1. Ovary or ovaries superior to the calyx, OR calyx lacking or obscure..2 1. Ovary or ovaries wholly or partially inferior to the calyx (and the corolla, if present), or at least apparently so. (Calyx sometimes minute)..150
2. Corolla and calyx both present and the two obviously different..3 2. Corolla none, or if present not plainly different from the calyx; calyx present or absent. (This includes the Nyctaginaceae with calyx- like bracts and a petalloid calyx, the mature ovary thus between the apparent "calyx" and "corolla", AND Rumex with two dissimilar whorls of sepals)..112
3. Petals all separate from one another (sometimes two are fused or the petals may be united with the stamens in some manner)..4 3. Petals all united at their sides, bases, or apices (they may also be united in with the stamens in some manner)..64
4. Stamens always more than twice as many as the petals, often numerous and usually more than 10..5 4. Stamens up to but not more than twice as many as the petals OR if more than twice as many, then fewer than 10..23
5. Ovaries two or more, wholly distinct or united only to a little above their bases..6 5. Ovary strictly one, though it may be compound and have several styles, stigmas, or locules..9
6. Aquatic plants with peltate or cordate leaves..NYMPHAEACEAE 6. Mostly terrestrial plants; leaves not peltate but perhaps cordate.7
7. Stamens inserted on the calyx or a hypanthium..Rosaceae 7. Stamens inserted on the receptacle..8
8. Trees and shrubs..MAGNOLIACEAE 8. Herbs..RANUNCULACEAE
9. Plants fully aquatic; leaves cordate or with deep sinuses.. ..NYMPHAEACEAE 9. Plants terrestrial on wet or dry soil; leaves various..10
10. Leaves dotted with small glands (visible with strong lens)..11 10. Leaves not glandular-dotted (sometimes with glandular hairs)..12
11. Stems with large, vicious thorns..Rutaceae 11. Stems without thorns..CLUSIACEAE
12. Ovary simple..13 12. Ovary compound..14
13. Fruit a legume..FABACEAE 13. Fruit a drupe..Rosaceae
14. Ovary 1-celled..15 14. Ovary 2- to several-celled..17
15. Sepals 2, falling at anthesis..PAPAVERACEAE 15. Sepals 4 or more, present at anthesis..16
16. Sepals 4..CAPPARIDACEAE 16. Sepals 5 (in the local species)..CISTACEAE
17. Stamens united into a column or into several groups..18 17. Stamens distinct from one another..19
18. Trees..TILIACEAE 18. Herbs and shrubs..MALVACEAE
19. Leaves tubular and pitcher-shaped; stigma umbrella-like; insectivorous plants of boggy places..SARRACENIACEAE 19. Leaves not tubular, stigma not umbrella-like; not insectivorous..20
20. Plants having stellate pubescence or peltate scales.. ..Euphorbiaceae 20. Plants lacking stellate pubescence or scales..21
21. Trees..TILIACEAE 21 Herbs..22
22. Anthers basifixed, poricidal, curved; petals 4, usually more than 1 cm long..Melastomataceae 22. Anthers not as above; petals less than 1 cm long or if that long then more than 4..Lythraceae

23. Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them..24 23. Stamens not of the same number as the petals OR stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them..27
24. Ovaries 3 to 6 (perhaps only one developing into a fruit); climbing vines with snail-shaped seeds..MENISPERMACEAE 24. Ovary only one; climbers and non-climbers; seeds not snail-shaped..25
25. Herbs..PORTULACACEAE 25. Shrubs, trees, and woody vines..26
26. Calyx entire or merely toothed; vines and viney shrubs.. ..Vitaceae 26. Calyx cleft into 4-5 segments; shrubs and trees..Rhamnaceae
27. Ovaries 2 or more, wholly distinct or united only at the base. In some families just the stigmas or styles may be united..28 27. Ovary strictly 1; simple or compound..30
28. Leaves fleshy or succulent..Crassulaceae 28. Leaves not fleshy or succulent..29
29. Leaves dotted with small glands containing a pungent oil.. ..Rutaceae 29. Leaves not glandular-dotted..RANUNCULACEAE
