cuphea, Waxweed



TX material annual or perennial herbs (elsewhere, some woody). Herbage and floral tubes viscid-pubescent, at least some of the pubescence of glandular hairs. Leaves opposite or whorled. Flowers 1 to 3 in the axils or in terminal spikes or racemes, each pedicel with 2 bractlets. Floral tube cylindrical or tubular, 12-nerved, gibbous or spurred at the base on the upper side. Calyx teeth 6, alternate with 6 short appendages. Petals 6 (rarely 3), unequal, light to deep purple. Ovary subtended by a glandular disk extended and free on the side near the spur; style 1, stigma capitate or rarely 2-lobed. Fruit 2-celled, ovoid or ellipsoid, septicidally dehiscent, the floral tube also rupturing on the abaxial side and the placenta extending out through the capsule wall and floral tube. Seeds few to several.

About 250 species of the Americas; 3 reported from TX; our area with 1 definitely present, and 1 to be looked for.

Several species are cultivated for ornament, e.g., C. ignea (Cigar Flower) (Mabberley 1987).

1. Leaves petiolate, or at least the lower with a subpetiolar base; plants annual ........................

................................................................................................................1. C. carthagenensis

1. Leaves sessile; plants perennial ......................................................................2. C. glutinosa



1. C. carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. Colombian Waxweed. Annual; stems erect, usually branched, 1 to 9 dm tall, stem and branches with spreading, swollen-based glandular hairs and with shorter curled, eglandular hairs at least on the upper portion. Leaves opposite, short-petiolate or the lower with subpetiolar bases, blades elliptic, ovate, or occasionally obovate, 2 to 6 cm long, basally acute, scabrous, especially below. Flowers solitary in the axils or in more or less racemose arrangements on the distal portions of the branches, subsessile. Floral tube 5(to 7) mm long, sometimes purplish, sparsely pubescent with spreading eglandular hairs and with short stiff hairs also, glabrous inside; calyx teeth minute, widely deltoid, appendages minute, with short bristle tips; petals 6, 2 to 3 mm long, linear-elliptic to elliptic, 1.5 to 2 mm long, unequal, pink to purplish or greenish. Capsule 4 to 5 mm long; seeds obovate, lenticular, olivaceous to brown, the edges paler-banded, finely reticulate, ca. 2 mm long. Along streams, wet clearings, wet woods, ditches, swales, etc. Known from our area. NC to FL, W. to SE. TX, S. through Mex. and Cen. Amer. to S. Amer. July-Sept. or Oct. [Specific epithet frequently misspelled "carthagensis";Parsonsia balsamona (Cham. & Schlecht.) Standl.].

NOTE: C. viscosissima Jacq. has been reported from E. TX. It is similar to C. carthagenensis, but the lower leaves definitely petiolate; floral tube very pubescent, definitely bilabiate, (8)10 to 12 mm long and petals 4.5 to 5.5 mm long. It is remotely possible that this plant will be found in our area.

2. C. glutinosa Cham. & Schlecht. Sticky Waxweed. Perennial with wiry, erect-ascending to decumbent stems 1 to 4 dm tall. Leaves opposite, sessile or nearly so, usually elliptic-lanceolate or lance-ovate, 1 to 1.5 cm long. Flowers solitary in the axils or nearly racemose on the upper portions; pedicels ca. 1.5 mm long. Floral tube ca. 8 mm long, with glandular and eglandular hairs; calyx teeth broadly deltoid, appendages minute; petals 3 to 6, deep purple or violet, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, 5 to 6.5 mm long. Seeds several, discoid, ca. 2 mm broad. Moist to wet open grassy areas, meadows, open woods, along streams, etc. Native to S. Amer. and naturalized in LA and E. TX; originally reported from Tyler Co., but more widespread than that and possibly to be found here. Sept.-Nov.



LYTHRACEAE LYTHRUM3. LYTHRUM L. Loosestrife



Perennial herbs (as ours) or shrubs, stems 4-angled. Leaves opposite, alternate, or sometimes whorled, entire, sessile to short-petiolate, reduced in the inflorescence. Flowers regular or essentially so, more or less 6-merous, sometimes heterostylous, solitary or paired in the axils (some, not ours, with axillary cymules), each peduncle with 2 bractlets. Floral tube cylindric, with 8 to 12 ribs. Calyx teeth 4 to 7, alternating with appendages that are longer than the teeth. Petals 4 to 6, purple, rose-purple, lavender, or occasionally white, attached to the rim of the floral tube. Stamens 4 to 12, inserted low inside the floral tube. Ovary bilocular, sometimes with a thick ring at the base; style filiform. Capsule cylindrical, included in the persistent floral tube, dehiscing irregularly or breaking along or away from the partitions. Seeds many, ovoid, usually less than 1 mm long.

About 38 species worldwide, excluding S. Amer.; 4 in TX; 2 here.

Some species are cultivated for ornament. Others, notably L. salicaria are invasive introduced weeds (Mabberley 1987).

NOTE: Stem leaves are essential for confident identification--branch and inflorescence leaves may not be diagnostic. Our two species are very similar with the differences being qualitative. It is possible that they will eventually be regarded as one variable species.

1. Stem leaves mostly widest above the middle, tapered to the base or abruptly contracted into a subpetiolar base ..........................................................................................1. L. alatum

var. lanceolatum

1. Stem leaves mostly widest below the middle, rounded or somewhat auriculate, usually sessile or clasping .......................................................................................2. L. californicum

1. L. alatum Pursh var. lanceolatum (Ell.) T. & G. Lanceleaf Loosestrife. Robust perennial from a branched rootstock; stems to 1.2 m tall, often forming large clumps, much branched, branches virgate. Lower stem leaves subopposite, elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate or lanceolate, 2 to 6 cm long, 7 to 10 mm broad, apically acute to acuminate, straight-tapered to a cuneate base or abruptly contracted into a sub-petiolar base, green, membranous, leaves of the flowering branches subopposite to alternate, much smaller, the uppermost often less than 1 cm long, similar to the lower leaves but the bases not always tapered and often rather rounded. Flowers solitary or paired in the axils, heterostylous. Floral tube 4 to 6 mm long; calyx appendages slender, subulate, longer than the deltoid or ovate, acute teeth; petals purple (rarely lavender, cerise, or white), obovate, 3 to 6 mm long; stamens 6; ring below ovary thick, narrowed on one side. Seeds yellow-brown, slightly asymmetrical, slightly winged, nearly fusiform, ca. 0.5 mm long. Meadows, ditches, prairies, along railways, in depressions or swales, etc. E. 1/2 to 1/3 TX, rare elsewhere in the state; TX and OK, E. to FL, VA, and TN. Apr.-Oct.

2. L. californicum T. & G. California Loosestrife, Hierba del Cancér. Perennial from a woody rootstock; stems slender, 2 to 6(15) dm tall, erect to lax, branched, the branches virgate, glabrous. Leaves often pale, gray-green, glaucous and somewhat fleshy, lower leaves opposite to subopposite, 1 to 2.5(3) cm long, 3 to 8 mm broad, narrowly linear to linear-oblong to linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, apically acute, basally rounded to somewhat auriculate, sessile and sometimes somewhat clasping, upper stem leaves much smaller, subopposite or usually alternate, linear, obtuse to acute, said to be less closely spaced than those of L. alatum. Flowers solitary or paired in the axils, heterostylous. Floral tube cylindric, 4 to 7 mm long; calyx teeth subulate, acute; petals obovate, 4 to 6 mm long, 2 to 4.5 mm broad, bright purple; stamens 6; ring below the ovary narrowed on one side. Capsule oblong-clavate. Seeds linear-lanceolate, ca. 1 mm long. On moist ground or in water along streams, around ponds and springs, and on salt flats. Mostly in S. Cen. and W. TX; TX to KS, W. to CA and N. Mex. Mar.-Nov. [L. alatum Pursh var. breviflorum (Gray) Wats; L. linearifolium (Gray) Small; L. parvulum Niew.].



LYTHRACEAE AMMANNIA4. AMMANNIA L. Toothcup



Annual herbs, usually low and glabrous. Stems often 4-angled. Leaves opposite and commonly decussate (4-ranked), sessile, narrow, bases often cordate or auriculate. Flowers in pedunculate or sessile axillary cymes of (1)3 to 15, usually 4-merous. Floral tube campanulate or urceolate, globose in fruit, more or less 4-angled. Calyx teeth 4, appendages usually 4, horn-shaped and small. Petals 4, small and quickly falling or sometimes absent. Stamens 4(8) inserted within the floral tube, filaments filiform. Ovary with 2 to 4 incompletely-walled cells, ring or gland below ovary none. Capsule irregularly dehiscent. Seeds many, ovoid, angular, minutely pitted.

A genus of 30 species, mostly of wet areas; 4 species in TX; 1 definitely present and one more to be looked for (see NOTE below).

1. A. coccinea Rottb. Purple Ammania, Toothcup. Plants often stout or robust, to 10 dm tall; stem 4-angled and occasionally slightly 4-winged, often spongy if submersed, simple or more often well- branched, basal branches somewhat decumbent. Leaves linear to linear-oblong or linear-lanceolate (rarely elliptic to spatulate), usually to 10 cm long and 15 mm broad, occasionally to as long as 20 cm, basally auriculate or cordate and clasping, at least above midstem, lower leaves often with cuneate bases. Inflorescences sessile to pedunculate cymes, peduncle stout, 0 to 9 mm long, flowers usually (1)2 to 5(14); pedicels 2 mm long or less, the flowers thus often appearing whorled. Floral tube urceolate to slightly campanulate, (2.5)3 to 5 mm long, sometimes becoming reddish in fruit; calyx teeth broadly triangular, acute, appendages about equalling the teeth or shorter, spreading and thickened; petals 4(5) rose-purple, sometimes with a darker vein at the base or tending toward purple, orbicular to ovate, ca. 2 mm long and wide, fugacious; stamens 4(7 or 8), exserted, anthers yellow; style exserted, persistent on the fruit or disarticulating, 1.5 to 3 mm long. Calyx at maturity 3 to 5 mm long, usually almost completely enclosed by the calyx or slightly exceeding it, often dark red; seeds many, olive- or light brown, obpyramidal, 1 face rounded and the others plane to concave, irregularly reticulate. Wet soil of ditches, shores, swales, wet clearings, etc. E. Cen. and S. TX; FL to TX and Mex., N. to NJ, OH, IL, and MI, W. to MT and WA; S. in Latin Amer. and Caribbean. Apr.-Nov. [Includes A. teres Raf.].

NOTE: A. auriculata Willd. is found in Cen. TX and is perhaps present in the S. or W. portion of our area, though no specimens have yet been seen by the author. It is similar to A. coccinea but is more slender and has cymes relatively long-pedunculate, peduncle 3 to 9 mm long, usually with at least 7 flowers per axil, capsule 2.5 mm in diameter or less, equalling or often exceeding the calyx lobes. [Includes var. arenaria (H.B.K.) Koehne.].



LYTHRACEAE DIDIPLIS5. DIDIPLIS Raf. Water Purslane



A monotypic genus; sometimes included in Lythrum.

1. D. diandra (Nutt. ex DC.) Wood. Aquatic or amphibious herb; stems slender and weak, erect to procumbent, 2 to 40 cm long or tall. Leaves opposite (to alternate), thin, sessile, 5 to 30 mm long, 0.5 to 4 mm broad, the submersed ones elongate, linear, basally truncate, apically obtuse-ish and minutely retuse, emersed leaves narrowly elliptic, shorter, tapered to the base. Flowers small, greenish, 2 to 3 mm long and wide, solitary in the axils, 4-merous. Floral tube 2 to 3 mm long, enveloping the ovary; calyx teeth broadly triangular, sometimes pinkish, appendages none; petals none; stamens 2 to 4, included; style short or none; ovary bilocular. Mature capsule enclosed by the floral tube only at the base, globose, 2 to 3 mm broad, thin-walled and somewhat transparent, indehiscent or only irregularly splitting; seeds many, 1 mm long or less, oblong or spatulate in outline, the apices enlarged and incurved, yellow and minutely granular on 1 face, flat and greenish on the other. Shallow water, muddy margins of ponds, lakes, temporary pools, etc. Easily overlooked and infrequently collected. E. TX; FL to TX, N. to VA, OH, IN, and WI. [Authority sometimes given as (DC.) Wood or (Nutt.) Wood; Peplis diandra Nutt. or Nutt. ex DC.].





LYTHRACEAE ROTALA6. ROTALA L.



About 44 species from the temperate zone to the tropics; 1 known from TX, which we have.

Some species are grown as aquarium plants (Mabberley 1987).

