Cooperative Support for Computer Work:

A Social Perspective on the Empowering of End Users
A. Clement

Oct 4, 1999


The authors of this paper discuss the effects of computerizing an organization. In particular they attend to the empowering effect on the secretaries. However some points are important to consider with the perspective benefited from time. The role of the secretaries has changed much. So much, that it is not politically correct to call them secretaries anymore. Instead they should be referred to as "assistants". But not only they been empowered, also the managers have been "de-powered" as much of the document preparation effort has shifted from the secretaries to the managers themselves. This could be explained as the cost an time required to empower secretaries, prompted the managers to prepar their own documents such that they could meet their respective production goals. As a result, in today's offices, the number of secretaries has diminished and it is common to see managers typing their documents on computers.