30. Ovary simple or appearing so, with one marginal or nearly apical placenta..31 30. Ovary compound, as shown by the number of stigmas, styles, locules, placentae, etc..32
31. Fruit bristly or spiny; stamens 4..Krameriaceae 31. Fruit not bristly or spiny; stamens (or at least anthers--filaments may be united in some manner) more than 4..FABACEAE
32. Ovary 1-celled..33 32. Ovary 2- to several-celled (though the mature fruit may have only one seed)..46
33. Corolla manifestly irregular..34 33. Corolla regular or essentially so..36
34. Petals and stamens 5..VIOLACEAE 34. Petals 4; stamens 6 to 27..35
35. Sepals 2, small, translucent, and membranous; corolla spurred.. ..FUMARIACEAE 35. Sepals 4, herbaceous; corolla not spurred..CAPPARIDACEAE
36. Shrubs and trees..37 36. Herbs and vines..39
37. Leaves dotted with small glands..CLUSIACEAE 37. Leaves not glandular-dotted..38
38. Leaves minute, scale-like, simple..TAMARICACEAE 38. Leaves not scale-like; larger and often compound.. ..Anacardiaceae
39. Placenta 1, apical, basal, or parietal..40 39. Placentae 2 or more, parietal..43
40. Plants with stellate pubescence; placentae more or less apical.. ..Euphorbiaceae 40. Plants lacking stellate pubescence; placentae central or basal..41
41. Leaves fleshy or succulent..PORTULACACEAE 41. Leaves not fleshy or succulent..42
42. Petals inserted on the throat of the synsepalous calyx.. ..Lythraceae 42. Petals not inserted on the calyx..CARYOPHYLLACEAE
43. Leaves either punctate (with microscopic pits) or with glandular bristles..44 43. Leaves neither punctate nor bristly-glandular..45
44. Low, rosette-form insectivorous herbs with gland-tipped bristles or hairs..DROSERACEAE 44. Moderate-sized, non-rosette, non-insectivorous herbs with punctate leaves..CLUSIACEAE

45. Ovary stipitate; climbing shrubs or vines..PASSIFLORACEAE 45. Ovary sessile; plants not climbing..CISTACEAE
46. Stamens neither just as many nor twice as many as the petals..47 46. Stamens just as many or exactly twice as many as the petals..53
47. Trees and shrubs..48 47. Herbs..50
48. Stamens 2 or 4; fruit a samara or opaque drupe..Oleaceae 48. Stamens 6 to 10; fruit a capsule or translucent drupe..49
49. Fruit globose, translucent amber, with 1 seed; leaves paripinnately compound..Sapindaceae 49. Fruit a leathery capsule with 1 to 3 seeds; leaves palmately compound ..Hippocastanaceae
50. Leaves punctate (with microscopic pits)..CLUSIACEAE 50. Leaves not punctate..51
51. Plants monoecious or dioecious..Euphorbiaceae 51. Plants with perfect flowers..52
52. Stamens usually tetradynamous (rarely only two); fruit a silique or silicle--bilocular, the two valves falling away from the partition at maturity; stamens borne on the receptacle..BRASSICACEAE 52. Stamens not tetradynamous; fruit a capsule; stamens borne on a calyx tube or hypanthium..Lythraceae
53. Ovules, and usually seeds, several or many in each cell..54 53. Ovules and seeds only 1 or 2 in each cell..57
54. Leaves palmately 3-foliolate (in our species)..Oxalidaceae 54. Leaves simple..55
55. Plants inhabiting water or very muddy soil..ELATINACEAE 55. Plants inhabiting dry to moderately moist soil..56
56. Petals inserted on the receptacle..CARYOPHYLLACEAE 56. Petals inserted on the calyx or a hypanthium..Lythraceae
57. Shrubs, trees, and vines..58 57. Herbs..61
58. Leaves simple..Aquifoliaceae 58. Leaves compound..59
59. Leaves, or at least most of them, with 3 leaflets..Rutaceae 59. Leaves with more than 3 leaflets..60
60. Filaments distinct or united only at the very base.. ..Sapindaceae 60. Filaments united into a tube..Meliaceae
61. Plants monoecious or dioecious..Euphorbiaceae 61. Plants with perfect flowers..62
62. Leaves once pinnately compound..Zygophyllaceae 62. Leaves simple..63
63. Leaves entire..Linaceae 63. Leaves parted, divided, or prominently toothed..Geraniaceae
64. Stamens manifestly more numerous than the lobes of the corolla..65 64. Stamens not more numerous than the corolla-lobes, or at least not plainly so. (Many forms are placed here whose corollas are so irregular that the number of lobes is not obvious)..70