1. R. ramosior (L.) Koehne Rotala, Tooth-cup. Annual herb; stem erect to sprawling, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes, to ca. 4.5 dm tall, usually smaller, terete or 4-angled, simple to widely branched, branches prostrate to spreading or erect. Leaves opposite (rarely whorled), subsessile to very short-petiolate, linear or linear-oblong to oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 1 to 3(5) cm long, 2 to 12 mm long, acute to obtuse, bases attenuate. Flowers small, ca. 2 mm long, solitary in the axils, 4-merous, sessile, each subtended by 2 linear-lanceolate to subulate bractlets. Floral tube more or less quadrangular, campanulate to globose, closely enclosing the ovary; calyx teeth short, wide, and inflexed apically, appendages about as long as the teeth, spreading, ovate-acuminate; petals 4, attached to the rim of the floral tube, white or pink, obovate, ca. 0.6 mm long, apically 3-lobed, little if at all exceeding the calyx teeth, early deciduous; stamens 4(6), only the anther tips exserted, attached low in the floral tube; style short. Capsule 2- to 4-celled, finely and densely transversely striate, to 5 mm long and 4.5 mm broad, with persistent style ca. 0.5 mm long, septicidally dehiscent, the placenta at maturity more or less free-central; seeds many, ca. 0.3 mm long, yellow-brown, ovoid or hemispheric, the round surface finely reticulate, the flat side more coarsely reticulate and shiny. Sandy or muddy soil or water at edges of ponds, lakes, stock tanks, depressions, etc. E. 1/2 TX; FL to TX, N. to MA, NY, and MI, also WA and OR; also S. Amer. and Caribbean.

Our plants are generally more robust than coastal plants and have been treated as var. interior Fern. & Grisc. However, the differences aren't great enough or constant enough to support varietal status. Most recent checklists and floras no longer subdivide the species (GPFA 1986; Hatch et al. 1990; Kartesz 1998)

NOTE: R. indica Willd., sometimes grown as an aquarium plant, has been found as a rice field weed in LA. It may be found here someday as well, either introduced from LA or as the result of a dumped aquarium . It can be distinguished from our native species by leaves that increase in size upwards, flowers on short, axillary, spike-like branches, floral bracts about as long as the floral tube, calyx appendages absent, and persistent petals with acute apices. (Thieret 1972).




ONAGRACEAE</STRONG>ONAGRACEAE
Evening Primrose Family



Ours annual, biennial, or perennial herbs (elsewhere also shrubs and trees), sometimes woody near the base and/or rhizomatous. Leaves alternate (as in ours) or opposite, in some species rosulate, simple, entire to pinnatifid; stipules small or absent. Flowers often opening near sunrise or sunset and lasting 1 day or less, epigynous, usually regular and perfect (some, includingGaura irregular; a few, including some Fuchsia, unisexual), commonly 4-(5- or 6-) merous, solitary and axillary or in spikes, racemes, or panicles; floral bracts present or absent. Hypanthium usually well-developed and prolonged above the apex of the ovary (not prolonged in Ludwigia), often nectariferous. Sepals valvate, essentially free but sometimes coherent or united near the tips. Petals as many as the sepals, free, sometimes clawed, in ours yellow to rose or white when fresh. Stamens inserted on the hypanthium or an epigynous disk, commonly twice as many as the petals in 2 series or else as many as the petals and opposite them, rarely further reduced in number; pollen tending to cohere in masses or chains. Ovary with as many united carpels as sepals or petals, locules as many as carpels and placentation axile or else septa absent and placentation parietal; ovules (1-)several per locule; style 1, stigma capitate to weakly or strongly 4-lobed. Fruit capsular (loculicidal, loculicidal and septicidal, or occasionally poricidal or indehiscent) or nutlike (as in Gaura); in some (e.g. Fuchsia) a berry. Seeds in some genera (but not ours) comose. Embryo sack 4-nucleate, endosperm diploid.

About 650 to 675 species variously divided into 17 to 24 genera, found worldwide but most abundant in temperate and warmer parts of the Americas; 8 genera and 74 species listed for Texas; 4 genera and 29 species here.

The family contains a number of ornamentals, especially in Oenothera, Epilobium, Fuchsia,Clarkia, and Ludwigia. Some species can be weedy and a few are reportedly edible (Tull 1987; Mabberley 1987).

1. Sepals remaining with the fruit at maturity; hypanthium not prolonged beyond the apex of the ovary .................................................................................................................1. Ludwigia

1. Sepals not persistent in fruit; hypanthium prolonged beyond the apex of the ovary ..............2

2(1) Stigma entire (rarely weakly 4-lobed, the lobes minute) .................................2. Calylophus

2. Stigma deeply 3- or 4-lobed .....................................................................................................3

3(2) Flowers usually zygomorphic; base of each filament usually bearing a small scale within the hypanthium ............................................................................................................3. Gaura

3. Flowers actinomorphic; filaments without scales ..............................................4. Oenothera



1. LUDWIGIA L. Seedbox, Water-primrose, False Loosestrife

Annual or perennial herbs, usually of wet places, some woody at the base, some from stolons or rooting at the nodes. Stems sometimes spongy where submerged. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, sessile to petiolate, entire or with minute teeth; stipules minute. Flowers borne singly in the axils of the upper leaves, perfect, regular, 4- or 5-(rarely 6-)merous. Hypanthium not prolonged beyond the apex of the ovary. Sepals persistent in fruit. Petals yellow if present, caducous, in some species absent. Stamens as many as the petals or twice as many and in 2 series. Ovary 4- or 5-locular; style 1, stigma capitate or globose. Capsule 4- or 5-celled, dehiscent longitudinally or by an apical pore, sometimes tardily and irregularly dehiscent. Seeds, many, sometimes wholly or partly enclosed in a piece of woody endocarp.

Seventy-five species worldwide, especially common in tropical S. Amer.; 14 in TX; 10 known from our area.

Some species are grown as aquarium plants (Mabberly 1987). The seeds of some are eaten by waterfowl (Correll & Correll 1975)

NOTE: One species found to the east of our area may be found here someday. It is best distinguished by the characters presented in the key, where it is marked with an asterisk but not numbered (nor is it described in the text).

1. Leaves opposite ........................................................................................................................2

1. Leaves alternate .......................................................................................................................3

2(1) Capsule or hypanthium with 4 vertical bands of a deeper green than the surrounding tissue ...................................................................................................................1. L. palustris

2. Capsule or hypanthium without vertical bands ....................................................2. L. repens

3(1) Stems conspicuously 4-winged ......................................................................3. L. decurrens

3. Stems not (or only very weakly 4-winged) ...............................................................................4

4(3) Sepals 5(6) ...............................................................................................................................5

4. Sepals 4 .....................................................................................................................................6

5(4) Stems shaggy-pubescent; leaves lanceolate to lance-elliptic or oblanceolate; pedicel shorter than the hypanthium; each seed enclosed by a corky, horseshoe-shaped piece of endocarp .........................................................................................................4. L. leptocarpa

5. Stems more or less glabrous; leaves spatulate to oblong or obovate; pedicel longer than the hypanthium; each seed embedded in a cube of woody endocarp ..........5. L. peploides

6(4) Stamens 8 in 2 series; capsule linear-cylindrical, greater than 2 cm long ...6. L. octovalvis

6. Stamens 4; capsule globose to obpyramidal, or if cylindrical then less than 2 cm long .......7

7(6) Capsules definitely longer than broad .....................................................................................8

7. Capsules globose to globose-cubical, about as long as broad ..............................................9

8(7) Petals lacking; capsule with a shallow longitudinal groove below each sepal ........................

........................................................................................................................7. L. glandulosa

8. Petals present at anthesis; capsule without longitudinal grooves ......................8. L. linearis

9(7) Flowers and capsules sessile; capsules irregularly dehiscent; plant with creeping stolons ...

.................................................................................................................................9. L. pilosa

9. Flowers and capsules pedicellate; capsules poricidally dehiscent; plant usually from fascicled tuberous roots .........................................................................................................10

10(9) Leaves basally cuneate, short-petiolate; plants glabrous to puberulent ..................................

.......................................................................................................................10. L. alternifolia

10. Leaves basally rounded to obtuse, sessile; plants hirsute .....................................* L. hirtella

1. L. palustris (L.) Ell. American Seedbox, Marsh Seedbox, Marsh Purslane. Perennial herb (sometimes flowering the first year); stems prostrate, rooting at the lower nodes, 1 to 5 dm long, simple to well-branched, in water the branchlets ascending or floating; herbage glabrous or with a few scattered hairs. Leaves opposite, broadly elliptic to ovate or obovate, 3 to 25(40)mm long, 4 to 20 mm broad, tapered to a petiole about as long as the blade, apically acute to acuminate, margin entire, occasionally with a few glands or minute, stiff hairs. Flowers sessile in the axils; bractlets none or small and subulate, to 1 mm long, borne at the base of the hypanthium. Sepals 4, deltoid to ovate, 0.5 to 2 mm long; corolla absent; stamens 4, inserted around an elevated, glabrous, 4-lobed disk. Capsule (2)2.5 to 5 mm long, 2 to 3 mm broad, loculicidal, short-oblong, quadrangular with rounded edges and with a vertical band below each sepal that is a darker green than the surrounding tissue; seeds many, in several indistinct rows per locule, 0.4 to 0.9 mm long, asymmetrical, whitish to stramineous, somewhat shiny. Wet areas along lakes, bogs, marshes, ditches, etc. E. and Cen. TX, W. to the Llano region and in the Davis Mts.; throughout temperate N. Amer. except the Rocky Mt. region and S. FL., S. to Colo.; also W. Eurasia and N. and S. Afr.; introduced elsewhere. Jun.-Sept., in fruit in Oct. [Includes var. americana (DC.) Fern. & Grisc. and var. nana Fern. & Grisc.; Isnardia palustris L.].

2. L. repens Forst. Floating or Creeping Primrose-willow, Water-primrose, Roundleaf Seedbox. Perennial herb; stems 1 to 5 dm long, prostrate and creeping, rooting at the nodes, sometimes mat-forming, in water the submersed branchlets floating; herbage glabrous or sparsely puberulent in the upper portions with short, stiff, sometimes hooked hairs, plants often suffused with purple, especially if submersed. Leaves opposite, narrowly elliptic to suborbicular, tapered to a petiole or subpetiolar base ca. 3 to 25 mm long, entire, apically obtuse to rounded or sometimes cuspidate, overall 1 to 3 cm long and 5 to 10 mm broad in terrestrial plants, leaves of submersed or deep-shade plants to 5 cm long and 2.5 to 3 cm broad, often flaccid. Flowers solitary in the axils (sometimes only 1 per node or only at scattered nodes), sessile or on short pedicels to 3 mm long; bractlets 2, borne slightly above the base of the hypanthium, 2 to 4 mm long, linear to linear-oblong. Sepals 4, deltoid, acuminate, 2.4 to 4.2 mm long; petals 4, yellow, 4 to 5 mm long, soon deciduous and often said to be lacking; stamens 4; disk elevated, glabrous, with 4 lobes opposite the petals; style ca. 1 mm long. Capsule 3 to 8 mm long on a pedicel 0.3 to 1.5 mm long, glabrous at maturity, short-cylindrical to obpyramidal, more or less 4-sided, deeply grooved on 2 sides and shallowly so on the other 2, without darker green bands, tardily and irregularly dehiscent; seeds 0.6 to 0.8 mm long, numerous, in several indistinct rows per locule, ovate to elliptic or oblong, plump but straight on one edge, shiny yellow-brown. Wet places: along streams, around ponds, ditches, canals, etc.; also in wet sandy-peat areas. N. of the Rio Grande Plains but rare in N. TX and the Panhandle; NC S. to FL and W. to TX and NM, in the interior N. to OK, MO, and TN, also CA.; S. to Cen. Mex., W.I., and Berm. Cultivated as an aquarium plant. July-Sept. [L. natans Ell and vars. stipitata Fern. and rotundata (Griseb.) Fern. & Grisc.; Isnardia repens (Sw.) DC.; I. intermedia Small & Alexander in Small].

3. L. decurrens Walt. Primrose-willow. Annual herb; stem simple to diffusely branched, 2 to 25 dm tall, 4-winged, 2 narrow, often reddish wings running downward from the base of each leaf, ultimate branchlets slender and flexuous; herbage glabrous to sparsely short-pubescent. Leaves alternate, subsessile, lanceolate to elliptic, 2 to 16(18) cm long, 2 to 35 mm broad, acuminate, basally cuneate to rounded, midvein below lighter or yellowish, margins minutely scabrous, upper leaves reduced. Flowers solitary in the axils of reduced leaves or bracts, sessile or with pedicels 1 to 5(10) mm long; bractlets 2, scale-like and minute, at the base of the hypanthium or on the pedicel. Sepals 4, 7 to 10 mm long, deltoid-subulate; petals 4, yellow, suborbicular to obovate, apically rounded, 8 to 12 mm long; stamens 8; disk not elevated, a sunken, white-pubescent nectary surrounding the base of each stamen. Capsule cylindric to obconic, 4-angled or -winged, 1 to 2 cm long, ca. 3 to 5 mm broad, glabrous, readily and irregularly loculicidal, commonly shredding after dehiscence and only the stronger ribs or wings remaining; seeds many, in several rows per locule, free of endocarp, 0.3 to 0.4(0.8) mm long, buff to pale brown, varying from oblong and falcate to pear-shaped. Wet places: swamps, pond margins, bogs, etc., in soils ranging from sands to clays. E. ca. 1/3 TX; WV, IN, IL, and MO S. and W. to FL and TX; scattered S. in tropical America to N. Argen. Jun.-Nov. (TAMU collections mostly Oct.) [Jussiaea decurrens (Walt.) DC.].

4. L. leptocarpa (Nutt.) Hara Angle-stem Water-primrose. Annual herb, varying from simple-stemmed to very robust and diffusely branched, 1 to 20 dm tall; stem shaggy pubescent or the basal portions of large individuals becoming glabrous (and often up to 1 cm broad). Leaves alternate, narrowly to broadly lanceolate, elliptic, or oblanceolate, larger ones to 15(18) cm long and 3(4) cm broad, tapered to a petiole to 2(3.5) cm long or else subsessile, apically acute, upper surface sparsely pubescent, lower surface more densely so, especially along the major veins, both surfaces papillose. Flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves or branchlets; pedicel 1 to 15 mm long, much shorter than the slender hypanthium at anthesis and barely distinguishable from it, puberulent; bractlets, 2, minute, scale-like, borne alternately on the hypanthium. Sepals 5, rarely 4, 6, or 7, lance-acuminate, sparsely pubescent on the lower surface, 5 to 11 mm long; petals 5(7) yellow, broadly obovate, with a shallow apical notch, 5 to 11 mm long; stamens twice as many as the sepals, in 2 series; disk slightly elevated, the base of each stamen surrounded by a depressed, pubescent nectary. Capsule narrowly cylindrical, 1.5 to 5 cm long, 2.5 to 4 mm broad, with 10 to 15 ribs, sparsely pubescent, sepals often falling from the summit, slowly and irregularly loculicidal; seeds in 1 row per locule, many, pale, capped with a darker horseshoe-shaped piece of endocarp (this readily detachable), the unit overall obovate with flat faces, ca. 1 mm long. Wet places: ponds, ditches, marshes, etc. E. ca. 1/3 TX; Coastal plain of the U.S.: NC to FL, W. to TX and OK, in the interior N. to MO and IL, S. to W.I., Peru, Argen.; also tropical Afr. Aug.-Oct. [Jussiaea leptocarpa Nutt.].

5. L. peploides (Kunth in H.B.K.) Raven Smooth Water-primrose, Primrose-willow, Verdolaga de Agua, Floating Evening Primrose. Perennial herb, sprawling or creeping, rooting at the nodes in wet soil or water, often forming floating mats, ultimate branchlets usually ascending; stems 2 to 6 dm long, glabrous to sparingly (or moderately) pubescent. Leaves alternate, blades spatulate to oblong, oblanceolate, or even suborbicular, 1 to 10 cm long, 4 to 40 mm broad, obtuse to acute, tapered to a flattened or winged petiole 0.2 to 5 cm long, glabrous or very sparsely pubescent, especially on the margins, leaves of distal portions usually larger than those below; stipules scale-like, to ca. 1.5 mm long. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, on slender pedicels 1 to 6 cm long that taper into the hypanthium at anthesis; bractlets 2, opposite or subopposite, deltoid to ovate, positioned at or just below the junction of pedicel and hypanthium, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs. Sepals 5, lanceolate to ovate or subulate, 4 to 12 mm long, usually glabrous; petals 5, yellow, obovate and emarginate, 7 to 14(24) mm long; stamens 10 in 2 series; disk slightly elevated, the base of each stamen surrounded by a depressed, white-pubescent nectary; style 3 to 5 mm long, stigma shallowly 5-lobed. Mature pedicel 1 to 6(8) cm long, capsule shorter, 1 to 4 cm long, 3 to 4 mm broad, cylindrical, glabrous to sparsely hairy, tardily and irregularly dehiscent; seeds many, in 1 more or less vertical row per locule, 1.1 to 1.3 mm long, each embedded in a cube-like piece of endocarp 1.2 to 1.5 mm long, 1 to 1.2 mm broad. Ponds, ditches, lakeshores, marshes, etc. E. and E. Cen. TX, and in scattered locations W. to the Trans Pecos; MO, IN, and KS. S. to NC, LA, and TX, also AZ; throughout much of the warmer W. Hemisphere: W.Il, Mex., Cen. and S. America (except Chile); also NE Asia and temp. Australia; introduced elsewhere. Apr.-Oct. [Includes subsp. glabrescens (O. Ktze.) Raven;Jussiaea repens L. and vars. glabrescens O. Ktze and peploides (H.B.K.) Griseb.; J. diffusa of some authors but not of Forsk.].

6. L. octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven Shrubby Water-primrose, Narrowleaf Water-primrose. Annual or perennial herb, herbaceous when or where frosts severe, in frost-free areas woody below with the stem reaching 3 cm in diameter and the plants to 3 m tall, in TX usually an annual with stems to 1 m or more, well-branched, plants somewhat weedy, glabrous to sparsely pubescent or even hirsute. Leaves alternate, sessile or with a petiole to ca. 1 cm long, blades lanceolate to nearly linear, lance-elliptic or occasionally oblanceolate, acute to acuminate, 3 to 14.5 cm long, 4 to 40 mm broad, glabrous to hirsute. Flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves or bracts, subsessile or with a slender pedicel to ca. 1 cm long; bracts 2, small, subulate, scale-like, present at the base of the hypanthium or on the pedicel. Hypanthium longer than the sepals at anthesis, generally pubescent; sepals 4, ovate, acute to acuminate, (6)8 to 14 mm long, 3-nerved, puberulent to hirsute; petals 4, yellow, 5 to 16(20) mm long, cuneate-obovate; stamens 8 in 2 series; disk slightly elevated, the base of each stamen surrounded by a sunken, white-pubescent nectary. Capsule sessile or with a pedicel to ca. 1 cm long, cylindrical to clavate, thin-walled, plumply quadrangular and with several ribs, (1.7)2.5 to 5 cm long, 2 to 8 mm broad, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, promptly and irregularly loculicidal, in age only the ribs remaining; seeds many, in several indistinct rows per locule, 0.6 to 7.5 mm long, lustrous, light reddish brown, free of endocarp, subglobose to ovoid with an enlarged raphe about as large as the body. S. 1/2 TX; NC to FL, W.to TX; widespread in warmer parts of the world. July-Oct. [L. suffruticosa Gomez Maza (not L. suffruticosa Walt.); Jussiaea angustifoliaLam.; J. scabra Willd; J. suffruticosa L. and vars. octofila (DC.) Munz and ligustrifolia (Kunth in H.B.K.) Griseb.].

Some authorities recognize subspecies.

7. L. glandulosa Walt. Cylindric-fruit Ludwigia or Seedbox, Torrey Seedbox, Creeping Seedbox. Perennial herb, fibrous rooted and/or with stolons to 20 cm long; stems initially prostrate and rooting at the lowest nodes, then erect, well-branched, to 1 m tall; herbage glabrous to minutely strigillose, especially on the angles of the stems. Leaves alternate, those of stolons with a purplish tinge, narrowly elliptic, 15 to 35(55) mm long, tapered to a petiole 3 to 10 mm long, cauline leaves lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, elliptic, or linear, 1.5 to 10(12) cm long, 3 to 25 mm broad, those of the branchlets usually smaller, acute to narrowly acute, basally attenuate, sessile or with a winged petiole to 15 mm long, margin entire, microscopically papillose-strigillose; stipules ovate-deltoid, ca. 0.15 to 0.35 mm long, reddish-purple. Flowers few to many, solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, sessile at anthesis; bracteoles at or slightly above the base of the ovary (rarely on the pedicel), linear, 0.35 to 1 mm long, lance-linear to linear. Sepals 4, ovate-deltoid, 1 to 2.3 mm long, 1 to 1.75 mm broad, acute or short-acuminate, margins minutely strigillose; petals none; stamens 4, filaments 0.55 to 1 mm long; disk elevated, greenish, with 4 lobes alternate with the sepals, glabrous; style 0.3 to 0.75 mm long. Capsule sometimes tinged purplish, cylindrical or nearly so, 2 to 8(9) mm long, 1.3 to 2(3) mm broad, with 4 shallow longitudinal grooves, 1 below each sepal, glabrous to minutely papillose-strigillose, at maturity sessile or with a pedicel to 0.35(0.5) mm long; seeds many, in several indistinct rows per locule, reniform, the ends pointed, 0.5 to 0.75 mm long, 0.25 to 0.4 mm broad, yellowish-brown.

Peng (1989) recognizes 2 subspecies, both of which occur in our area. Hybrids between the two occur, but are not known from this region. (Also hybridizes with L. linearis, below.)

1. Capsule (4)5 to 8(9) mm long; cells of seed surface elongate parallel to seed length ..............a. subsp. glandulosa

1. Capsule 2 to 4 mm long; cells of seed surface elongate perpendicular to the seed length ....b. subsp. brachycarpa

a. subsp. glandulosa Stems often reddish, to 80(100) cm tall. Main cauline leaves 32 to 120 mm long, 4 to 21 mm broad. Sepals 1.25 to 2.3 mm long. Capsule (4)5 to 8(9) mm long, 1.6 to 2.3 mm broad, sessile or with a pedicel to 0.35(0.5) mm long; bracteoles at the capsule base or slightly above or on the pedicel, 0.5 to 1 mm long; seeds 0.5 to 0.7 mm long, surface cells oblong, elongate parallel to the seed length. Ditches, wet meadows, around ponds, bogs, wet woods, etc. Coastal Plain from VA to FL, W. to AL, MS, LA, and E. TX; in the interior from SE. OK through AR to E. TN, W. KY, SW. IN, S. IL, and MO. Flowering June-Sept. [Jussiaea brachycarpa Lam.; L. heterophylla Poir. in Lam., L. cylindrica Elliott].

b. subsp. brachycarpa (T. & G.) Peng. Stems occasionally tinged with red, to 55(90) cm tall. Main cauline leaves 30 to 50(70) cm long, 3 to 5(10) mm broad. Sepals 1.1 to 1.9 mm long. Capsule 2 to 4 mm long, 1.3 to 2 mm broad, sessile or with a pedicel to 0.15 mm long; bracteoles at the capsule base, 0.35 to 0.75 mm long; seeds 0.55 to 0.75 mm long, cells of the surface elongate perpendicular to the length of the seed. Ditches, wet woods, seeps, etc., (also coastal prairies and in sinkholes in granite). E. 1/3 of TX; also S. OK and SW. LA. Apr.-Nov. [L. glandulosa Walt. var. torreyi Munz; L. cylindrica Elliott var.brachycarpa T. & G.; Jussiaea brachycarpa Lam.].

8. L. linearis Walt. Narrowleaf Seedbox, Linear-leaved Ludwigia. Perennial herb, producing stolons in the late fruiting season; stems erect, usually freely branched (2.2)5 to 10(14.5) dm tall, often noticeably thickened and spongy near the base; herbage densely minutely strigillose (to occasionally puberulent) in our plants. Leaves alternate, those of the stolons often with a purplish tinge, narrowly elliptic, 12 to 23 mm long, 2.8 to 8.5 mm broad, tapered to a petiole to 5 mm long, cauline leaves green linear to narrowly lanceolate, oblanceolate, or linear-elliptic, 16-60(85) mm long, 0.9 to 3.7(5.6) mm broad, acute, entire, basally cuneate, subsessile; stipules 0.15 to 0.3 mm long, 0.05 to 0.15 mm broad, narrowly ovate to lanceolate. Flowers usually numerous in the axils of unreduced leaves; bractlets borne at the base of the hypanthium, 0.5 to 4(7.5) mm long, linear. Hypanthium and sepals densely minutely strigillose to puberulent; sepals 4, 3 to 5 mm long, 1.5 to 2.5(3.5) mm broad, elongate-deltoid, acute to acuminate, distinctly shorter than the hypanthium; petals 4, yellow, obovate to suborbicular, obtuse, slightly longer than the calyx, 3 to 6 mm long, (2)2.5 to 5 mm broad; stamens 4, filaments ca. 1.5 to 2 mm long; disk elevated, yellow, with 4 lobes opposite the petals, glabrous to strigillose, especially marginally; style (0.4)0.7 to 1.5 mm long. Capsule obpyramidal, 5 to 10(12) mm long, 3 to 5.5 mm broad, usually sessile or with or with a pedicel to 5 mm long, densely minutely strigillose to puberulent, irregularly loculicidal; seeds in several indistinct rows per locule, many, light brown, oblong-elliptic, slightly falcate, 0.45 to 0.65 mm long, 0.15 to 0.25 mm broad, surface cells columnar, elongate perpendicular to the seed length. Flowering Jun.-Sept. Occasional in wet places: ditches, along streams, etc., especially in pine woods. Coastal Plain: NJ S. to FL, inland to TN, AR, and E. TX. [Isnardia linearis (Walt.) DC.; L. angustifolia Michx.].