65. Ovary 1-celled..66 65. Ovary 2- to several-celled..68
66. Corolla not spurred..FABACEAE 66. Corolla spurred..67
67. Placenta 1; flowers white to blue, purple, or brownish..RANUNCULACEAE 67. Placentae 2; flowers yellow..FUMARIACEAE
68. Trees..EBENACEAE 68. Herbs..69
69. Cells of ovary 5; flowers regular..Oxalidaceae 69. Cells of ovary 2; flowers irregular..Polygalaceae
70. Corolla regular..71 70. Corolla slightly to very strongly irregular..103
71. Anther-bearing stamens fewer than the corolla lobes..72 71. Anther-bearing stamens as many as the corolla-lobes (rarely one more or less by exception in certain members of the Boraginaceae)..77
72. Anther-bearing stamens 4..73 72. Anther-bearing stamens only 2 or sometimes 3..75
73. Ovary 2- to 4-celled; each cell 1-seeded..Verbenaceae 73. Ovary 2-celled; cells several-seeded..74
74. Seeds mostly 2 to 18 (sometimes more), flattish, borne on hook-like structures of the placentae; fruit elastically dehiscent; corolla convolute in bud..Acanthaceae 74. Seeds mostly numerous (rarely few), not borne on hook-like structures; fruit not elastically dehiscent; corolla lobes imbricate or valvate in bud..SCROPHULARIACEAE
75. Trees and shrubs..Oleaceae 75. Herbs..76
76. Plants acaulescent, with all or most of their leaves in a basal rosette..Plantaginaceae 76. Plants with leafy stems..SCROPHULARIACEAE

77. Ovaries 1 or more; if 1, deeply lobed or divided (examine maturing ovary)..78 77. Ovary 1, not deeply lobed or divided..81
78. Ovary 1, deeply 4-lobed; OR ovaries 4, little if at all united.. ..Boraginaceae 78. Ovaries 2, or 1 with 2 horns or lobes..79
79. Stamens fused to each other and united into a column around the style or stigma..Asclepiadaceae 79. Stamens distinct from each other, though sometimes coherent to the style..80
80. Leaves alternate; ovary 1, deeply 2-lobed; low annuals with reniform or suborbicular leaves..Convolvulaceae 80. Leaves alternate or opposite; ovaries 2; habit various but not as above..Apocynaceae
81. Ovary 1-celled, with no sign of a partition..82 81. Ovary 2- to 12-celled, some of the partitions perhaps imperfect..88
82. Leaves toothed, lobed, or compound..83 82. Leaves simple, entire..84
83. Plants trailing or twining..Convolvulaceae 83. Plants more or less erect..Hydrophyllaceae
84. Plants hispid or strigillose annuals, usually found in gravelly or rocky soils..Hydrophyllaceae 84. Plants glabrous or pubescent, but not hispid or strigillose; habitat various..85
85. Style and stigma each 1; fruit a capsule with free-central placen- tation..PRIMULACEAE 85. Styles and stigmas 1 to several; fruit not as above..86
86. Style 1, prominently 2-cleft; stigmas usually massive; plants more or less erect; capsules many-seeded..Gentianaceae 86. Styles 1 to several; if more than 1, stigmas not massive; plants trailing or vine-like; capsules 1- to several-seeded..87
87. Calyx with glandular hairs; plants cultivated..PLUMBAGINACEAE 87. Calyx not glandular; plants mostly native..Convolvulaceae
88. Leaves all or mostly in a basal rosette..Plantaginaceae 88. Leaves, or many of them, cauline (along the stem) or absent..89
89. Leaves essentially all opposite or whorled..90 89. Leaves alternate, or the lower ones opposite and the upper alternate, OR leaves absent..91
90. Fruit a capsule or pod..Loganiaceae 90. Fruit a cluster of nut-like cocci or a drupe..Verbenaceae
91. Mature fruit separating into 4 nut-like parts..Boraginaceae 91. Mature fruit capsular or fleshy..92
92. Trees and shrubs..93 92. Herbs and vines..95
93. Ovules many, usually more than 8..Solanaceae 93. Ovules few, usually 8 or fewer..94

94. Stamens all of one kind and alternate with the corolla-lobes; berries (in our species) red at maturity..Aquifoliaceae 94. Normal stamens opposite the corolla-lobes; sterile stamens or appen- dages petalloid and alternate with the lobes; fruit black at maturity. ..SAPOTACEAE