A recent treatment (Peng, 1989) recognizes 4 unnamed, somewhat intergrading morphs based on pubescence. Our plants are probably all or mostly all of the densely strigillose morph as described above [L. linearis Walt. var. puberula Engelm. & Gray]. It is possible that some plants of the glabrous morph might be found here--the plants are exactly like the strigillose ones except that they are completely glabrous. The strigillose morph occurs from AL W. into TX, N. to AR; the glabrous morph in AR, LA, and TX.

Known to hybridize with L. glandulosa, above.

9. L. pilosa Walt. Hairy Seedbox. Perennial herb with creeping or floating stolons up to 2.5 m long, these sometimes with flowers, fruit, and ovate to orbicular leaves 6.5 to 20 mm long, the margins with small teeth. Stems erect, 44 to 12 dm tall, well-branched, often spongy basally when submersed; herbage pilose to hirtellous throughout. Leaves alternate, main cauline leaves elliptic or lance-elliptic to linear, 1.5 to 8(10) cm long, 3 to 12(14) mm broad, those of the main stem longer than those of the branchlets, acute to narrowly acute, basally acute to attenuate, sessile or with a petiole to 2(15) mm long, entire, sometimes brownish on drying or the veins reddish; stipules ovate to lanceolate, 0.2 to 0.25 mm long, to 1 mm broad, usually hidden by the pubescence of the stem. Flowers solitary in the axils of the reduced upper leaves, often crowded at the branchlet tips. Sepals 4, 3.5 to 5.5(6) mm long, 2 to 4 mm broad, ovate-triangular to deltoid, acuminate to cuspidate, with reflexed tips, slightly longer than the hypanthium when fresh, creamy white and often also tinged pinkish or reddish on the margins and the 3 major veins; petals none or 4, very minute; stamens 4, filaments 1.5 to 2.5 mm long; disk elevated, yellow drying black, with 4 lobes alternate the sepals, hirtellous; style 1 to 2 mm long. Capsule densely hirtellous, subglobose to cubic- or oblong-globose with rounded corners, 3 to 5 mm long, 3 to 4.5 mm broad, sessile or with a pedicel to 1 mm long; bracteoles positioned 1 to 2.25 mm above the base of the capsule, linear-lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 3 to 6.5(7.2) mm long, 0.25 to 1.5(1.7) mm broad; seeds many, in several indistinct rows per locule, light brown, oblique-ellipsoid, 0.5 to 0.7 mm long, 0.25 to 0.35 mm broad, cells of the surface more or less isodiametric. Occasional in wet places: bogs, seeps, etc., especially in pine woods. SE. TX; Coastal Plain: S. VA to Cen. FL, W. to LA and TX; a disjunct population in N. AL. Flowering June.-Sept. [L. rudis Walt.; L. hirsuta Lam.; L. mollis Michx.].

10. L. alternifolia L. Seedbox, Rattlebox, Bushy Seedbox. Perennial herb, usually from a fascicle of spindle-shaped or tuberous roots; stem erect, well-branched, 5 to 10(12) dm tall, usually subglabrous or occasionally strigillose or with minute spreading hairs, often reddish, somewhat angled above. Leaves alternate, the main ones lanceolate, (4)5 to 10(12) cm long, 8 to 15(24) mm broad, acute to acuminate or even obtuse, tapered to a sessile subpetiolar base or with a petiole 3 to 10 mm long, lower surface paler, glabrous to short pubescent or occasionally densely pubescent on both surfaces, gradually reduced upwards. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves and bracts; pedicels 2 to 5 mm long; bracteoles 2, lanceolate, located at the apex of the pedicel. Sepals 4, triangular-ovate, 6 to 10 mm long, 4 to 6 mm broad, 5-veined, often reddish, generally finely short-pubescent on the margins; petals 4, yellow, about as long as the sepals, 6 to 10 mm long, oblong-obovate, rounded to truncate, caducous; stamens 4, 2 to 3 mm long; disk strongly elevated, the base of each stamen surrounded by a depressed white-ciliate nectary; style 2 to 3 mm long; ovary 2.5 to 3 mm long at anthesis. Capsule globose-cubical, the angles usually with narrow wings, 4 to 6 mm long, opening by a terminal pore and later also loculicidal (in pressed specimens the square top of the capsule often falling); seeds very numerous, in several indistinct rows per locule, pale golden brown, shiny, (0.5)0.6 to 0.8(1) mm long, plump, asymmetrical-oblongish. Occasional in ditches, near seeps, in wet meadows, by slow streams and pond edges, etc.; in our area also along woodland paths where damp. E. TX; Ont. and MA, S. to N. FL, E. TX, and in the interior to IA, MI, and KS. Flowering Jun.-Aug., collected with fruit in the fall. [Includes var. pubescens Palm. & Steyerm.].



ONAGRACEAE CALYLOPHUS2. CALYLOPHUS Spach. Sundrops, Evening Primrose



Herbaceous perennials (rarely annual and sometimes flowering the first year), sometimes woody a the base, from a woody caudex. Stems prostrate to decumbent to erect, epidermis sometimes exfoliating. Basal rosette none (cf. Gaura and Oenothera). Cauline leaves alternate, sessile or subsessile, entire to spinulose-serrate or dentate; lowermost leaves usually somewhat longer than the uniform upper ones. Stipules none. Flowers in the axils of the upper leaves, perfect, regular, 4-merous, opening in the early morning or between midafternoon and sunset, each lasting 1 1/2 to 2 days, buds erect. Hypanthium prolonged above the apex of the ovary, deciduous after anthesis. Sepals 4, flat or with a keeled midrib, often marked or streaked with reddish or purple, often reflexed separately at anthesis (cf. Gaura and Oenothera). Petals yellow, fading pink, purplish, or orange. Stamens 8 in 2 series, 4 epipetalous and 4 episepalous, the two series sometimes of differing lengths; anthers versatile, sporogenous tissue in distinct packets in each locule. Style yellow, stigma peltate to discoid or squarish, sometimes shallowly 4-lobed, in one species sometimes blue-black. Capsule sessile, cylindric, often slightly tapered to either end, 4-locular, longitudinally dehiscent, often remaining on the plant after dehiscence. Seeds many, in 2 rows per locule.

Six species in North America from the Great Plains to Mexico; 5 in TX; 2 here with another possible. [Galpinsia Britt.; Meriolix Raf.; several with synonyms in Oenothera].

Fresh material is invaluable in keying as the position of the stigma relative to the anthers must often be known and is difficult to determine in pressed specimens. This treatment follows that of Towner (1977).

1. Petals mostly 5 to 14 mm long; stigma positioned within the circle of anthers, near the apex of the hypanthium or slightly beyond .....................................................1. C. serrulatus

1. Petals usually longer, mostly 9 to 25 mm long; stigma exserted as far as the ends of the longer stamens or beyond .............................................................................2. C. berlandieri

NOTE: C. hartwegii (Benth.) Raven ssp. pubescens (A. Gray) Towner is found south and west of our area and may someday be found in the southwestern portion of this area--perhaps in Washington Co. In contrast to the species known from our area, its sepals lack a median keel and all 8 stamens are of the same length. Leaves (except lowermost) basally abruptly narrowed to truncate or clasping. Plants usually covered with long spreading hairs. The reader is referred to Towner (1977) for a complete description of this and all other Texas species.

1. C. serrulatus (Nutt.) Raven Yellow Evening Primrose, Plains Yellow Primrose. Herbaceous to suffrutescent from a woody and often branched caudex; stems few to many, decumbent to ascending or erect, 0.5 to 8 fm tall, glabrous to strigillose or strigillose-canescent. Leaves spreading to ascending, linear to narrowly-lanceolate or -oblanceolate, often folded lengthwise, 1 to 10 cm long, 0.1 to 12 mm broad, glabrous to strigillose above, sparsely to densely strigillose below, entire to serrulate, apically acute to rounded, basally acute or cuneate, sessile or short petiolate; fascicles of small leaves in the axils present or absent. Flowers axillary on the upper portion of the stems. Hypanthium 2 to 12(16) mm long, 3 to 12 mm broad at the throat, greenish-yellow, glabrous to sparsely strigillose; sepals keeled, 1.5 to 9 mm long, 2 to 6 mm broad, with free tips 0 to 3(4) mm long, strigillose basally; petals 5 to 14(20) mm long and about as broad, apically rounded-truncate, yellow, fading light yellow or pinkish; stamens 8, in 2 series, the episepalous filaments 1 to 5(7) mm long, the epipetalous filaments 0.5 to 3 mm long, anthers 1.5 to 4(7) mm long, pollen grains 30 to 80% aborted; style 2 to 15(20) mm long, stigma 1 to 2 mm broad, positioned at or above the mouth of the hypanthium or within the circle of anthers, but not exserted beyond the anthers; ovary 4 to 13 mm long, strigillose. Capsule 1 to 3 cm long, 1 to 3 mm broad, thick-walled and often tardily dehiscent; seeds oblique-truncate (occasionally pointed) apically, 1 to 2 mm long. Self-compatible and usually self-pollinated. Usually in sandy or rocky soil of plains, open woods, etc. Panhandle, E. TX., and along the coast; Sask., Alta., and Man., S. through Cen. U.S.--MT to MN and WI, S. to IL, MO, AZ, NM, and TX--to Chih. Mar.-July or Aug. [Among other names: Includes var. spinulosus (T. & G.) Shinners; C. drummondiana Spach; includes C. australis Towner & Raven; Oenothera serrulata Nutt. and var. drummondii T. & G.; O. serrulata Nutt. var. spinulosaT. & G.].

2. C. berlandieri Spach Berlandier Evening Primrose. Herbaceous to suffrutescent, from a woody, often branched caudex,this below ground or at the surface; stems 1 to many, simple or generally branched, subdecumbent to erect, 1 to 5(8) dm tall, glabrous to strigillose or strigillose-canescent, bark of lower stems (at least) usually exfoliating. Lowermost leaves narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate or spatulate, sometimes early deciduous, cauline leaves sessile to short petiolate, spreading to ascending, linear to narrowly lanceolate or oblanceolate, often folded lengthwise, (1)3 to 7(9) cm long, 1 to 9(10) mm broad, usually not much reduced upwards, subentire to spinulose-serrate, acute, basally attenuate, glabrous to sparsely strigillose above, glabrous to strigillose-canescent below, especially basally, fascicles of smaller leaves (to 2 cm long) often present in axils lacking flowers. Flowers in the axils of the upper leaves, often crowded, opening in the morning and often several open at once on each stem, inflorescence sparsely and minutely strigillose to densely strigillose-canescent; buds more or less quadrangular in cross-section. Hypanthium tubular in the basal 1/3 to 1/2, funnelform and more or less quadrangular above, 5 to 20 mm long, 3 to 14 mm in diameter at the throat, subglabrous to strigillose-canescent, especially on the ribs, within distally glabrous and basally minutely pubescent to strigillose, yellow-green, sometimes blue-black within in some populations, occasionally fading pinkish; sepals 4 to 12 mm long, 2 to 7 mm broad, keeled, light yellow-green, midribs and tips sometimes reddish (rarely entirely fading pinkish), subglabrous to strigillose-canescent, free tips 0 to 4 mm long; petals (6)9 to 20(25) mm long, 7 to 30 mm broad, suborbicular to obovate-truncate or obcordate, yellow, fading orange to purplish, under ultraviolet light highly reflective except for an absorptive basal spot; stamens 8 in 2 series, the epipetalous filaments 1 to 4 mm long, episepalous filaments 2 to 8 mm long, anthers 2 to 7 mm long, pollen usually 85-100% fertile; style 9 to 30 mm long, sometimes minutely pubescent basally, stigma 1 to 3 mm broad, discoid to nearly square, sometimes blue-black, usually exserted as far as the anthers or beyond; ovary 5 to 20(27) mm long, 0.5 to 1.5 mm broad, minutely strigillose to strigillose-canescent. Capsule 1 to 3.5 cm long, 1 to 2 mm broad, cylindric, sometimes recurved, thick-walled, completely dehiscent, often tardily so; seeds 1 to 2 mm long, angled, truncate apically or sometimes pointed, brown. Self-incompatible. Throughout much of TX except the NE. ca. 1/4; SE. CO and S. Cen. KS, through E. NM and TX to N. Mex; also S. LA. [For synonymy, see subspecies, below.]

Two subspecies, both present in our area. Intergradations occur and are possible in our area, but are more common to our south and in W. Cen. TX.

1. Stems several to many, subdecumbent to ascending; plants 1 to 4 dm tall; leaves mostly 1 to 4 cm long ...................