95. Petals united by their apices; woody vines with tendrils.. ..Vitaceae 95. Petals not united by their apices; herbs or vines without tendrils..96

96. Inflorescence coiled in the bud..Hydrophyllaceae 96. Inflorescence not coiled in the bud..97
97. Ovules and seeds 6 or fewer in each ovary. (In some genera there are more than 6 ovules but only 3 seeds develop to maturity)..98 97. Ovules and seeds more than 6 in each ovary..100
98. Ovary 3-celled..Polemoniaceae 98. Ovary with various numbers of cells, but not 3 unless by abortion..99
99. Septa complete; placentation basal or axile..Convolvulaceae 99. Septa incomplete; placentation parietal..Hydrophyllaceae
100. Stems with true thorns in the axils of the leaves; flowers blue; plants of stream beds and ponds, etc..Hydrophyllaceae 100. Stems without thorns; flower color and habitat various..101
101. Leaves finely dissected..Polemoniaceae 101. Leaves not finely dissected..102
102. Plants hispid or strigillose..Hydrophyllaceae 102. Plants glabrous or pubescent, but not hispid or strigillose.. ..Solanaceae
103. Anther-bearing stamens 5; filaments, or some of them, woolly.. ..SCROPHULARIACEAE 103. Anther-bearing stamens 2 or 4; filaments woolly or smooth..104
104. Ovule 1 in each of the 1 to 4 cells..105 104. Ovules 2 to many in each cell..107

105. Ovary deeply 4-lobed, style arising from below and between the lobes.. ..LAMIACEAE 105. Ovary entire or weakly 4-lobed, style arising from its apex..106
106. Corolla strongly 2-lipped or irregular; plants aromatic.. ..LAMIACEAE 106. Corolla 5-lobed, slightly irregular; plants not aromatic.. ..Verbenaceae
107. Ovary imperfectly 4- to 5-celled..Martyniaceae 107. Ovary 1- to 2-celled..108
108. Plants inhabiting water or muddy soil..109 108. Plants inhabiting moderately moist soil..110
109. Stamens 4 or 2; flowers not spurred..SCROPHULARIACEAE 109. Stamens only two; flowers spurred..Lentibulariaceae
110. Placentae parietal; shrubs, trees, or woody vines.. ..Bignoniaceae 110. Placentae axile; ours mostly herbaceous (some ornamental shrubs)..111

111. Seeds mostly 2 to 12 (sometimes more), borne on hook-like structures of the placentae; fruits often elastically dehiscent.. ..Acanthaceae 111. Seeds mostly numerous (rarely fewer), not borne on hook-like structures; fruits not elastically dehiscent..SCROPHULARIACEAE
112.Flowers perfect or imperfect, none of them in catkins or catkin-like heads or spikes; trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs..113 112. Flowers imperfect--male, female or both in catkins or catkin-like heads or spikes; mostly trees and shrubs, occasionally herbs..144
113. Plants herbaceous..114 113. Plants trees or shrubs..139
114. Ovules several to many in each cell of the ovary (rarely 3 or 4)..115 114. Ovules only 1 or 2 (or at most 3 or 4) in each cell of the ovary..118
115. Sepals distinct and leaves always opposite..CARYOPHYLLACEAE 115. Sepals united, at least at base, or appearing attached to the rim of a floral cup, leaves various; OR sepals distinct and leaves whorled ..116
116. Leaves opposite, the members of each pair equal in size.. ..Lythraceae 116. Leaves opposite or whorled, each pair or group unequal..117
117. Plants succulent; sepals at least somewhat united.AIZOACEAE 117. Plants not succulent; sepals all free..MOLLUGINACEAE
118. Gynoecium apocarpous; pistils distinct or nearly so..119 118. Gynoecium syncarpous or unicarpellate..120
119. Calyx none; flowers in spikes..SAURURACEAE 119. Calyx present, often petal-like; flowers not in spikes.. ..RANUNCULACEAE
120. Stipules sheathing the stem at the nodes..POLYGONACEAE 120. Stipules present or absent, but never sheathing the stem..121
121. Fruit 4-lobed; plants growing in water or wet soil.. ..Callitrichaceae 121. Fruit not 4-lobed; plants aquatic or terrestrial..122