..................................................................................................................................................a. subsp. berlandieri

1. Stems 1 to several, erect or nearly so; plants 3 to 8 dm tall; leaves mostly 2.5 to 9 cm long ......b. subsp. pinifolius

a. subsp. berlandieri Halfshrub Sundrops, Drummond Sundrops. Stems several to many, subdecumbent to ascending, 1 to 4 dm tall, moderately branched. Leaves generally crowded, linear to narrowly lanceolate or oblanceolate, 1 to 4 cm long, 0.1 to 0.6 cm broad (some populations with individuals with very narrow leaves), subentire to serrulate, sometimes somewhat undulate, lowermost cauline leaves commonly oblanceolate to spatulate. Midvein of sepals often only slightly raised, free tips of sepals 0 to 2 mm long; interior of hypanthium and stigma yellowish, never blue-black. Rocky and sandy or limestone soils, grassy areas, prairies, plains, hills, etc. (also beach dunes.) Panhandle, Trans Pecos, S. TX, and Coastal Plain, N. to our area, absent from N. Cen. TX and much of the Edwards Plateau; SE. CO and S. Cen. KS, E. NM, W. OK, and TX. Mar.-Sept., ours primarily Mar.-May. [Oenothera berlandieri (Spach) Steud.; O. serrulata Nutt. var. typica sensu Munz; C. serrulatus (Nutt.) Raven subsp. serrulatus sensu Shinners; O. serrulata Nutt. var. pinifolia Engelm. ex A. Gray sensu Munz and subsp. pinifolia(Engelm. ex A. Gray) Munz sensu Munz; O. serrulata Nutt. var. drummondii T. & G. sensu Munz and subsp. drummondii (T. & G.) Munz sensu Munz. Treated as C. drummondianus Spach subsp. berlandieri (Spach) Towner & Raven by Correll and Johnston (1970), though the types of C. drummondianus belong to C. serrulatus].

b. subsp. pinifolius (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Towner Short-lived perennial or occasionally annual; stems 1 to several, erect or nearly so, 3 to 8 dm tall, simple or sparsely branched. Leaves usually not crowded, lowermost leaves sometimes narrowly oblanceolate, cauline leaves linear to narrowly-oblanceolate or -lanceolate, 2.5 to 9 cm long, 2 to 9 mm broad (often appearing proportionately very narrow), subulate to spinose-serrulate. Sepals conspicuously keeled, free tips 0.5 to 4 mm long; stigma and interior of the hypanthium deep blue-black in certain populations in S. Cen. TX N. to about Gillespie Co. Sandy and rocky soils or clays, often in calcareous situations, common in the Post Oak Savannah and prairies. N. Cen. TX to Cen. TX, especially on the Edwards Plateau; also OK and S. LA. Flowering primarily Apr.-June. [Oenothera serrulata Nutt. var. pinifolia Engelm. ex A. Gray; O. serrulata Nutt. var. drummondii T. & G. sensu Munz and subsp. pinifolia (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Munz; C. serrulatus (Nutt.) Raven var. spinulosus (T. & G.) Shinners sensu Shinners. Treated as C. drummondianus Spach subsp. drummondianus sensuTowner by Correll & Johnston (1970), though the types of C. drummondianus belong to C. serrulatus].





3. GAURA L. Gaura

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs from taproots, branched rootstocks, or sometimes rhizomes, sometimes woody at the base. Stems 1 to several, simple below the inflorescence or branched. Leaves reduced upwards, those of the base or rosette largest, lyrate, usually tapered to a winged petiole, cauline leaves subsessile, usually acuminate, pubescence of leaves thickest on midrib and margins or else confined there. Inflorescence a bracted spicate raceme, usually pedunculate and sharply delimited. Flowers borne laterally, usually zygomorphic (all of ours), at anthesis all of the petals in a plane in the upper half of the flower, with the stamens and style projecting in the lower half, usually 4-merous but often 3-merous, opening near sunset or sunrise and each lasting only one day. Hypanthium prolonged above the apex of the ovary, slender, ca. 0.75 to 1.5 mm in diameter apically, usually lanate within in the upper half, lower portion enlarged and nectariferous. Sepals reflexed at anthesis. Petals usually white, becoming reddish or pink after pollination, usually strongly clawed. Stamens twice as many as the sepals, subequal, each filament usually with a small scale at its base, these usually nearly closing the mouth of the hypanthium; anthers often reddish, sporogenous tissue within separated into distinct packets separated by sterile tissue. Style pubescence the same as that of the hypanthium and in the same region, the hairs interlocking; stigma deeply (3-)4-lobed, exserted beyond the anthers in outcrossing species. Fruit an indehiscent, woody, nutlike capsule, (3-)4-loculed but the partitions incomplete and fragile, not obvious at maturity. Ovules usually 1 per locule but the fruit commonly 1-seeded at maturity or occasionally with up to 8 seeds. Seeds yellow to pale-brown, ovoid, generally 2 to 3 mm long, 1 to 1.5 mm broad, soft, smooth, and with flattened planes caused by crowding within the fruit.

The genus consists of 21 species centered in the southern plains of the U.S. and adjacent Mexico, especially Texas; 16 species in TX; 7 here. Mature fruit are essential for identification. With practice, one learns to make something of habit, inflorescence, pubescence, etc., but the fruit are usually diagnostic. This treatment follows that of Raven and Gregory (1972).

Some species are cultivated as garden plants or for cut flowers (Mabberley 1987).

1. Mature fruit with a slender stipe 2 to 8 mm long; mat-forming rhizomatous perennial ...........

.............................................................................................................................1. G. sinuata

1. Mature fruit subsessile or else contracted into a thick, cylindrical stipe; annual, biennial, or perennial ...................................................................................................................................2

2(1) Mature fruit contracted into a thick, cylindrical stipe, conspicuously bulging above;

perennial from horizontal rhizomes ............................................................2. G. drummondii

2. Mature fruit subsessile; taprooted annual or a perennial from an underground rootstock or crown .........................................................................................................................................3

3(2) Sepals 2 to 3.5 mm long; petals 1.5 to 3 mm long; leaves velvety-pubescent .......................

..........................................................................................................................3. G. parviflora

3. Sepals (2.5)4.5 to 17 mm long; petals 3.5 to 15 mm long; leaves variously glabrous or pubescent, but not velvety ........................................................................................................4

4(3) Flowers 3-merous; fruits 3-angled .............................................................4. G. brachycarpa

4. Flowers 4-merous; fruits 4-angled ...........................................................................................5



5(4) Sepals with long, erect hairs; petals 10.5 to 15 mm long; plants perennial from an

underground crown; flowers opening near sunrise .....................................5. G. lindheimeri

5. Sepals with appressed pubescence or glabrous; petals shorter; taprooted annual; flowers opening near sunset .................................................................................................................6

6(5) Fruits angled but not winged; plants often 1 m or more tall; sepals generally strigillose; flowering July-Oct ............................................................................................6. G. longiflora

6. Fruits broadly winged on the angles; plants usually shorter than 1; sepals glabrous or strigillose; flowering Mar.-Jun ...................................................................................................7

7(6) Sepals glabrous; bracts 2.5 to 6.5 mm long ......................................................7. G. suffulta

ssp. suffulta

7. Sepals strigillose; bracts 2 to 4 mm long ..................................................4. G. brachycarpa

1. G. sinuata Nutt. ex Ser. Sinuate-leaved Gaura, Wavy-leaved Gaura. Perennial from a taproot, usually with aggressive rhizomes, sometimes mat-forming; stems 1 to several from the base, 2 to 6 dm tall; herbage subglabrous or strigillose and with long spreading hairs, especially in the lower parts, leaves sometimes densely strigillose. Basal leaves oblanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 9 cm long, 1 to 2 cm broad, entire to sinuate-dentate, the petioles short-winged, main cauline leaves linear to narrowly oblanceolate, 1 to 11 cm long, 0.1 to 2 cm broad, remotely sinuate-dentate, rarely nearly entire, often undulate. Peduncle naked, 1 to 2 dm long; inflorescence simple or branched, 1 to 10.2 dm long; bracts lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1 to 5 mm long, 0.5 to 2 mm broad, subglabrous or ciliate. Hypanthium 2.5 to 3(5) mm long, subglabrous or lightly strigillose; sepals 7 to 14 mm long, 1.25 to 2.5 mm broad, strigillose, reflexed; petals 7 to 14.5 mm long, 3 to 7 mm broad, abruptly clawed; stamens 8, filaments 5 to 11 mm long, lanate basally, anthers 3 to 5 mm long; style 12 to 18.5 mm long, basally pubescent, ovary strigillose. Fruit with a slender stipe 2 to 8 mm long, body 8 to 15 mm long, 1.5 to 3.5 mm thick, glabrous to sparsely strigillose; seeds (1)2 to 4, light reddish brown, 2 to 3 mm long, 1 to 1.5 mm broad. Self-incompatible. Usually in sandy soils, in open, often disturbed areas, nearly throughout TX except the High Plains and Trans Pecos, especially common in the Blackland Prairie; OK and TX, present in AR and possibly native; introduced widely elsewhere: GA, FL, AL, MO, and CA; also Italy and S. Afr. Mar.-June.

This species can be an aggressive weed, but its self-incompatibility limits its spread somewhat.

2. G. drummondii (Spach) T. & G. Sweet Gaura, Scented Gaura. Perennial herb from rhizomes about as broad as the stems, sometimes very aggressive and forming large patches; stems 2 to 6(12) dm tall, sometimes with a single unbranched stem, but more commonly more or less decumbent with several branches from the base and irregularly many-branched above; herbage strigillose, often more densely so on ovary, hypanthium, and exterior of the sepals, main stems sometimes also villous. Leaves narrowly lanceolate to elliptic, 0.5 to 7.5(9.5) cm long, 0.1 to 2.2 cm broad, subentire to shallowly sinuate-dentate. Peduncle 3 to 10 cm long, sometimes branched; inflorescence 14 to 36 cm long; bracts narrowly lanceolate, 2 to 8 mm long, 0.8 to 2 mm broad. Hypanthium 4 to 14 mm long; sepals 7 to 11(14) mm long, 0.75 to 2 mm broad, reflexed; petals 6 to 10 mm long, 2.5 to 5 mm broad; filaments 4 to 8.5 mm long, anthers 3 to 6 mm long; style 12 to 26 mm long. Fruit with the upper portion pyramidal, 4-angled with 4 distinct ridges and 4 furrows, the base of the pyramid conspicuously bulging and commonly lighter in color than the rest of the body; basal portion of fruit a cylindrical stipe, terete, ca. 1/4 the diameter of the upper portion, fruit overall 7 to 13 mm long, 3 to 5 mm broad at its widest; seeds reddish brown, (2)3 to 4(8) per fruit, 2 to 2.5 mm long, 1 to 1.25 mm thick. Self-incompatible, n=14. Usually in sandy loam soils, often weedy in fields. N. Cen. TX S. through much of Mexico, but rare in E. TX; occasional weed in S. coastal CA; introduced and possibly established in other locations in CA, GA, and AR. Feb.-Nov. [G. odorata sensu Munz; listed as G. odorata in many sources (e.g. as G. odorata Lag. by Correll and Johnston (1970)). However, G. odorata is in fact a synonym of G. coccinea Pursh].

3. G. parviflora Dougl. ex Lehm. Small-flower Gaura, Lizardtail Gaura, Velvet-leaf Gaura, Downy Gaura. Annual or winter annual herb from a stout taproot to 3 cm or more in diameter, often rank or weedy; stems erect, unbranched or simple to the inflorescence, (0.3)0.5 to 2(3) m tall, stout and juicy, becoming thinner in the inflorescence; herbage densely glandular pubescent and with a few longer, spreading hairs, surfaces of leaves softly strigillose. Lower stem leaves usually deciduous before flowering time, rosette leaves broadly oblanceolate, 4 to 15 cm long, 2 to 4 cm broad, tapered to a winged petiole, main cauline leaves narrowly to broadly elliptic to lance-elliptic or ovate, generally acuminate, 2 to 12.5 cm long, 0.5 to 44 cm broad,slightly sinuate-dentate. Inflorescence of subterminal spicate racemes, 5 to 45 cm long, usually dense, often elongated and more or less flexuous; inflorescence and sepals varying from villous only on the edges of the bracts to densely pubescent with a mixture of glandular and eglandular hairs; bracts narrowly lanceolate to linear, 1 to 6 mm long, 0.25 to 0.5 mm broad. Hypanthium 1.5 to 3(5) mm long, glandular to short-pubescent; sepals 2 to 3.5 mm long, 0.5 to 1 mm broad, lance-oblong, reflexed, pubescence similar to the rest of the inflorescence and also with some loosely appressed hairs; petals spatulate, 1.5 to 3 mm long; stamens slightly shorter than the sepals, filaments 1.5 to 3 mm long, scales at base reduced to small papillae, anthers 0.5 to 1 mm long, yellow to reddish; style 3 to 9 mm long, stigma lobes short, ovary with long glandular and eglandular hairs and also some short erect hairs. Capsule 5 to 11 mm long, 1.5 to 3 mm broad, more or less fusiform, narrowed to the base, glabrous or sometimes short pubescent; seeds 3 or 4, 2 to 3 mm long, 1 to 1.5 mm thick, reddish brown. Self-pollinating, n=7. Usually weedy in fields, pastures, stream banks, cultivated areas, etc. Throughout TX, less common in the E. 1/4 and Trans Pecos; native or established in IN, IA, SD, and MT to SE. WA, S. to AR, AL, TX, NV, and AZ; also N. Mex; introduced in Argen., China, Okinawa, and N. Australia. Mar.-Dec. Treated by Kartesz (1998) as Gaura mollis James. [Includes var. lachnocarpa Weath., var. typica Munz, and var. typica Munz. forma glabra Munz].

4. G. brachycarpa Small Plains Gaura. Taprooted annual (sometimes persisting through mild winters); stems 1.5 to 6.5(8.5) dm tall, usually with several to many branches from the base (rarely single-stemmed), these branches usually little if at all rebranched, stems villous below the inflorescence, hairs 1.5 to 2 mm long. Leaves subglabrous or lightly villous on the margins and along veins, basal leaves rosulate, lyrate, 6 to 9.5 cm long, 1 to 1.5 cm broad, tapered to the petiole, stem leaves narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate, 1 to 7 cm long, 0.1 to 1.6 cm abroad, subentire to shallowly sinuate-dentate. Inflorescence usually unbranched, 10 to 51 cm long, the flowers well-spaced at anthesis, subglabrous or else the sepals, hypanthium, and ovary strigillose; bracts lanceolate, 2 to 4 mm long, 0.5 to 1 mm broad; flowers 4-merous or sometimes 3-merous (sometimes both on one plant). Hypanthium 6.5 to 12 mm long; sepals 10 to 15 mm long, 1.5 to 2 mm broad; petals 8 to 12.5 mm long, 2.5 to 5 mm broad; filaments 5 to 8 mm long, anthers 2 to 4 mm long; style 15 to 24 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid, with or without prominent lower corners or auricles, 5.5 to 10 mm long, 2 to 3 mm thick, at maturity more or less broadly (3-)4-winged and deeply furrowed between the wings, sessile or with a slender stipe to 1 mm long; seeds 3 to 4 per capsule, 2 to 2.5 mm long, 1 to 1.5 mm thick, light brown to yellowish. Self-compatible but chiefly outcrossing. Open, usually sandy areas; very common locally in spring. E 1/2 to 1/3 of TX, except the E. TX Timberlands; very rare (2 or 3 known locations) in OK; 1 location each in LA and MS. Mar.-June (somewhat longer in the S. portion of its range). [G. tripetala Cav. var. coryi Munz; G. hexandra Gómez Ortega var. coryi (Munz) Munz].

5. G. lindheimeri Engelm. & Gray White Gaura, Munz Gaura. Perennial herb from a heavy underground crown or rootstock, often clumped; stems robust, erect or more commonly arched-ascending from the crown, 5 to 15 dm tall, branched; herbage villous, especially below, the hairs 1 to 2 mm long, leaves with hairs subappressed, rarely plants subglabrous. Leaves slenderly elliptic or occasionally narrowly oblanceolate, 0.5 to 9 cm long, 0.1 to 1.3 cm broad, remotely coarsely serrate or occasionally subsinuate-serrate, reduced in size upwards. Inflorescence well-branched or simple, 10 to 80 cm long, more or less densely glandular pubescent and also villous; flowers opening near sunrise; bracts narrowly to broadly elliptic, 4 to 11 mm long, 1.5 to 6 mm broad. Hypanthium 4 to 9 mm long, interior densely lanate in the upper 2/3 to 1/2; sepals 8.5 to 17 mm long, covered externally with long, erect hairs; petals 1.5 to 15 mm long, 5 to 10 mm broad, distinctly clawed, blade ovate to rhombic-ovate, white fading to deep pink; filaments 7.5 to 12 mm long, anthers 3.5 to 4.5 mm long, usually dull red; style 16 to 26.5 mm long, basally lanate. Capsule 6 to 9 mm long, 2 to 3.5 mm broad, ellipsoid, not winged or deeply furrowed; seeds 1 to 4 per fruit, 2 to 3 mm long, 1 to 1.5 mm broad, yellowish to pale brown. Self-incompatible. Black prairie soils in SE. and S. Cen. TX; also SW. LA. Cultivated in temperate regions of the world, but apparently not spontaneous outside TX and LA (Raven and Gregory, 1972). Apr.-July(Nov.) [G. filiformis Small. var. munzii Cory].

See NOTE at G. longiflora, below.

6. G. longiflora Spach Tall Gaura, Kearney Gaura, Large-flowered Gaura. Robust winter annual or perhaps sometimes biennial from a fleshy taproot; stems 5 to 40 dm tall, erect, usually well-branched above the base, lower stem often with exfoliating epidermis; herbage more or less densely strigillose (to glabrate), in the northern part of its range also glandular pubescent or villous. Rosette leaves to 40 cm long, 3 cm or more broad, often irregularly shaped, usually withered by flowering time, main cauline leaves commonly narrowly elliptic, 1.5 to 13 cm long, 0.2 to 2.75 cm broad, often acuminate, nearly entire to shallowly denticulate-undulate, deciduous and commonly axillary fascicles of smaller leaves remaining. Inflorescence usually well-branched, a panicle of spikes, densely strigillose, hirtellous, and/or glandular pubescent; bracts lanceolate to ovate, 1 to 6 mm long, 0.5 to 2 mm broad; flowers sessile, opening near sunset. Hypanthium 4 to 13(15) mm long, densely strigillose; sepals 7 to 18 mm long, 1 to 2.3 mm broad; petals 6.5 to 15 mm long, 2.5 to 7 mm broad, white, fading pink; filaments 5 to 13 mm long, anthers 1.5 to 5 mm long, dark red; style 12 to 33.5 mm long. Capsule 4.5 to 7 mm long, 1.5 to 2.5 mm broad, angled but not winged or deeply furrowed, more or less ellipsoid (fusiform and often slightly curved before maturity), strigillose; seeds 2 to 4 per fruit, 1.25 to 3 mm long, 0.75 to 1.25 mm broad, yellow to reddish brown. Self-incompatible. Light sandy prairie soils of open woods, grasslands, roadsides, railroad embankments, and other disturbed areas. E. and S. Cen. TX, rare in N. Cen. TX; SE. NE, IA, IL, and IN, S. to TX, LA, MS, and AL; scattered and rare in CO, W. NE, KS, MN, WI, MI, and OH; known from at least one collection in Ont., MA, CT, PA, and MD; probably introduced in most places outside its major range. July-Oct.--this is our most common, tall, fall-flowering Gaura. [G. filiformis Small and var. kearney Munz; G. biennis L. var. pitcheri T. & G.; G. biennis sensuMunz of some authors].

Our plants tend to be mostly of the southern type--virgate, over 2 m tall, with pubescence primarily strigillose--rather than shorter, coarsely branched, and glandular pubescent, as is the case with northern plants. Intergradations between the two types are common throughout the plant's range and can be expected to occur here.

NOTE: This species hybridizes with G. lindheimeri. Some hybrids tend to have the height of G. longiflora and the basal, virgate branches or G. lindheimeri. In other locations, the two species grow together without hybridizing. In some locations plants exist which look like G. longiflora but whose larger-than-usual flowers open in the morning. These plants, however, are tied to G. longiflora by populations with intermediate characters. Raven and Gregory (1972) were of the opinion that these plants were best not treated as a separate species.

7. G. suffulta Engelm. ex Gray subsp. suffulta Roadside Gaura, Wild Honeysuckle, Bee Blossom, Kisses. Annual from a slender to stout taproot; stems usually moderately-well branched (but without a specific pattern), 2.5 to 12 dm tall, villous below the inflorescence, the hairs 1.5 to 2.5 mm long. Leaves subglabrous to sparsely villous around the margins and along the veins, rosette leaves lyrate, 7 to 11 cm long, 1.5 to 2 cm broad, tapered to the petiole, main cauline leaves subsessile, narrowly elliptic to linear or lanceolate, 1 to 9.5 cm long, 0.1 to 2.3 cm broad, subentire to sinuate-dentate, flat. Inflorescence dense in bud, simple to sparingly branched, 6 to 80 cm long, glabrous or with a few long hairs on the bracts; bracts lanceolate to ovate, acute to acuminate, 2 to 6.5 mm long, 1.5 to 2 mm broad. Hypanthium 6.5 to 14 mm long; sepals 8 to 10 mm long, glabrous; petals 10 to 15 mm long, 4 to 6 mm broad, clawed, white, fading pinkish, reddish, or yellowish; filaments 6 to 9 mm long, anthers 3 to 4.5 mm long; style 16 to 32 mm long. Fruit more or less rhombic in outline, 4.5 to 8 mm long, 2-5 mm broad, without prominent lower corners but with 4 protrusions or wings at or above the middle, subsessile in ours (in western populations with a slender stipe to ca. 1 mm long); seeds (1)2 to 4 per fruit, 2 to 2.5 mm long, light brown. Self-incompatible. Sandy soils, open places, open woods, prairies, often weedy. Nearly throughout TX except the Trans Pecos, rare in E., S. and N. TX; also S. OK. Apr.-June.

Intergrades with subsp. nealleyi (Coult.) Raven & Gregory in the western portion of its range, but not in our area.



ONAGRACEAE OENOTHERA4. OENOTHERA L. Evening Primrose



Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base. Leaves alternate or basal, entire to pinnatifid, petiolate to sessile; stipules none. Flowers axillary in the upper leaves or else in definite inflorescences, opening near sunrise or sunset, perfect, 4-merous, with the hypanthium prolonged beyond the apex of the ovary. Sepals reflexed at anthesis, commonly coherent except for the tips and pulled to one side of the hypanthium, not persistent in fruit. Petals yellow to white or rose-purple, generally obovate to obcordate, often thin-textured, deciduous after anthesis. Stamens 8, anthers versatile. Stigma deeply 4-lobed, lobes commonly slender. Fruit a capsule, loculicidal or else indehiscent and nutlike. Seeds usually many, in 1 or 2(3) rows per locule or sometimes in clusters instead.

About 124 species of the temperate region, with some naturalized elsewhere (Dietrich and Wagner 1988); 34 species reported for Texas; 10 known from our area. This treatment is based, in part, on the work of Straley (1977).

Some species are grown as ornamentals. The roots and/or leaves of some species are reported to be edible (Tull 1987; Mabberley 1987). In recent years evening primrose oil has been touted as a nutritional supplement.

NOTE: In some species of Oenothera, some or all of the chromosomes form rings during meiosis and are passed un-recombined to the offspring. This results in a variety of karyotypes. Polyploid species are common. Some species are permanent structural heterozygotes, often with reduced pollen fertility. Some species are self-incompatible while others are fully autogamous (Dietrich and Wagner 1988). Chromosome number, pollen stainability, and self-compatibility data are often given in keys and descriptions. These may not be useful for quick identification but are sometimes necessary for separating distinct but similar species.

1. Petals white to rosy purple at anthesis; capsule clavate, narrowed to a stipe-like base .........

...........................................................................................................................1. O. speciosa

1. Petals pale to bright yellow at anthesis (sometimes fading pinkish); capsule clavate to cylindrical ..................................................................................................................................2

2(1) Capsule clavate, narrowed to a stipe-like base; cauline leaves wholly entire and relatively narrow; seeds in clusters, not in rows ......................................................................................3

2. Capsule ovoid to cylindrical, without a stipe-like base; usually at least some leaves sinuate to toothed or lobed; seeds in definite rows within the capsule ................................................4

3(2) Cauline leaves linear, less than 1 mm broad; floral bracts shorter than the ovaries they subtend; petals 3 to 5(7) mm long ......................................................................2. O. linifolia

3. Cauline leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate to -linear, 2 to 6 mm wide; floral bracts longer than the subtended ovaries; petals 5 to 14 mm long ....................................3. O. spachiana

4(1) Flowers in a terminal spike, upper leaves reduced to bracts; stems usually erect ...............5

4. Flowers in axils of the upper leaves; stems or branches more or less decumbent ..............7



5(4) Stigma at anthesis positioned at or below the level of the anthers; mature buds positioned

well below the apex of the inflorescence ............................................................4. O. biennis

5. Stigma at anthesis positioned above the anthers; mature buts more or less even with the

apex of the inflorescence or overtopping it................................... ...........................................6

6(5) Petals 4.5 to 5.5 cm long; mature buds (excluding the hypanthium) narrowly lanceolate, 3.5 to 5 cm long; hypanthium and sepals strigillose ...............................................5. O. elata

subssp. hirsutissima

6. Petals 1.8 to 3.5 cm long; mature buds more or less broader and shorter; hypanthium and sepals usually with pustule-based hairs ....................................................6. O. heterophylla

subsp. heterophylla

7(4) Petals 2.5 to 4 cm long; portion of style exserted from the hypanthium 1.5 to 3 cm long; stigma positioned above the anthers at anthesis ...............................................7. O. grandis

7. Petals 0.5 to 2.5 cm long; portion of style exserted from the hypanthium 0.3 to 2(2.5) cm long; stigma surrounded by anthers or positioned slightly above them at anthesis ..............8

8(7) Leaves densely strigillose, usually gray-green, margins revolute; uppermost bracts erect ...