122. Plants submerged aquatics; fruit a beaked achene.. ..CERATOPHYLLACEAE 122. Plants terrestrial; fruit various..123
123. Leaves palmately compound and leaflets serrate; plants dioecious, odiferous..CANNABACEAE 123. Leaves various, plants not as above..124
124. Stipules present, conspicuous and scarious; flowers perfect.. ..CARYOPHYLLACEAE 124. Stipules usually absent; flowers perfect or unisexual; OR stipules present and flowers unisexual..125
125. Carpels and styles typically 10, sometimes varying in number slightly ..PHYTOLACCACEAE 125. Carpels and styles 1 to 5, style sometimes branched..126
126. Style, if any, 1 and unbranched; stigma 1 (sometimes tufted) OR style arms 2, with one very reduced and minute..127 126. Styles 2 to 5, simple or branched; stigmas thus more than 1..133

127. Calyx petalloid and bracts (if present) often calyx-like, mature ovary thus above the apparent "calyx" and below the apparent "corolla"; fruit a leathery or papery anthocarp; leaves opposite.. ..NYCTAGINACEAE 127. Calyx not petalloid; bracts, if present, not calyx-like; fruit not an anthocarp; leaf arrangement various..128
128. Flowers unisexual (at least some)..129 128. Flowers perfect..130
129. Leaves alternate, margins toothed..MORACEAE 129. Leaves opposite, or if alternate then entire..URTICACEAE
130. Fruit a silique or silicle; carpels 2..BRASSICACEAE 130. Fruit not a silique or silicle; carpels 1 or 3..131
131. Carpels 3; fruit a 1- or 2-seeded capsule; flowers cleistogamous.. ..CISTACEAE 131. Carpels 1; fruit 1-seeded; flowers chasmogamous..132
132. Fruit a fleshy berry..PHYTOLACCACEAE 132. Fruit a dry utricle or achene..AMARANTHACEAE
133. Leaves palmately lobed or divided; plants with stinging hairs.. ..Euphorbiaceae 133. Leaves not palmately lobed or divided..134
134. Fruit a 3-celled (rarely 2-celled) capsule; juice often but not always milky..Euphorbiaceae 134. Fruit a 1-celled achene or utricle, though sometimes 3-angled; juice never milky..135
135. Flowers in small clusters; each cluster subtended by an involucre of bracts..POLYGONACEAE 135. Flowers not in involucrate clusters, though bracts may be present in the inflorescence..136
136. Plants herbaceous vines..POLYGONACEAE 136. Plants herbs, not vine-like..137
137. Leaves covered at least beneath with scurf or stellate hairs.. ..Euphorbiaceae 137. Leaves without scurf or stellate hairs (sometimes mealy)..138
138. Flowers scarious, subtended by scarious bracts..AMARANTHACEAE 138. Flowers greenish or mealy-coated; bracts, when present, not scarious.. CHENOPODIACEAE
139. Leaves opposite..140 139. Leaves alternate (rarely imperfectly opposite)..141
140. Fruit 2-celled, a double samara..Aceraceae 140. Fruit 1-celled, a single samara or drupe..Oleaceae
141. Flowers in dense globose clusters; leaves palmately lobed.. ..PLATANACEAE 141. Flowers not in dense globose clusters; leaves various..142
142. Ovary 3-celled; leaves rhombic-ovate..Euphorbiaceae 142. Ovary 1-to 2-celled; leaves variously shaped..143
143. Fruit a samara, nutlet, or red-brown drupe; leaves not lobed.. ..ULMACEAE 143. Fruit a dark blue drupe; at least some leaves lobed..LAURACEAE
144. Ovules numerous in the ovary; leaves linear..SALICACEAE 144. Ovules 1 or 2 in the ovary; leaves various, usually not linear..145
145. Fruit a syncarp or a multiple fruit, always fleshy.MORACEAE 145. Fruit dry..146
146. Leaves palmately angled or lobed; flowers in dense globose clusters.. ..PLATANACEAE 146. Leaves not palmately angled or lobed; flowers usually not in dense globose clusters..147
147. Herbs..MORACEAE 147. Trees and shrubs..148
148. Shrubs; fruit waxy-coated or drupe-like..MYRICACEAE 148. Trees; fruit neither waxy-coated or drupe-like..149
149. Leaves simple..BETULACEAE 149. Leaves compound..JUGLANDACEAE
150. Plants parasitic on trees or shrubs..Viscaceae 150. Plants not parasitic..151