.........................................................................................................................8. O. mexicana

8. Leaves sparsely to moderately strigillose and/or villous, usually green, margins not revolute; uppermost bracts spreading .....................................................................................9

9(8) Stigma usually slightly above anthers at anthesis; exserted portion of style 1.2 to 2.5 cm long; petals 1.3 to 2.5 cm long .........................................................................9. O. falfurriae

9. Stigma usually surrounded by anthers at anthesis; exserted portion of style 0.3 to 1.4 cm long; petals 0.5 to 2.2 cm long ........................................................................10. O. laciniata

NOTES: O. rhombipetala occurs just to the west of our area and may yet be found here. It is similar to O. heterophylla but has rather pointed, rhombic-ovate petals and mature buds which usually do not overtop the apex of the spike. O. triloba and O. macrocarpa [=O. missouriensis] also occur just outside our area. Both have winged capsules. O. triloba is nearly stemless, while O.macrocarpa has a well-developed stem.

1. O. speciosa Nutt. Evening Primrose, Showy Evening Primrose, Buttercup, Amapola del Campo. Perennial, rhizomatous or with a taproot and caudex, sometimes flowering the first year; stems 1 to several, erect to ascending, simple to branched above, to 5(7.5) dm tall, sparsely to densely strigose . Leaves sessile or with petioles to 3 cm, strigose, 2 to 10 cm long to 2.5 cm broad, oblanceolate to oblong- or elliptic lanceolate, subentire to sinuate or lyrate pinnatifid with lanceolate or ovate lateral lobes and terminal lobe larger and with irregular or sinuate margin, basal leaves often soon deciduous, leaves reduced upwards, the inflorescence with lanceolate-linear or elliptic bracts 1 to 2 cm long. Flowers solitary in the axils of the bracts; buds nodding, lanceolate to lance-elliptic (excluding the hypanthium), acute to acuminate. Hypanthium 1 to 2 cm long, strigose; sepals strigose, coherent and reflexed at anthesis, lanceolate, 1.5 to 3 cm long, free tips 1 to 4(5) mm long; petals obcordate (2)2.5 to 4 cm long, pale to medium rose or sometimes white, fading rose-purple; stamens from 2/3 as long to about as long as the petals. Style about as long as petals, stigma lobes 3 to 6 mm long. Capsules sessile, clavate, constricted into a stipe-like base, 1 to 1.5 cm long, angled apically, strigose, tough-walled; seeds fusiform, 0.9 to 1.2 mm long, in several indistinct rows in each locule. Prairies, roadsides, vacant lots, open woods, etc. Throughout TX but more common in the E. and S.; MO and NE S. to TX, LA, and SC. Mar.-July, with occasional flowers the rest of the year if moisture available; later flowers sometimes small. [Includes var. childsii (Bailey) Munz; Hartmannia speciosa (Nutt.) Small].

Plants in the southern part of the range (including most of ours) tend to have pink flowers, open in the morning, and have n =14 or 21. Plants in the northern part of the range tend to have white flowers, open in the evening, and have n=7. However, intermediates occur throughout the range and separation of varieties or subspecies is not necessarily helpful.

This species is often cultivated for its showy flowers. The seeds are offered by many companies and have been planted extensively by the Texas Highway Department along major routes. Along with Bluebonnets and Indian Paintbrush, this plant provides much of the spring wildflower show. Tull (1987) reports that the young leaves are edible raw or cooked, but mentions that the effects of eating large quantities are unknown. She also reports that yellow dyes can be made from the petals.

2. O. linifolia Nutt. Three-leaved Sundrops, Narrow-leaved Evening Primrose. Annual herb from a sparingly branched taproot; stem to 5 dm tall, often simple or with few to several ascending branches from near the base or above; basally with short erect hairs 0.2 to 0.4 mm long; herbage glabrous to sparingly strigillose or glandular puberulent. Basal leaves usually absent at flowering time, obovate to narrowly elliptic, 1 to 2(4) cm long, 0.2 to 0.6 cm broad, tapered to a winged petiole 0.2 to 1(1.5) cm long, nearly entire to remotely dentate, cauline leaves crowded, sessile, ascending, linear or filiform, 1 to 4 cm long, less than 1 mm broad, axillary fascicles or reduced branches sometimes present. Flowers in terminal unbranched spikes (1)3 to 6(12) cm long, opening near sunrise; floral bracts ovate to deltoid-ovate, 0.5 to 2 mm long, 1 to 3 mm broad; mature buds erect. Hypanthium 1.5 to 2.2 mm long, sparsely pubescent; sepals 1.5 to 2 mm long, 0.2 to 0.6 mm broad, ovate-lanceolate, without free tips; petals bright yellow, obcordate, commonly definitely notched, 3 to 5(7) mm long, 1 to 3(4) mm broad; filaments 1 to 2 mm long, anthers 0.5 to 1 mm long; style 1 to 2 mm long, stigma shallowly 4-lobed; flowers self-pollinated (sometimes cleistogamous). Capsules sessile or short-stipitate, 4 to 6(10) mm long, 1.5 to 3 mm broad, ellipsoid to rhomboid, 4-ridged to -angled, minutely strigose or pubescent, sometimes glandular puberulent; seeds 0.9 to 1.4 mm long, 0.5 mm broad, pale reddish-brown, smooth to minutely verrucose, in several indistinct rows in each locule. n=7. Open woods, roadsides, sandy or rocky flats. E. 1/3 TX; IL and MO, S. and W. to KS, OK, and TX; E. to NC and FL. Mar.-May. [Includes var. glandulosa Munz; Peniophyllum linifolium (Nutt.) Penn.].

3. O. spachiana T. & G. Spach Evening Primrose. Annual from a sparingly branched taproot; stem erect, 1 to 3(4.5) dm tall, usually simple or with a few branches; herbage densely strigose. Basal leaves usually persistent until early anthesis, 2 to 5 cm long, 0.5 to 1.5 cm broad, oblanceolate to elliptic, subentire, tapered to a winged petiole 0.5 to 2 cm long, cauline leaves 3 to 6 cm long, oblong-lanceolate to linear, 3 to 6 cm long, 2 to 6 mm broad; petiole 2 to 6(15) mm long. Flowers in axils of the leaves in the upper 1/3 to 2/3 of the plant, opening near sunrise; mature buds erect. Hypanthium 4 to 10 mm long; sepals 4 to 8 mm long, 1 to 2 mm broad, free tips to 1 mm long; petals pale yellow, fading pink (especially along the veins), truncate to emarginate, 5 to 14 mm long, 10 to 15 mm broad; filaments 3 to 7 mm long, anthers 2 to 4 mm long; ovary 8 to 12 mm long, 1 to 2 mm broad, style 3 to 7 mm long, stigma lobes linear, 1 to 2 mm long, connivent; flowers self-pollinated, often cleistogamous. Capsule clavate with a narrowed sterile base, 5 to 15 mm long, 3 to 5 mm broad, sessile; seeds in several indistinct rows per locule, stramineous, ca. 1 mm long and 0.5 mm broad, verrucose. n=7. Sandy open prairies, roadsides, low ground. E. TX; OK and TX E. to AR, MS, and AL; adventive elsewhere. Apr.-May.

4. O. biennis L. Common Evening Primrose. Biennial from a taproot; stem erect, 3 to 20 dm tall, unbranched or with widespreading branches, usually green, lightly or densely strigillose and with longer hairs which are spreading to erect and often pustule-based; herbage strigillose, the bracts sometimes also with some spreading hairs. Rosette leaves 10 to 30 cm long, 2 to 5 cm broad, narrowly oblong to oblanceolate, dentate, the teeth sometimes blunt or widely spaced, commonly lobed near the base, apically acute to obtuse, base attenuate; stem leaves 5 to 22 cm long, (1)1.5 to 5(6) cm wide, oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic to elliptic, dentate and/or basally lobed, apically acute to long-acute, basally acute or attenuate; petiole short or none. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper bracts, forming a spike-like inflorescence, usually without branches, but sometimes smaller lateral inflorescences present; mature buds usually definitely not reaching the apex of the inflorescence, 1 to 1.8(2.5) cm long, 2.5 to 6 mm broad, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate in outline, sometimes with long appressed hairs or pustule-based hairs; floral bracts 1.2 to 5 cm long, 0.5 to 2.5 cm long, slenderly-lanceolate to -ovate or -elliptic, dentate to nearly entire, acute to long-acute, basally sessile, sometimes deciduous. Hypanthium (2)2.5 to 4 cm long, 1 to 1.2 mm broad, yellow-green or red-tinged, lightly villous and sometimes with appressed and/or pustule-based hairs; sepals 1.2 to 2.2(2.8) cm long, 3 to 5 mm broad, yellow-green or occasionally with red, pubescence similar to the hypanthium, free tips 1.5 to 3 mm long, erect or occasionally divergent in bud, strigillose; petals yellow (rarely paler), 1.2 to 2.5 (3) cm long, 1.4 to 2.7(3.2) cm broad, widely obovate, emarginate to retuse; filaments 8 to 15(20) mm long, anthers 3 to 6(9) mm long; ovary 0.9 to 1.3 cm long, variously pubescent; style 3 to 5.5 cm long, exserted from the hypanthium for 0.3 to 1.5 cm, at anthesis stigma surrounded by the anthers, stigma lobes 3 to 6 mm long. Capsule narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate in outline, 2 to 4 cm long, 4 to 6 mm broad, green or striped with red when young, pubescent like the ovary; seeds 1.1 to 2 mm long, 0.6 to 1.1 mm broad, dark brown to blackish. n=7. Self-compatible and usually self-pollinated, a structural heterozygote. Usually in disturbed areas. Uncommon in our area but known from Grimes Co. (Dietrich, et al. 1997). N. B. W. To Alta., E. U.S., W to ND and TX; present in scattered naturalized populations in the rest of N. America; introduced and widespread in warm and temperate regions of the world, especially Europe. (Jun.)Jul.-Oct.

Several varieties, phenotypes, and strains have been named. TX plants belong to the Biennis -I (centralis) group, which has non-glandular inflorescences, green stems, and leaves which are often lobed. Eastern forms have glandular pubescence in the inflorescence, stems often marked with red, and usually unlobed leaves. Variation is clinal, so Dietrich et al. (1997)recognize no formal subspecific taxa.

5. O. elata Kunth subsp. hirsutissima (A. Gray ex S. Wats.) W. Dietrich. Taprooted biennial herb to 2.5 m tall; stem usually branched from the base, green or all or partially red; herbage strigillose or with few to many spreading or erect pustule-based hairs. Leaves membranous, lowermost leaves rosulate, oblanceolate, entire to undulate, acute ca. 5 to 15 cm long, 1 to 4 cm broad, narrowed to a petiole about as long as the blade, cauline leaves elliptic-lanceolate, ca (4)5 to 15(25) cm long, to 2. 5 cm broad, acute to acuminate, undulate, gradually reduced upwards. Flowers in a terminal, bracted, usually unbranched spike ca. 2 to 5 dm long; mature buds (excluding hypanthium) narrowly lanceolate, (2.5)3.5 to 5 cm long, usually about reaching the apex of the inflorescence; floral bracts 1.5 to 9 cm long, 0.5 to 2.8 cm broad, narrowly-lanceolate or -elliptic to lanceolate or elliptic, acute to long-acute. Hypanthium 2.5 to 5(5.5) cm long, strigillose or villous and glandular-pubescent, sometimes with a few pustule-based hairs. Sepals green to yellow or sometimes marked with red, strigillose, free tips 2 to 3(7) mm long; petals yellow, fading reddish, (3)4.5 to 5.5 cm long, obovate, sometimes notched; style long, stigma above anthers at anthesis. Capsule (2.5) 4.5 to 6.5 cm long, cylindric, strigillose; seeds in 2 rows in each locule. n usually =7. Self-compatible but usually outcrossing. Known in our area from Brazos and Leon Cos. SE. WA and ID, S. To CA, TX, and NM, E. To KS. and OK. (Apr.) Jul.-Oct. [Includes subsp. texensis W. Dietrich and W. L. Wagner; O. biennis L. Var hirsutissima (A. Gray ex S. Wats.) De Vries ].

Brazos Co. plants were originally described as subsp. texensis (Dietrich and Wagner 1987; Dietrich, et al. 1997). They represent one extreme of variation in this subspecies, having large petals (up to 5.5 cm long) and long capsules (to ca. 6.5 cm long).