151. Calyx petalloid and bracts often calyx-like; true corolla none. Mature ovary thus between the apparent calyx and the true calyx; fruit a papery or leathery anthocarp; leaves opposite..NYCTAGINACEAE 151. Calyx and bracts not as above; fruit not an anthocarp; leaves various. ..152
152. Corolla none, OR corolla present but not differentiated from the calyx..153 152. Corolla present, differentiated from the calyx; calyx sometimes reduced or minute..161
153. Herbs..154 153. Trees and shrubs..157
154. Ovules and seeds 1 to 3 in each ovary..Haloragaceae 154. Ovules and seeds 4 or more in each ovary..155
155. Calyx extremely irregular and much prolonged..ARISTOLOCHIACEAE 155. Calyx regular or nearly so..156
156. Plants succulent; ovary partially superior; fruit a circumscissile capsule..AIZOACEAE 156. Plants not succulent; ovary wholly inferior; fruit an achene or a non-circumscissile capsule..Onagraceae
157. Leaves pinnately compound..JUGLANDACEAE 157. Leaves simple..158
158. Leaves palmately veined and lobed..HAMAMELIDACEAE 158. Leaves pinnately veined, lobed or unlobed..159
159. Flowers not in catkins; fruit more or less fleshy.Cornaceae 159. Flowers, or some of them, in catkins; fruit dry..160
160. Only the male flowers in catkins; fruit a nut, usually an acorn.. ..FAGACEAE 160. Both male and female flowers in catkins; fruit a nutlet.. ..BETULACEAE
161. Petals distinct..162 161. Petals more or less united..175
162. Plants succulent, with fierce spines or bristles, true leaves absent or few..CACTACEAE 162. Plants succulent or not, with or without spines or bristles; true leaves present..163
163. Ovules and seeds more than 1 in each cell..164 163. Ovules and seeds only 1 in each cell (sometimes by exception more than one in a few members of the Rosaceae)..169
164. Ovary 1-celled or only basally partitioned..165 164. Ovary 2- to many-celled..166
165. Plants with scabrous, barbed hairs..LOASACEAE 165. Plants without barbed hairs, any hairs softer.PORTULACACEAE
166. Petals numerous, more than 10; plants aquatic..NYMPHAEACEAE 166. Petals or corolla-lobes few, rarely more than 5 or 6; plants terres- trial or aquatic..167
167. Anthers opening by pores at their tips..Melastomataceae 167. Anthers opening in a different manner..168
168. Styles 2 to 4..Saxifragaceae 168. Style 1 (stigmas may be more than 1)..Onagraceae
169. Stamens 5, 10, or numerous..170 169. Stamens 2, 4, 6, or 8..173
170. Herbs..Apiaceae 170. Trees and shrubs..171
171. Leaves compound; fruit a berry..Araliaceae 171. Leaves simple; fruit a pome or drupe..172
172. Flowers perfect; fruit a pome..Rosaceae 172. Flowers imperfect; fruit a drupe..Cornaceae
173. Trees and shrubs; fruit a drupe..Cornaceae 173. Herbs; fruit not drupaceous..174
174. Style 1; stigma 2- to 4-lobed; flowers conspicuous..Onagraceae 174. Styles or sessile stigmas 4; flowers not showy.Haloragaceae
175.. Plants with tendrils..CUCURBITACEAE 175. Plants without tendrils..176
176. Stamens united by their anthers..177 176. Stamens not united by their anthers, or anthers only very loosely coherent..178
177. Flowers in involucrate heads; heads with regular flowers, irregular flowers, or a combination of the two..ASTERACEAE 177. Flowers not in involucrate heads; flowers irregular.. ..Campanulaceae
178. Stamens free from the corolla or nearly so..179 178. Stamens inserted on the corolla..180
179. Trees; fruit a fleshy berry..ERICACEAE 179. Herbs; fruit a capsule..Campanulaceae
180. Stamens 1 to 3..Valerianaceae 180. Stamens 4 to 5..181
181. Flowers imperfect; plants monoecious..ASTERACEAE 181. Flowers all or mostly perfect; if some flowers imperfect then plants polygamous..182
182. Stipules present; leaves opposite or whorled..Rubiaceae 182. Stipules absent; leaf arrangement various..183
183. Leaves alternate or basal or both..PRIMULACEAE 183. Leaves opposite or whorled..184
184. Leaves opposite..Caprifoliaceae 184. Leaves whorled or appearing so (stipules are leaf-like and add to the apparent number of leaves at each node)..Rubiaceae