6. O. heterophylla Spach subsp. heterophylla Varileaf Evening Primrose. Annual or short-lived perennial from a fleshy taproot; stem erect, 2.5 to 7 dm tall, simple or branched above, green or tinged with red, lightly to densely strigillose; herbage sparsely strigillose to nearly glabrous. Rosette leaves few, subentire to parted up to 2/3 the width, 7 to 15 cm long, 1 to 2.5 cm broad, very narrowly oblanceolate to oblanceolate, acute to subobtuse, tapered to the petiole, cauline leaves 3 to 13 cm long, 0.4 to 2.3 cm broad, quite narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate or narrowly elliptic to elliptic, acute, basally rounded to narrowly cuneate, lobed to remotely dentate, sessile to short-petiolate. Inflorescence sometimes dense, often with secondary spikes below the main one; 2 to several flowers opening per spike each day near sunset; mature buds usually overtopping the apex of the spike, narrowly oblanceolate to narrowly lanceolate; floral bracts 1 to 3 cm long, 0.3 to 1.2 cm broad, narrowly lanceolate to narrowly ovate or ovate, apex acute to acuminate, basally truncate to subcordate, remotely dentate to subentire. Hypanthium 2.5 to 4.2 cm long, ca. 1 mm broad, hypanthium and sepals with pustule-based hairs, often red spotted; sepals 1.5 to 2.8 cm long, free tips 2 to 6 mm long, usually spreading to sometimes erect in bud; petals yellow, 1.8 to 3.55 cm long, 2 to 3 cm broad, broadly elliptic to almost rhombic, apically more or less acute; filaments 1.5 to 3 cm long, anthers 3 to 8 mm long; ovary 4 to 7 mm long, ca. 1 mm broad, densely to sparsely strigillose and glandular puberulent, style 4.5 to 7.5 cm long, portion exserted from the hypanthium 1.8 to 3.5 cm long, stigma lobes 2 to 5 mm long, usually positioned above the anthers at anthesis. Capsule densely to sparsely strigillose and glandular puberulent, 1.3 to 2.5 cm long, 2.5 to 4 mm broad at the base, lanceolate in outline, generally curved upward; seeds elliptic or broadly so, sometimes obscurely angled, 1.1 to 1.8 mm long, 0.4 to 0.8 mm in diameter, brown, often with darker spots, pitted. n=7. Self-incompatible. Primarily in the E. 1/3 of TX; extending to the W 1/2 of LA. May-Sept. [O. pyramidalis var. lindheimeri H. Léveillé].

7. O. grandis (Britt.) Smyth Large-flowered Cut-leaved Evening Primrose. Annual from a slender taproot; stem 1.5 to 6(10) dm long, erect to ascending, simple or with decumbent branches from the base, strigillose and sparsely villous, becoming glandular puberulent above; herbage glabrous to strigillose or villous. Rosette leaves 5 to 13 cm long, 1 to 3 cm broad, narrowly oblanceolate, dentate to strongly lobed or even pinnatifid, gradually tapered to a petiole commonly longer than the blade, stem leaves 3 to 10 cm long, 1.5 to 3.5 cm broad, oblanceolate or obovate to narrowly elliptic, dentate to lobed or lyrate, the lobes dentate or sinuate, narrowly cuneate basally, short petiolate to subsessile. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper bracts, forming a lax, spike-like inflorescence, often with lateral branches, opening one per spike each day near sunset; mature buds 5 to 10 mm in diameter, lanceolate in outline, erect but the stem tip often nodding; floral bracts 2 to 9 cm long, 0.8 to 4.5 cm broad, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate or narrowly ovate or elliptic, spreading, dentate to lobed, basally rounded to narrowly cuneate, sessile. Hypanthium 2.5 to 4.5 cm long, 1.5 to 2 cm broad, upcurved, densely to sparsely villous and glandular puberulent, sometimes sparingly strigillose basally; sepals 1.5 to 3 cm long, green to yellowish, commonly red-striped where they join the hypanthium and sometimes flecked with red, villous and glandular puberulent, free tips 1.5 to 5 mm long, horn-like or erect in bud, villous and strigillose; petals yellow, commonly fading pinkish, broadly obovate, truncate to somewhat retuse, 2.5 to 4 cm long, 3 to 3.5 cm broad; filaments 12 to 22 mm long, anthers 4 to 11 mm long; ovary 1.2 to 2.5 cm long, 1.5 to 1.8 mm in diameter, villous and strigillose, sometimes also glandular-puberulent above, style 4 to 7.5 mm long, portion exserted from the hypanthium 1.5 to 3 cm long, stigma lobes 5 to 13 mm long, usually elevated above the anthers at anthesis. Capsule cylindric, 2.5 to 5 cm long, 2 to 3 mm in diameter, villous and strigillose; seeds in 2 rows per locule, 0.8 to 1.5 mm long, 0.5 to 0.9 mm in diameter, widely elliptic to subglobose, brown, pitted or irregularly rugose. n=7. Self-incompatible. Sandy open places. Scattered in E., Cen., and S. TX and the S. Plains; CO and E. NM, E. through KS, OK, and TX to MO, AR, LA and NE. Mex.; present and probably introduced in IN, IL, MD, CT, NJ, NC, AL, FL, and CA; reported naturalized in Japan. Mar.-Sept. [O. laciniata Hill var. grandiflora (S. Wats.) Robins.].

8. O. mexicana Spach Taprooted annual herb; stem 1.5 to 4(6) dm long, to 1 cm in diameter at the base, simple or branched at the base, moderately to sparsely strigillose and densely long-villous, sometimes flushed with red; herbage gray-green, densely strigillose. Rosette leaves 6 to 10 cm long, 1 to 2.5 cm broad, narrowly oblanceolate, deeply lobed, lobes dentate, apically acute, tapered into the petiole, stem leaves 3 to 7.5 cm long, 0.8 to 2 cm broad, narrowly oblanceolate to oblanceolate, dentate to deeply lobed, apically acute, basally narrowly cuneate, short-petiolate to sessile. Inflorescence lax, often with lateral branches, usually one flower per spike opening each day near sunset; mature buds 3 to 4 mm broad at the base, oblong to narrowly ovoid or broadly ellipsoid; bracts 2 to 4 cm long, 0.7 to 1.2 cm broad, narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, dentate to subentire, margins revolute acute, sessile, the uppermost ones erect. Hypanthium 2.3 to 2.8 cm long, ca. 1 mm in diameter, glandular puberulent or scattered- to sparsely villous and sparsely to densely glandular puberulent; sepals green, sometimes flecked with red, pubescence similar to that of hypanthium, 0.5 to 1.2 cm long, tips 0.5 to 2.5 mm long, erect and appressed in bud, strigillose; petals yellow or pale yellow, fading orange or pink, 0.6 to 1.5 cm long, 0.7 to 1.7 cm broad, broadly obovate, truncate to slightly retuse; filaments 4 to 12 mm long, anthers 3 to 4 mm long; ovary 0.8 to 1.2 cm long, ca. 1.5 mm in diameter, densely strigillose; style 2.7 to 4 cm long, portion exserted from the hypanthium 0.4 to 1.3 cm long, stigma lobes 1 to 3 mm long, surrounded by the anthers at anthesis. Capsule 2.5 to 4.5 cm long, 2.5 to 3 mm in diameter, cylindrical, densely strigillose; seeds 0.8 to 1.2 mm long, 0.3 to 0.5 mm in diameter, ellipsoid or broadly so, brown, pitted. n=7. Self-compatible and usually self-pollinated. SE TX; known in our area at least from Burleson Co. Apr.-May. [O. laciniata Hill var. mexicana (Spach) Woot. & Standl.; O. sinuata L. var.hirsuta T. & G.].

Similar to O. laciniata, O. falfurriae, and O. grandis, but much more densely pubescent. The erect upper bracts with revolute margins are also distinct.

9. O. falfurriae W. Dietrich & W. L. Wagner Taprooted annual; stems 1 to 4 dm long, usually simple, erect to decumbent, sparsely to moderately strigillose, sometimes glandular-puberulent as well. Leaves and bracts moderately to sparsely villous and glandular puberulent, primarily on the midrib below and on the margin, usually sparsely to moderately strigillose also, rosette leaves few, 5 to 12 cm long, 1.3 to 3.5 cm broad, oblanceolate, deeply lobed to dentate or occasionally subentire, acute, tapered to a short petiole, cauline leaves 2 to 8.5 cm long, 1 to 3 cm broad, narrowly oblanceolate to elliptic or narrowly lanceolate, commonly dentate, sometimes pinnate or else subentire, acute, tapered to a subsessile base. Bracts 2 to 4.5 cm long, 0.5 to 2.5 cm broad, elliptic to narrowly ovate to lanceolate, spreading, flat, dentate to subentire or pinnately lobed, narrowed to a subsessile base. Flowers erect in the axils of the upper bracts; inflorescence lax, with or without lateral branches, usually 1 flower per spike opening each day near sunset; mature buds 4 to 6 mm broad at the base, narrowly oblong to oblong, rarely lanceolate in outline. Hypanthium 2.5 to 4 cm long, sparsely to densely villous and glandular-puberulent; sepals 1 to 2.2 cm long, green to yellowish, occasionally red-spotted, pubescence same as that of the hypanthium, free tips 0.5 to 2 mm long, erect in bud, villous and strigillose; petals yellow, fading pink or orange, 1.3 to 2.5 cm long, 1.4 to 2.7 cm broad, broadly ovate, truncate to slightly retuse; filaments 10 to 17 mm long, anthers 4 to 5 mm long; ovary 1 to 1.7 cm long, ca. 1.5 mm broad, densely villous, strigillose, and glandular puberulent, style 3.5 to 5 cm long, portion exserted from the hypanthium 1.2 to 2(2.5) cm long, stigma lobes 3 to 7 mm long, usually positioned slightly above the anthers at anthesis. Capsule cylindric, 2 to 4.5 cm long, 2 to 2.5 mm in diameter; seeds ellipsoid, 0.8 to 1.4 mm long, brown, pitted. n=7. Self-compatible and commonly self-pollinated. Open sandy areas in S. TX; the Brazos Co. collection(s) perhaps representing the northernmost extent of its range.

NOTE: The flowers of O. falfurriae are intermediate in size and form between those of O. grandis and O. laciniata. It was once thought to be a hybrid between these two species. However, its pollen is greater than 90% fertile and it is apparently unable to interbreed with either species, suggesting that it is, indeed, genetically distinct (Dietrich and Wagner 1988).

10. O. laciniata Hill Downy Evening Primrose, Cutleaf Evening Primrose, Sinuateleaf Evening Primrose. Annual or short-lived perennial from a slender to stout taproot; stems 0.5 to 5 dm long, erect and simple or with several to many decumbent branches, green or tinged with red, sparsely to moderately strigillose and sometimes also villous, commonly also glandular puberulent in the inflorescence; herbage strigillose and villous, often also glandular puberulent. Rosette usually present, leaves soon deciduous, 4 to 15 cm long, 1 to 3 cm broad, linear-oblanceolate to narrowly oblanceolate, sometimes lanceolate, pinnatifid or deeply lobed to dentate, usually long-petioled, cauline leaves 2 to 10 dm long, 0.5 to 3.5 cm broad, narrowly oblanceolate to oblanceolate or narrowly oblong to narrowly elliptic, slender-cuneate basally. Bracts 2 to 7 cm long, 0.8 to 3 cm broad, spreading. Inflorescence lax, usually with lateral branches, 1 flower opening per spike each day near sunset; mature buds 2.5 to 5 mm in diameter basally, narrowly oblong to narrowly ovoid, older buds curved upwards. Hypanthium 1.2 to 3.5 cm long, ca. 1 mm in diameter, yellowish, often tinged with red, sparsely to densely villous and glandular puberulent, sometimes also strigillose; sepals 0.5 to 1.5 cm long, green to yellowish, commonly tinged with red and with a red stripe along the margins, rarely flecked with red, tips 0.3 to 3 mm long, usually spreading in bud, strigillose to villous; petals yellow to pale yellow, fading pinkish or orange, 0.5 to 2.2 cm long, 0.7 to 2 cm broad, very broadly obovate, truncate to emarginate; filaments 3 to 14 mm long, anthers 2 to 6 mm long; ovary 1 to 2.3 cm long, ca. 1.5 mm in diameter, strigillose and often also villous, sometimes also sparingly glandular puberulent, style 2 to 5 cm long, portion exserted from the hypanthium 0.3 to 1.4 cm long, stigma lobes 2.5 to 5 mm long, surrounded by the anthers at anthesis. Capsule cylindric, 2 to 5 cm long, 2 to 4 mm in diameter; seeds ellipsoid to suborbicular, 0.9 to 1.8 mm long, 0.4 to 0.9 mm in diameter, medium to dark brown, pitted. n=7. Self-pollinating, a permanent structural heterozygote, the 14 chromosomes forming a ring in metaphase I; pollen only ca. 50% fertile. Sandy fields, roadsides, and waste places. Throughout TX though rarer in the S. Plains, the W. portion, and the Panhandle; common in the U.S. from ME to FL, W. to ND, KS, OK, TX, and NM; introduced to CA and other parts of the world; probably also in N. Mex, although little collected from that country. Mar.-Nov., more common in spring in our area. [Includes forma integrifolia Jansen & Kloos in Kloos; O. sinuata L. and var. minima (Pursh) Nutt.; O. minima Pursh; O. repanda Medik.].

See NOTE at O. falfurriae.